This study provides the most thorough analysis to date of the Israeli and Arab lobbies, their effectiveness, and the impact they exerted on the American political process from 1945 onward. Bard examines the reasons for the acknowledged effectiveness of Israeli lobbying efforts, and the relative ineffectiveness of Arab lobbies, and compares and contrasts their approaches. He shows that lobby - influence is constrained by a number of variables, including the President's own position on the issues, the specific policy content of an issue, the election cycle, the popularity of a President, and where decision-making authority resides.
Using case studies, a thorough knowledge of political theory, and sophisticated quantitative analysis, Bard presents a study that will be of interest to all those concerned about Middle East policy, interest groups, and foreign policy decision-making. Above all, it will compel a retreat from stereotypical thinking about the Jewish "lobby" and the function of lobbies in general.
These rescue operations represented the culmination of complex political maneuvering in Israel and illustrated what Israeli resolve can accomplish when Jewish lives are endangered. It was an inspiring effort--as William Safire wrote at the time, thousands of black people are being brought to a country not as slaves, but as citizens. On the other hand, there is much to deplore how long it took for the leaders of Israel to recognize and take action to save this ancient African branch of the Jewish Diaspora, known as the Falasha. The reasons are the result of the complex intersection of Israeli geostrategy, pressure from the American Jewish community, and Ethiopian domestic politics, as well as racism and debates about the Jewishness of the Falasha community.