Why do Cities develop? And why they are different in size?

GRIN Verlag
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Essay from the year 2003 in the subject Economics - Macro-economics, general, grade: 2, University of Kent (Department of Economics), course: Spatial Economy, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Why people and firms are not evenly distributed around the world? Why do they not use land equally and why are firms and people are not equally spaced? Why are they concentrated in special areas although there is no geographical or structural difference? Reality shows a different picture to an equally distributed use of land and space: There is concentration of people and firms at special places or areas. The existence of cities is one of the questions that are interesting in an ex-post point of view as well as in future perspectives. The question is why cities exist and why are they different in size or in other words where do they locate and why as well as how do they develop. Therefore it makes sense to analyse the rationale for the existence of cities in terms of their determinants. There are dimensions that we should have a closer look at such as the localisation of cities, their growth and their different sizes. Firstly, different definitions of cities are mentioned. Afterwards the reasons for agglomeration forces through economies of scale that result in cities are described. Further its limits are analysed that bound the growth of cities. For explaining the different arrangement as well as the different sizes of cities the central place approaches of Christaller and Lösch are mentioned. Finally the empirical based rank-rule gives additional explanation for different sized cities.
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Publisher
GRIN Verlag
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Published on
Apr 13, 2006
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Pages
8
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ISBN
9783638490399
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Language
English
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Genres
Business & Economics / Economics / General
Business & Economics / Economics / Macroeconomics
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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Susanne Jung
Essay from the year 2003 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, grade: 2, University of Kent, course: Strategic Management, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Operating in domestic markets and expanding into global market offers new opportunities. These opportunities necessitate changes relating to the strategy, operational planning and the organisation itself. Growth can be planned. To operate effectively in a global market it is necessary to identify global drivers and to compete with rivals. Therefore costs should be reduced and the competitive advantage should be extended. One issue relating to the reduction of costs could be a “make or buy (m/b)” decision, in other words, vertical integration or vertical de-integration, so-called outsourcing. Cost savings are achieved through more effective co-operation. Vertical integration includes merging and acquiring and its direction is backward or forwards due to its related activities respectively its supply chain. Outsourcing, or deintegration, contains to concentrate on the specialisation of competences by subcontracting all other activities and it subcontracts activities (Grant, 2002: 393-4). There are three forms of outsourcing: Co-sourcing that keeps the clients responsibility for management and strategic aspects of the activity while an expert provides the outsourced activity (Brown, 1997: 60). Secondly, removing an activity out of the company as an indepented company and demand its products. Thirdly, outsourcing as used in the following: An activity is in the responsibility of another organisation (Brown, 1997: 60). While talking about a m/b decision it is necessary to define and to present the point of view of the transaction cost approach in contrast to the resource-based approach. Firstly, an introduction in transaction costs approach is given, after a discussion of its point of view relating to the make and buy decision. Afterwards the resource-based approach is added. Because of limits of space, the network approach is not discussed1. Relying on at least two frameworks discuss those factors which influence an organisation′s decision whether to "make or buy" goods or services.
Susanne Jung
Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject Economics - International Economic Relations, grade: 2,0 (B), University of Canterbury (Economics), course: The Economics of European Integration, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Economic integration can be defined as a long-term process in which several stages improve the level of integration. The first step is a free trade area in which internal visible trade restrictions (customs duties, quotas) between partner counties are removed. Examples for those forms of economic integration are the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) and the Asian Free Trade Area (AFTA). Adding a common external tariff for non-member countries to the elimination of internal trade obstacles creates ensuing a Customs Union. The next level of integration, the single market for commodities, is achieved by removing visible and invisible trade barriers. Therefore all restrictions on trade between member-countries are abolished and a common external tariff is imposed on external countries. Following to this level free factor mobility of production and of financial assets generate a common market. Next steps to economic integration are the Monetary and lastly the Economic Union by having a common currency and policy. Theme of this essay is critical arguments of disestablish trade barriers towards the European Union (EU) and its underlying economic theories in respective to the Single Market Programme (SMP), its aims and if they are achieved in terms of labour and social policies. Therefore it is necessary to have a focus on the removal of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) exemplary for goods and labour.
Steven D. Levitt
The New York Times bestselling Freakonomics changed the way we see the world, exposing the hidden side of just about everything. Then came SuperFreakonomics, a documentary film, an award-winning podcast, and more.

Now, with Think Like a Freak, Steven D. Levitt and Stephen J. Dubner have written their most revolutionary book yet. With their trademark blend of captivating storytelling and unconventional analysis, they take us inside their thought process and teach us all to think a bit more productively, more creatively, more rationally—to think, that is, like a Freak.

