Why do Cities develop? And why they are different in size?

GRIN Verlag
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Essay from the year 2003 in the subject Economics - Macro-economics, general, grade: 2, University of Kent (Department of Economics), course: Spatial Economy, 7 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Why people and firms are not evenly distributed around the world? Why do they not use land equally and why are firms and people are not equally spaced? Why are they concentrated in special areas although there is no geographical or structural difference? Reality shows a different picture to an equally distributed use of land and space: There is concentration of people and firms at special places or areas. The existence of cities is one of the questions that are interesting in an ex-post point of view as well as in future perspectives. The question is why cities exist and why are they different in size or in other words where do they locate and why as well as how do they develop. Therefore it makes sense to analyse the rationale for the existence of cities in terms of their determinants. There are dimensions that we should have a closer look at such as the localisation of cities, their growth and their different sizes. Firstly, different definitions of cities are mentioned. Afterwards the reasons for agglomeration forces through economies of scale that result in cities are described. Further its limits are analysed that bound the growth of cities. For explaining the different arrangement as well as the different sizes of cities the central place approaches of Christaller and Lösch are mentioned. Finally the empirical based rank-rule gives additional explanation for different sized cities.
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Publisher
GRIN Verlag
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Published on
Apr 13, 2006
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Pages
8
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ISBN
9783638490399
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Language
English
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Genres
Business & Economics / Economics / General
Business & Economics / Economics / Macroeconomics
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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Essay from the year 2003 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, grade: 2, University of Kent, course: Strategic Management, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Operating in domestic markets and expanding into global market offers new opportunities. These opportunities necessitate changes relating to the strategy, operational planning and the organisation itself. Growth can be planned. To operate effectively in a global market it is necessary to identify global drivers and to compete with rivals. Therefore costs should be reduced and the competitive advantage should be extended. One issue relating to the reduction of costs could be a “make or buy (m/b)” decision, in other words, vertical integration or vertical de-integration, so-called outsourcing. Cost savings are achieved through more effective co-operation. Vertical integration includes merging and acquiring and its direction is backward or forwards due to its related activities respectively its supply chain. Outsourcing, or deintegration, contains to concentrate on the specialisation of competences by subcontracting all other activities and it subcontracts activities (Grant, 2002: 393-4). There are three forms of outsourcing: Co-sourcing that keeps the clients responsibility for management and strategic aspects of the activity while an expert provides the outsourced activity (Brown, 1997: 60). Secondly, removing an activity out of the company as an indepented company and demand its products. Thirdly, outsourcing as used in the following: An activity is in the responsibility of another organisation (Brown, 1997: 60). While talking about a m/b decision it is necessary to define and to present the point of view of the transaction cost approach in contrast to the resource-based approach. Firstly, an introduction in transaction costs approach is given, after a discussion of its point of view relating to the make and buy decision. Afterwards the resource-based approach is added. Because of limits of space, the network approach is not discussed1. Relying on at least two frameworks discuss those factors which influence an organisation′s decision whether to "make or buy" goods or services.
The bestselling author of The Death of Money and Currency Wars reveals the global elites' dark effort to hide a coming catastrophe from investors in The Road to Ruin, now a National Bestseller.
 
A drumbeat is sounding among the global elites. The signs of a worldwide financial meltdown are unmistakable. This time, the elites have an audacious plan to protect themselves from the fallout: hoarding cash now and locking down the global financial system when a crisis hits.
 
Since 2014, international monetary agencies have been issuing warnings to a small group of finance ministers, banks, and private equity funds: the U.S. government’s cowardly choices not to prosecute J.P. Morgan and its ilk, and to bloat the economy with a $4 trillion injection of easy credit, are driving us headlong toward a cliff.
 
As Rickards shows in this frightening, meticulously researched book, governments around the world have no compunction about conspiring against their citizens. They will have stockpiled hard assets when stock exchanges are closed, ATMs shut down, money market funds frozen, asset managers instructed not to sell securities, negative interest rates imposed, and cash withdrawals denied.
 
If you want to plan for the risks ahead, you will need Rickards’s cutting-edge synthesis of behavioral economics, history, and complexity theory. It’s a guidebook to thinking smarter, acting faster, and living with the comfort­ing knowledge that your wealth is secure.
 
The global elites don’t want this book to exist. Their plan to herd us like sheep to the slaughter when a global crisis erupts—and, of course, to maintain their wealth—works only if we remain complacent and unaware. Thanks to The Road to Ruin, we don’t need to be.

