Why do Cities develop? And why they are different in size?

GRIN Verlag
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Essay from the year 2003 in the subject Economics - Macro-economics, general, grade: 2, University of Kent (Department of Economics), course: Spatial Economy, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Why people and firms are not evenly distributed around the world? Why do they not use land equally and why are firms and people are not equally spaced? Why are they concentrated in special areas although there is no geographical or structural difference? Reality shows a different picture to an equally distributed use of land and space: There is concentration of people and firms at special places or areas. The existence of cities is one of the questions that are interesting in an ex-post point of view as well as in future perspectives. The question is why cities exist and why are they different in size or in other words where do they locate and why as well as how do they develop. Therefore it makes sense to analyse the rationale for the existence of cities in terms of their determinants. There are dimensions that we should have a closer look at such as the localisation of cities, their growth and their different sizes. Firstly, different definitions of cities are mentioned. Afterwards the reasons for agglomeration forces through economies of scale that result in cities are described. Further its limits are analysed that bound the growth of cities. For explaining the different arrangement as well as the different sizes of cities the central place approaches of Christaller and Lösch are mentioned. Finally the empirical based rank-rule gives additional explanation for different sized cities.
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Publisher
GRIN Verlag
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Published on
Apr 13, 2006
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Pages
8
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ISBN
9783638490399
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Language
English
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Genres
Business & Economics / Economics / General
Business & Economics / Economics / Macroeconomics
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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Susanne Jung
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James Rickards
The bestselling author of The Death of Money and Currency Wars reveals the global elites' dark effort to hide a coming catastrophe from investors in The Road to Ruin, now a National Bestseller.
 
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Since 2014, international monetary agencies have been issuing warnings to a small group of finance ministers, banks, and private equity funds: the U.S. government’s cowardly choices not to prosecute J.P. Morgan and its ilk, and to bloat the economy with a $4 trillion injection of easy credit, are driving us headlong toward a cliff.
 
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Susanne Jung
Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject Economics - International Economic Relations, grade: 2,0 (B), University of Canterbury (Economics), course: The Economics of European Integration, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Economic integration can be defined as a long-term process in which several stages improve the level of integration. The first step is a free trade area in which internal visible trade restrictions (customs duties, quotas) between partner counties are removed. Examples for those forms of economic integration are the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) and the Asian Free Trade Area (AFTA). Adding a common external tariff for non-member countries to the elimination of internal trade obstacles creates ensuing a Customs Union. The next level of integration, the single market for commodities, is achieved by removing visible and invisible trade barriers. Therefore all restrictions on trade between member-countries are abolished and a common external tariff is imposed on external countries. Following to this level free factor mobility of production and of financial assets generate a common market. Next steps to economic integration are the Monetary and lastly the Economic Union by having a common currency and policy. Theme of this essay is critical arguments of disestablish trade barriers towards the European Union (EU) and its underlying economic theories in respective to the Single Market Programme (SMP), its aims and if they are achieved in terms of labour and social policies. Therefore it is necessary to have a focus on the removal of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) exemplary for goods and labour.
Susanne Jung
Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject Economics - International Economic Relations, grade: 2,0 (B), University of Canterbury (Economics), course: The Economics of European Integration, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Economic integration can be defined as a long-term process in which several stages improve the level of integration. The first step is a free trade area in which internal visible trade restrictions (customs duties, quotas) between partner counties are removed. Examples for those forms of economic integration are the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) and the Asian Free Trade Area (AFTA). Adding a common external tariff for non-member countries to the elimination of internal trade obstacles creates ensuing a Customs Union. The next level of integration, the single market for commodities, is achieved by removing visible and invisible trade barriers. Therefore all restrictions on trade between member-countries are abolished and a common external tariff is imposed on external countries. Following to this level free factor mobility of production and of financial assets generate a common market. Next steps to economic integration are the Monetary and lastly the Economic Union by having a common currency and policy. Theme of this essay is critical arguments of disestablish trade barriers towards the European Union (EU) and its underlying economic theories in respective to the Single Market Programme (SMP), its aims and if they are achieved in terms of labour and social policies. Therefore it is necessary to have a focus on the removal of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) exemplary for goods and labour.
Susanne Jung
Essay from the year 2003 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, grade: 2, University of Kent, course: Strategic Management, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Operating in domestic markets and expanding into global market offers new opportunities. These opportunities necessitate changes relating to the strategy, operational planning and the organisation itself. Growth can be planned. To operate effectively in a global market it is necessary to identify global drivers and to compete with rivals. Therefore costs should be reduced and the competitive advantage should be extended. One issue relating to the reduction of costs could be a “make or buy (m/b)” decision, in other words, vertical integration or vertical de-integration, so-called outsourcing. Cost savings are achieved through more effective co-operation. Vertical integration includes merging and acquiring and its direction is backward or forwards due to its related activities respectively its supply chain. Outsourcing, or deintegration, contains to concentrate on the specialisation of competences by subcontracting all other activities and it subcontracts activities (Grant, 2002: 393-4). There are three forms of outsourcing: Co-sourcing that keeps the clients responsibility for management and strategic aspects of the activity while an expert provides the outsourced activity (Brown, 1997: 60). Secondly, removing an activity out of the company as an indepented company and demand its products. Thirdly, outsourcing as used in the following: An activity is in the responsibility of another organisation (Brown, 1997: 60). While talking about a m/b decision it is necessary to define and to present the point of view of the transaction cost approach in contrast to the resource-based approach. Firstly, an introduction in transaction costs approach is given, after a discussion of its point of view relating to the make and buy decision. Afterwards the resource-based approach is added. Because of limits of space, the network approach is not discussed1. Relying on at least two frameworks discuss those factors which influence an organisation′s decision whether to "make or buy" goods or services.
Susanne Jung
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