Levitt and Dubner offer a blueprint for an entirely new way to solve problems, whether your interest lies in minor lifehacks or major global reforms. As always, no topic is off-limits. They range from business to philanthropy to sports to politics, all with the goal of retraining your brain. Along the way, you’ll learn the secrets of a Japanese hot-dog-eating champion, the reason an Australian doctor swallowed a batch of dangerous bacteria, and why Nigerian e-mail scammers make a point of saying they’re from Nigeria.

Some of the steps toward thinking like a Freak:

First, put away your moral compass—because it’s hard to see a problem clearly if you’ve already decided what to do about it. Learn to say “I don’t know”—for until you can admit what you don’t yet know, it’s virtually impossible to learn what you need to. Think like a child—because you’ll come up with better ideas and ask better questions. Take a master class in incentives—because for better or worse, incentives rule our world. Learn to persuade people who don’t want to be persuaded—because being right is rarely enough to carry the day. Learn to appreciate the upside of quitting—because you can’t solve tomorrow’s problem if you aren’t willing to abandon today’s dud.

Levitt and Dubner plainly see the world like no one else. Now you can too. Never before have such iconoclastic thinkers been so revealing—and so much fun to read.

Susanne Jung
Diplomarbeit aus dem Jahr 2004 im Fachbereich BWL - Wirtschaftspolitik, Note: 2,0, Philipps-Universität Marburg (Wirtschaftspolitik), 53 Quellen im Literaturverzeichnis, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Wirtschaftliches Wachstum wird zunehmend mit Innovationen in Verbindung gebracht. Zentrale Erfolgskriterien einer Volkswirtschaft entspringen aus der Innovationsfähigkeit und der realen Innovationstätigkeit von Unternehmen. Diese haben sowohl positiven Einfluss auf den sozialen Wohlstand als auch auf die Konsumentenwohlfahrt. Um dem zukunftsrelevanten, volkswirtschaftlichen Stellenwert von Innovationen gerecht zu werden, zeichnete sich am Ende des letzten Jahrhunderts in den USA eine Entwicklung ab, Innovationen in den Zielkatalog wettbewerbpolitischer Tätigkeit aufzunehmen. Ziel der USAntitrustpolitik war es, Wohlfahrtssteigerungen durch die Förderung der Innovationstätigkeit und durch die optimale Gestaltung des Innovationswettbewerbs zu erreichen. Weiterhin wurde vermutet, dass ebenso der Wettbewerb zur Hervorbringung von Innovationen durch Konsequenzen von Marktkonzentration beschränkt werden kann. Die USamerikanische Antitrustpolitik ging davon aus, dass konzentrierte Innovationskapazitäten Unternehmen befähigen, den Wettbewerb zu beschränken. Daraus wurde eine Reduktion der Innovationstätigkeit vermutet, wodurch die Innovationsrate vermindert oder die Innovationsgeschwindigkeit verlangsamt wurde. Um dies zu beseitigen, wurde die fusionsbedingte Verhaltensveränderung auf die Innovationstätigkeit wettbewerbspolitisch untersucht. Einhergehend damit wurde die „Innovation Market Analysis“(IMA) als ergänzendes Instrument der Fusionskontrolle entwickelt. Es handelte sich dabei um eine Konzeption, die Konsequenzen von fusionsbedingter Marktkonzentration auf die Erzeugung von Innovationen bezog. Hierzu bediente sie sich dem Konstrukt eines abgegrenzten Innovationsmarkts. Ziel der IMA war es, Wettbewerbsbeschränkungen im Vorfeld aufzuspüren und diese zu verhindern, um durch parallele Forschungspfade, schnelle Innovationsgeschwindigkeit und hohe Innovationsrate die Wohlfahrt zu optimieren. Jedoch erwies sich die Grundlage der IMA in theoretischer und empirischer Hinsicht als problematisch. Das Werk versucht, die wettbewerbspolitische Entwicklung der IMA darzustellen, deren theoretische Grundlagen, Funktionsweisen, praktische Anwendungen und Ziele im Rahmen der US-Antitrustpolitik abzubilden. Zum anderen wird überprüft, ob die IMA als wettbewerbspolitisches Instrument theoretisch, rechtlich und konzeptionell adäquat ist, um die Erzeugung von Innovationen durch Fusionskontrolle zu optimieren.
Susanne Jung
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2001 im Fachbereich BWL - Wirtschaftspolitik, Note: 2,0, Philipps-Universität Marburg (Wirtschaftspolitik), Veranstaltung: Verbraucherschutz in der BRD und in der EU, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Das deutsche Rentensystem war eines der häufig bewunderten Mittel der Altersvorsorge. Dass dieses System in finanzielle Schwierigkeiten kommen würde, war für die politischen Väter der umlagenfinanzierten Altersvorsorge Utopie. Undenkbar war die Problematik heutiger Industrienationen, dass die quantitative Dominanz der "Alten" die der jungen Menschen übersteigt. Eine gleichzeitige schwierige Situation ergab sich durch die Wiedervereinigung, die die Zahl der Rentenempfänger vermehrte. Heute stehen Politiker vor der Aufgabe, geltenden Rentenansprüchen gerecht zu werden bei dem gleichzeitigen Problem, der