How We Know What Isn't So

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Thomas Gilovich offers a wise and readable guide to the fallacy of the obvious in everyday life.

When can we trust what we believe—that "teams and players have winning streaks," that "flattery works," or that "the more people who agree, the more likely they are to be right"—and when are such beliefs suspect? Thomas Gilovich offers a guide to the fallacy of the obvious in everyday life. Illustrating his points with examples, and supporting them with the latest research findings, he documents the cognitive, social, and motivational processes that distort our thoughts, beliefs, judgments and decisions. In a rapidly changing world, the biases and stereotypes that help us process an overload of complex information inevitably distort what we would like to believe is reality. Awareness of our propensity to make these systematic errors, Gilovich argues, is the first step to more effective analysis and action.
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About the author

Thomas Gilovich is a professor of psychology at Cornell University and author of The Wisest One in the Room (with Lee Ross), How We Know What Isn’t So, Why Smart People Make Big Money Mistakes, and Social Psychology. He lives in Ithaca, New York.

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Publisher
Simon and Schuster
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Published on
Jun 30, 2008
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Pages
224
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ISBN
9781439106747
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Language
English
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Genres
Psychology / Developmental / Child
Psychology / General
Psychology / Personality
Psychology / Social Psychology
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This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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Renowned psychologists describe the five most useful insights from social psychology that will help make you “wise”: wise about why we behave the way we do, and wise about how to use that knowledge to understand others and change ourselves for the better.

When faced with a challenge, we often turn to those we trust for words of wisdom. Friends, relatives, and colleagues: someone with the best advice about how to boost sales, the most useful insights into raising children, or the sharpest take on a political issue. In The Wisest One in the Room, renowned social psychologists Thomas Gilovich and Lee Ross ask: Why? What do these people know? What are the foundations of their wisdom? And, as professors and researchers who specialize in the study of human behavior, they wonder: What general principles of human psychology are they drawing on to reach these conclusions?

They find that wisdom, unlike intelligence, demands some insight into people—their hopes, fears, passions, and drives. It’s true for the executive running a Fortune 500 company, the candidate seeking public office, the artist trying to create work that will speak to the ages, or the single parent trying to get a child through the tumultuous adolescent years. To be wise, they discover, one must be psych-wise when dealing with everyday challenges.

In The Wisest One in the Room Gilovich and Ross show that to answer any kind of behavioral question, it is essential to understand the details—especially the hidden and subtle details—of the situational forces acting upon us. Understanding these forces is the key to becoming wiser in the way we understand the people and events we encounter, and wiser in the way we deal with the challenges that are sure to come our way. With the lessons gleaned here, you can learn the key to becoming “the wisest one in the room.”

How does the situation we’re in influence the way we behave and think? Professors Ross and Nisbett eloquently argue that the context we find ourselves in substantially affects our behaviour.

“The Person and the Situation explores the complex ideas about personal versus situational determinants of behavior and relates the lessons of our discipline to important political, social, and even philosophical issues. This its the type of book that we have long wished we had available to assign to the serious, critical student who asks, ‘What have we really learned from social psychology?’ “We offer this book as a kind of throwback to a golden age and as a tribute to our intellectual forebears. We offer it as a ‘stand tall and be proud’ pep talk for our colleagues in general and for our younger colleagues in particular. We offer it as an olive branch and invitation to more fruitful intellectual dialogue with our friends in personality research (and also to our friends in anthropology and sociology who cluck, with some justification, about our parochialism). We offer it as a slim guide for non-psychologists to the heart and muscle of our enterprise. And last, but not least, we offer it as an invitation to honor the great tradition of Kurt Lewin that links basic theory first to the analysis of socially significant real-world phenomena and ultimately to the task of effective social innovation.”  Lee Ross & Richard Nisbett

With a new foreword by Malcolm Gladwell, and a new afterword by the authors, this timely reissue of one of social psychology’s classic texts is essential reading for anyone with an interest in human behaviour.

 “All of my books have been, in some sense, intellectual godchildren of The Person and the Situation. This book has been a constant companion over the past 10 years.” Malcolm Gladwell, in his new foreword

.New!囧星人「我在世界閱讀日已讀book回」唯一推薦!

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=thgI2vH9sXo

(囧星人作品,獲囧星人授權使用)

★長銷25年,心理學家、經濟學家、投資理財專家必推的思考經典
★作者與《快思慢想》康納曼並列美國社會心理學頂尖學者

警告:一無所知的麻煩不大,錯誤認知的麻煩才大!
「一本關於人類理性偏見最重要的著作!」


小心!理性犯的錯,最可怕!
你確定看到的證據就是全部的真相?
你做決定時,自認理性又客觀?
研究顯示,錯誤認知並非因為愚蠢或無知,而是有過多的腦補與不完整的資訊!
本書教你如何避免自以為是的思考陷阱,從個人投資到企業戰略,做出最正確的決定!