"If you are curious about what the financial Götterdämmerung might look like you’ve certainly come to the right place... Rickards believes -- and provides tantalizing snippets of private conversations with those who dwell in the very eye-in-the-pyramid -- that the current world monetary and financial system is on the verge of insolvency and that the world financial elites already have a successor system for which they are laying the groundwork."
--Ralph Benko, Forbes
Seminar paper from the year 2002 in the subject Economics - International Economic Relations, grade: 2,0 (B), University of Canterbury (Economics), course: The Economics of European Integration, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Economic integration can be defined as a long-term process in which several stages improve the level of integration. The first step is a free trade area in which internal visible trade restrictions (customs duties, quotas) between partner counties are removed. Examples for those forms of economic integration are the North American Free Trade Area (NAFTA) and the Asian Free Trade Area (AFTA). Adding a common external tariff for non-member countries to the elimination of internal trade obstacles creates ensuing a Customs Union. The next level of integration, the single market for commodities, is achieved by removing visible and invisible trade barriers. Therefore all restrictions on trade between member-countries are abolished and a common external tariff is imposed on external countries. Following to this level free factor mobility of production and of financial assets generate a common market. Next steps to economic integration are the Monetary and lastly the Economic Union by having a common currency and policy. Theme of this essay is critical arguments of disestablish trade barriers towards the European Union (EU) and its underlying economic theories in respective to the Single Market Programme (SMP), its aims and if they are achieved in terms of labour and social policies. Therefore it is necessary to have a focus on the removal of non-tariff barriers (NTBs) exemplary for goods and labour.
Selected as a Financial Times Best Book of 2013 Governments today in both Europe and the United States have succeeded in casting government spending as reckless wastefulness that has made the economy worse. In contrast, they have advanced a policy of draconian budget cuts--austerity--to solve the financial crisis. We are told that we have all lived beyond our means and now need to tighten our belts. This view conveniently forgets where all that debt came from. Not from an orgy of government spending, but as the direct result of bailing out, recapitalizing, and adding liquidity to the broken banking system. Through these actions private debt was rechristened as government debt while those responsible for generating it walked away scot free, placing the blame on the state, and the burden on the taxpayer. That burden now takes the form of a global turn to austerity, the policy of reducing domestic wages and prices to restore competitiveness and balance the budget. The problem, according to political economist Mark Blyth, is that austerity is a very dangerous idea. First of all, it doesn't work. As the past four years and countless historical examples from the last 100 years show, while it makes sense for any one state to try and cut its way to growth, it simply cannot work when all states try it simultaneously: all we do is shrink the economy. In the worst case, austerity policies worsened the Great Depression and created the conditions for seizures of power by the forces responsible for the Second World War: the Nazis and the Japanese military establishment. As Blyth amply demonstrates, the arguments for austerity are tenuous and the evidence thin. Rather than expanding growth and opportunity, the repeated revival of this dead economic idea has almost always led to low growth along with increases in wealth and income inequality. Austerity demolishes the conventional wisdom, marshaling an army of facts to demand that we austerity for what it is, and what it costs us.
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2002 im Fachbereich VWL - Sonstiges, Note: 2,3, Philipps-Universität Marburg (Finanzwissenschaft), Veranstaltung: Seminar: Wirtschaftswissenschaftliche Politikberatung, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: In der Vergangenheit gab es eine enge Zusammenarbeit zwischen Politik und Wissenschaft. So war die Ökonomie maßgeblich an der Gestaltung der Sozialen Marktwirtschaft beteiligt. In den 50ger und 60ger Jahren entstand der größte Teil der Literatur über Politikberatung, jedoch stagnierte die wissenschaftliche Innovation bzgl. der Beratungsliteratur. Sichtbar wird dies daran, dass die Wiedervereinigung in Deutschland nur unter geringem Einfluss ökonomischer Politikberatung vollzogen wurde. Fest steht, dass zahlreiche Beratungsvorschläge existieren, deren Umsetzung von Seiten der Politik nur bedingt