jungen, arbeitenden Generation und Unternehmen eine tragbare Beitragslast aufzubürden. Aus diesem Dilemma entstand die Rentenreform, die als Maßnahme eine Stärkung der privaten und betrieblichen Altersvorsorge bei Reduzierung der gesetzlichen Leistung vorsieht: Die Erhöhung des Beitragssatzes auf 22% und die Reduzierung des Rentenniveaus auf 68% bis 2030 wurden gesetzlich verabschiedet. Zum Ausgleich der dadurch entstehenden Versorgungslücke für Mitglieder der gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung (GRV) hat die jetzige Regierung Maßnahmen zur Förderung der privaten und betrieblichen Altersvorsorge (PAV bzw. BAV) eingeleitet und hierfür notwendige Kriterien für Altersvorsorgeprodukte als Verbraucherschutz aufgestellt. Aufgabe dieser Abhandlung soll es sein, den derzeitigen Verbraucherschutz bei Produkten der PAV aufzuzeigen und kritisch zu beleuchten. Dafür ist es notwenig, vorab das Rentensystem darzustellen und die Änderungen in der GRV abzubilden.
Susanne Jung
Essay from the year 2003 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, grade: 2, University of Kent, course: Strategic Management, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Operating in domestic markets and expanding into global market offers new opportunities. These opportunities necessitate changes relating to the strategy, operational planning and the organisation itself. Growth can be planned. To operate effectively in a global market it is necessary to identify global drivers and to compete with rivals. Therefore costs should be reduced and the competitive advantage should be extended. One issue relating to the reduction of costs could be a “make or buy (m/b)” decision, in other words, vertical integration or vertical de-integration, so-called outsourcing. Cost savings are achieved through more effective co-operation. Vertical integration includes merging and acquiring and its direction is backward or forwards due to its related activities respectively its supply chain. Outsourcing, or deintegration, contains to concentrate on the specialisation of competences by subcontracting all other activities and it subcontracts activities (Grant, 2002: 393-4). There are three forms of outsourcing: Co-sourcing that keeps the clients responsibility for management and strategic aspects of the activity while an expert provides the outsourced activity (Brown, 1997: 60). Secondly, removing an activity out of the company as an indepented company and demand its products. Thirdly, outsourcing as used in the following: An activity is in the responsibility of another organisation (Brown, 1997: 60). While talking about a m/b decision it is necessary to define and to present the point of view of the transaction cost approach in contrast to the resource-based approach. Firstly, an introduction in transaction costs approach is given, after a discussion of its point of view relating to the make and buy decision. Afterwards the resource-based approach is added. Because of limits of space, the network approach is not discussed1. Relying on at least two frameworks discuss those factors which influence an organisation′s decision whether to "make or buy" goods or services.
Susanne Jung
Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject Economics - International Economic Relations, grade: 2,0 (B), University of Canterbury (Economics), course: The Economics of European Integration, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Economic integration can be defined as a long-term process in which several stages improve the level of integration. The first step is a free trade area in which internal visible trade restrictions (customs duties, quotas) between partner counties are removed. Examples for those forms of economic integration are the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) and the Asian Free Trade Area (AFTA). Adding a common external tariff for non-member countries to the elimination of internal trade obstacles creates ensuing a Customs Union. The next level of integration, the single market for commodities, is achieved by removing visible and invisible trade barriers. Therefore all restrictions on trade between member-countries are abolished and a common external tariff is imposed on external countries. Following to this level free factor mobility of production and of financial assets generate a common market. Next steps to economic integration are the Monetary and lastly the Economic Union by having a common currency and policy. Theme of this essay is critical arguments of disestablish trade barriers towards the European Union (EU) and its underlying economic theories in respective to the Single Market Programme (SMP), its aims and if they are achieved in terms of labour and social policies. Therefore it is necessary to have a focus on the removal of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) exemplary for goods and labour.
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