人類生性厭惡空白,往往樂於在隨機事件中發現規律,只注意對自己有利的證據,看到自己想看到的事物。以下日常生活中的六大謬誤,你犯了幾件?


▍謬誤1 無中生有:對隨機資料的錯誤解讀
常出事情的交通路段,辦了法會果然就沒事?真的有「這次得獎、下次就無緣」的魔咒?球員手感好、棒子燙,所以一直得分?別讓隨機資訊給騙了。
▍謬誤2 過度推論:不完整資料所造成的誤解
油價變便宜,電動車類的股價「照理」該跟著跌,為何反而大漲?何時是進場好時機?千萬不能用常識來判斷!
▍謬誤3 預設立場:模糊資料所造成的偏頗評估
穿黑色球衣的球員,比較容易犯規?星座解析準到你的心坎裡?還是你一廂情願的對號入號?
▍謬誤4 期盼眼光:認知的動機要素
考試成績好,就認為考題有鑑別度,考砸就認為考題出太爛? 
▍謬誤5 以訛傳訛:二手資訊的偏誤效應
五成離婚率=每兩對就有一對離婚?統計數字怎麼來?嚴格檢視想用數據說服你的新聞!
▍謬誤6 認同想像:對想法一致程度的過度高估
排越長隊伍的餐廳,越好吃?大家跟你想的都一樣?


在碎片資訊充斥的大數據時代,統計+數學的思維訓練已不夠用,你需要更強大的思考邏輯力!本書從簡單的生活例子,由認知、動機和社會三方面探討了生活中常見的思維謬誤,幫助你繞開理性陷阱、排除雜訊,抵禦錯誤與可疑觀念,讓你從一片資訊迷霧中,撥雲見日!


【名人推薦】

這是一本充滿真正智慧的著作。
──喬納•萊勒 《連線》雜誌特約作者

內容充實豐沛,敘事嚴謹,寫法引人人勝。為什麼我總認為別人都是認同自己觀點的?為什麼即便在事態危急、急需援手的緊要關頭,我還是不願意與名人或權貴交換生活?現在,我知道這些問題的答案了。
──埃利奧特•阿倫森 美國著名社會心理學家

一本精闢、豐富、準確、睿智、清晰的傑作。
──馬丁•葛登能 《啊哈!有趣的推理》作者

有史以來最傑出的著作。
──邁克爾•齊默曼 科羅拉多大學博爾德分校哲學教授、人類學與藝術學研究中心主任

這部非凡的著作詮釋了出現在日常生活中的各種糟糕至極的推理,並從認知與社會心理學家已經發現的思維謬誤中找到了其產生的根源。
──理查•尼茲彼 密西根大學心理學教授


【作者簡介】

湯瑪斯•吉洛維奇 (Thomas Gilovich)

美國康乃爾大學心理學教授,同時擔任該校行為經濟學與決策研究中心聯合主任,在行為經濟學和社會心理學領域享有盛名,被稱為「完美學者」。

他與行為經濟學鼻祖阿莫斯•特沃斯基以及諾貝爾獎得主丹尼爾•康納曼長期合作,研究了「熱手效應」「偏見盲點」「群聚錯覺」「自我設限」「焦點效應」「錨定效應」「後悔心理」「自我中心主義」等認知現象。

「兩位獨步全球的社會心理學家合力出擊,
這是你在大學裡從未聽過的經典課程,別再錯過第二次了!」
──哈佛大學心理學教授,丹尼爾.吉伯特

 

聰明人懂算計,有智慧的人懂行為心理。
5種心理智慧,教你避開思維陷阱,
在資訊迷霧中,做出最睿智的判斷。

不靠利誘威脅,無須唇槍舌戰,
有心理智慧的人運用某些簡單技巧,就能輕鬆達到想要的變革!

◎報稅單上,簽名欄位在前或在後,哪個比較會誠實申報?
◎丹麥的駕駛僅有4%願意器捐,瑞典卻完全相反,難道瑞典人比較有社會良心?
◎沒人願意為了社會福利多繳稅,卻願意為了「儲蓄保險」乖乖繳錢,但這筆錢真的是用在自己身上嗎?
◎若要提醒勿亂丟垃圾,花朵圖示跟眼睛圖示,哪個比較有效?
◎為何一般人偏好80%是瘦肉的牛排,勝過20%是肥肉的牛排?