erfolgt. Ursachen können zum einen in inhaltlichen Mängeln vorhandener Theorien, d.h. falsche Annahmen, zum anderen im Verhältnis zwischen Wissenschaft und Politik und letztlich kann es in der Organisation politischer Beratung begründet sein. Ob diese Mängel tatsächlich bestehen und es sich um eine Krise der Politikberatung handelt, soll anhand theoretischer Ansätze zur Politikberatung untersucht werden. Dabei sollen zunächst die Kommunikationsprozesse kritisch beleuchtet werden, um anschließend auf die traditionelle Theorie der Politikberatung einzugehen. Darauf folgend ist die Public-Choice-Theorie Untersuchungsgegenstand, die in den 70ger Jahren in die Neue Politische Ökonomie (NPÖ) integriert wurde. Im Anschluss sollen die Erkenntnisse der Konstitutionenökonomik erläutert werden. Abschließend sollen durch einen Vergleich von privater Beratungstätigkeit und ökonomischer Politikberatung alternative Vorgehensweisen beleuchtet werden.
Studienarbeit aus dem Jahr 2001 im Fachbereich BWL - Wirtschaftspolitik, Note: 2,0, Philipps-Universität Marburg (Wirtschaftspolitik), Veranstaltung: Verbraucherschutz in der BRD und in der EU, Sprache: Deutsch, Abstract: Das deutsche Rentensystem war eines der häufig bewunderten Mittel der Altersvorsorge. Dass dieses System in finanzielle Schwierigkeiten kommen würde, war für die politischen Väter der umlagenfinanzierten Altersvorsorge Utopie. Undenkbar war die Problematik heutiger Industrienationen, dass die quantitative Dominanz der "Alten" die der jungen Menschen übersteigt. Eine gleichzeitige schwierige Situation ergab sich durch die Wiedervereinigung, die die Zahl der Rentenempfänger vermehrte. Heute stehen Politiker vor der Aufgabe, geltenden Rentenansprüchen gerecht zu werden bei dem gleichzeitigen Problem, der jungen, arbeitenden Generation und Unternehmen eine tragbare Beitragslast aufzubürden. Aus diesem Dilemma entstand die Rentenreform, die als Maßnahme eine Stärkung der privaten und betrieblichen Altersvorsorge bei Reduzierung der gesetzlichen Leistung vorsieht: Die Erhöhung des Beitragssatzes auf 22% und die Reduzierung des Rentenniveaus auf 68% bis 2030 wurden gesetzlich verabschiedet. Zum Ausgleich der dadurch entstehenden Versorgungslücke für Mitglieder der gesetzlichen Rentenversicherung (GRV) hat die jetzige Regierung Maßnahmen zur Förderung der privaten und betrieblichen Altersvorsorge (PAV bzw. BAV) eingeleitet und hierfür notwendige Kriterien für Altersvorsorgeprodukte als Verbraucherschutz aufgestellt. Aufgabe dieser Abhandlung soll es sein, den derzeitigen Verbraucherschutz bei Produkten der PAV aufzuzeigen und kritisch zu beleuchten. Dafür ist es notwenig, vorab das Rentensystem darzustellen und die Änderungen in der GRV abzubilden.
Essay from the year 2003 in the subject Business economics - Business Management, Corporate Governance, grade: 2, University of Kent, course: Strategic Management, 11 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Operating in domestic markets and expanding into global market offers new opportunities. These opportunities necessitate changes relating to the strategy, operational planning and the organisation itself. Growth can be planned. To operate effectively in a global market it is necessary to identify global drivers and to compete with rivals. Therefore costs should be reduced and the competitive advantage should be extended. One issue relating to the reduction of costs could be a “make or buy (m/b)” decision, in other words, vertical integration or vertical de-integration, so-called outsourcing. Cost savings are achieved through more effective co-operation. Vertical integration includes merging and acquiring and its direction is backward or forwards due to its related activities respectively its supply chain. Outsourcing, or deintegration, contains to concentrate on the specialisation of competences by subcontracting all other activities and it subcontracts activities (Grant, 2002: 393-4). There are three forms of outsourcing: Co-sourcing that keeps the clients responsibility for management and strategic aspects of the activity while an expert provides the outsourced activity (Brown, 1997: 60). Secondly, removing an activity out of the company as an indepented company and demand its products. Thirdly, outsourcing as used in the following: An activity is in the responsibility of another organisation (Brown, 1997: 60). While talking about a m/b decision it is necessary to define and to present the point of view of the transaction cost approach in contrast to the resource-based approach. Firstly, an introduction in transaction costs approach is given, after a discussion of its point of view relating to the make and buy decision. Afterwards the resource-based approach is added. Because of limits of space, the network approach is not discussed1. Relying on at least two frameworks discuss those factors which influence an organisation′s decision whether to "make or buy" goods or services.
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