 

美國最重量級的社會心理學家,康乃爾的吉洛維奇與史丹佛的羅斯,爬梳社會心理學的重要研究,擷取精華重點,從實際例子檢視你我可能會落入的思維陷阱。小從個人減重、消費行為,大至政策包裝、全球暖化,他們將提出意想不到的解決方案。

解釋人類行為,必須從影響我們思維的情境驅力開始理解,尤其是那些最不被看見的幽微細節。與聰明人不同的是,有智慧的人理解希望、恐懼、熱情與驅力對人所產生的影響,因此,他們會是讓員工感到幸福的老闆、將國家帶向下一步的政治人物、耐心陪伴叛逆期小孩的爸媽。理解這些驅力,我們就能在往後的決定上,有更睿智的理解與處理能力,進而成為房間裡最有智慧的人。

 

【各界推薦】

◎台大經濟系副教授馮勃翰 導讀推薦

◎「兩位出色的社會心理學家攜手合作,從理論、研究與真實故事裡提出深邃洞見,探究人類的種種光明與缺陷,諸如快樂、衝突、英雄主義與種族主義。讀完本書後,你會更懂得如何說服他人,識破行銷人員的手法,從心理層面了解今日社會所面臨的問題。如果你想變得更智慧、更快樂與更成功(有誰不想呢),務必品讀本書。」──桑雅.波摩絲姬,加州大學心理學教授

 

◎「吉洛維奇與羅斯精采結合社會科學、歷史與軼聞,協助我們了解容易犯錯的人性本質,指引我們充分發揮潛能。」──丹.艾瑞利,杜克大學行為經濟學教授

 

◎「如果你想大幅提升『洞見智商』、決策能力與對人性的了解──這本書正是寫給你的。本書內容深刻,極為實用,兩名全球頂尖社會心理學家的智慧盡在其中。」──克勞德.史迪爾,柏克萊大學副校長暨教務長

 

◎「如果你想深入了解人類(包括你自己)各種思考、感受與行動的緣由,絕對該一讀本書……我讀完這本傑作,不僅更洞悉日常世事,也更明白為何我們始終無法處理氣候變遷問題,任憑事態愈演愈烈。」──保羅.埃利希,史丹佛大學人口研究教授與《科學與理性的背叛》金獎作者

 

◎「房間裡最有智慧的人根本就是吉洛維奇與羅斯。本書強而有力,以心理學的精華照亮我們的日常。」──麥爾坎.葛拉威爾,暢銷書《異數》作者

 

【作者簡介】

湯瑪斯•吉洛維奇(Thomas Gilovich)

美國康乃爾大學心理學教授,同時擔任該校行為經濟學與決策研究中心聯合主任,在行為經濟學和社會心理學領域享有盛名,被稱為「完美學者」。

他與行為經濟學鼻祖阿莫斯•特沃斯基以及諾貝爾獎得主丹尼爾•康納曼長期合作,研究了「熱手效應」「偏見盲點」「群聚錯覺」「自我設限」「焦點效應」「錨定效應」「後悔心理」「自我中心主義」等認知現象。著有《康乃爾最經典的思考邏輯課》。

 

李•羅斯(Lee Ross)

美國史丹佛大學心理學教授、史丹佛衝突與談判中心共同創辦人。他在歸因偏見與推斷謬論的研究,對社會心理學有極大貢獻。1994年獲選加入美國學術地位最崇高機構之一,美國文理科學院,並獲得兩項重要心理學講座。

 

【目錄】

推薦序 社會心理學帶給你洞悉人性的智慧    馮勃翰
前言  為何要當個有智慧的人?

第一部 智慧的五大支柱

1.  其實你一點都不客觀

2.  善用情境的推力與拉力

3.  遊戲的名稱,意義的創造

4.  行動至上:我動,故我信

5.  擺脫成見的限制:鎖孔、透鏡與濾片

回顧與前行

 

第二部 智慧的應用
6.  房間裡最快樂的人
7.  為何我們就不能好好談?
8.  教育可以怎麼改革?
9.  全球有達成共識的一天嗎?

 

結語 曼德拉的智慧

Renowned psychologists describe the five most useful insights from social psychology that will help make you “wise”: wise about why we behave the way we do, and wise about how to use that knowledge to understand others and change ourselves for the better.

When faced with a challenge, we often turn to those we trust for words of wisdom. Friends, relatives, and colleagues: someone with the best advice about how to boost sales, the most useful insights into raising children, or the sharpest take on a political issue. In The Wisest One in the Room, renowned social psychologists Thomas Gilovich and Lee Ross ask: Why? What do these people know? What are the foundations of their wisdom? And, as professors and researchers who specialize in the study of human behavior, they wonder: What general principles of human psychology are they drawing on to reach these conclusions?

They find that wisdom, unlike intelligence, demands some insight into people—their hopes, fears, passions, and drives. It’s true for the executive running a Fortune 500 company, the candidate seeking public office, the artist trying to create work that will speak to the ages, or the single parent trying to get a child through the tumultuous adolescent years. To be wise, they discover, one must be psych-wise when dealing with everyday challenges.

In The Wisest One in the Room Gilovich and Ross show that to answer any kind of behavioral question, it is essential to understand the details—especially the hidden and subtle details—of the situational forces acting upon us. Understanding these forces is the key to becoming wiser in the way we understand the people and events we encounter, and wiser in the way we deal with the challenges that are sure to come our way. With the lessons gleaned here, you can learn the key to becoming “the wisest one in the room.”
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