Information Retrieval Models: Foundations and Relationships

Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Free sample

Information Retrieval (IR) models are a core component of IR research and IR systems. The past decade brought a consolidation of the family of IR models, which by 2000 consisted of relatively isolated views on TF-IDF (Term-Frequency times Inverse-Document-Frequency) as the weighting scheme in the vector-space model (VSM), the probabilistic relevance framework (PRF), the binary independence retrieval (BIR) model, BM25 (Best-Match Version 25, the main instantiation of the PRF/BIR), and language modelling (LM). Also, the early 2000s saw the arrival of divergence from randomness (DFR). Regarding intuition and simplicity, though LM is clear from a probabilistic point of view, several people stated: "It is easy to understand TF-IDF and BM25. For LM, however, we understand the math, but we do not fully understand why it works." This book takes a horizontal approach gathering the foundations of TF-IDF, PRF, BIR, Poisson, BM25, LM, probabilistic inference networks (PIN's), and divergence-based models. The aim is to create a consolidated and balanced view on the main models. A particular focus of this book is on the "relationships between models." This includes an overview over the main frameworks (PRF, logical IR, VSM, generalized VSM) and a pairing of TF-IDF with other models. It becomes evident that TF-IDF and LM measure the same, namely the dependence (overlap) between document and query. The Poisson probability helps to establish probabilistic, non-heuristic roots for TF-IDF, and the Poisson parameter, average term frequency, is a binding link between several retrieval models and model parameters. Table of Contents: List of Figures / Preface / Acknowledgments / Introduction / Foundations of IR Models / Relationships Between IR Models / Summary & Research Outlook / Bibliography / Author's Biography / Index
Read more

About the author

Queen Mary University of London

Read more
Loading...

Additional Information

Publisher
Morgan & Claypool Publishers
Read more
Published on
Jul 1, 2013
Read more
Pages
163
Read more
ISBN
9781627050791
Read more
Read more
Best For
Read more
Language
English
Read more
Genres
Computers / Information Theory
Computers / System Administration / Storage & Retrieval
Language Arts & Disciplines / Library & Information Science / General
Read more
Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
Read more

Reading information

Smartphones and Tablets

Install the Google Play Books app for Android and iPad/iPhone. It syncs automatically with your account and allows you to read online or offline wherever you are.

Laptops and Computers

You can read books purchased on Google Play using your computer's web browser.

eReaders and other devices

To read on e-ink devices like the Sony eReader or Barnes & Noble Nook, you'll need to download a file and transfer it to your device. Please follow the detailed Help center instructions to transfer the files to supported eReaders.
These proceedings contain the papers presented at ECIR 2010, the 32nd Eu- pean Conference on Information Retrieval. The conference was organizedby the Knowledge Media Institute (KMi), the Open University, in co-operation with Dublin City University and the University of Essex, and was supported by the Information Retrieval Specialist Group of the British Computer Society (BCS- IRSG) and the Special Interest Group on Information Retrieval (ACM SIGIR). It was held during March 28-31, 2010 in Milton Keynes, UK. ECIR 2010 received a total of 202 full-paper submissions from Continental Europe (40%), UK (14%), North and South America (15%), Asia and Australia (28%), Middle East and Africa (3%). All submitted papers were reviewed by at leastthreemembersoftheinternationalProgramCommittee.Outofthe202- pers 44 were selected asfull researchpapers. ECIR has alwaysbeen a conference with a strong student focus. To allow as much interaction between delegates as possible and to keep in the spirit of the conference we decided to run ECIR 2010 as a single-track event. As a result we decided to have two presentation formats for full papers. Some of them were presented orally, the others in poster format. The presentation format does not represent any di?erence in quality. Instead, the presentation format was decided after the full papers had been accepted at the Program Committee meeting held at the University of Essex. The views of the reviewers were then taken into consideration to select the most appropriate presentation format for each paper.
The rise of social media technologies has created new ways to seek and share information for millions of users worldwide, but also has presented new challenges for libraries in meeting users where they are within social spaces. From social networking sites such as Facebook and Google+, and microblogging platforms such as Twitter and Tumblr to the image and video sites of YouTube, Flickr, Instagram, and to geotagging sites such as Foursquare, libraries have responded by establishing footholds within a variety of social media platforms and seeking new ways of engaging with online users in social spaces. Libraries are also responding to new social review sites such as Yelp and Tripadvisor, awareness sites including StumbleUpon, Pinterest, Goodreads, and Reddit, and social question-and-answer (Q&A) sites such as Yahoo! Answers—sites which engage social media users in functions similar to traditional library content curation, readers' advisory, information and referral, and reference services. Establishing a social media presence extends the library's physical manifestation into virtual space and increases the library's visibility, reach, and impact. However, beyond simply establishing a social presence for the library, a greater challenge is building effective and engaging social media sites that successfully adapt a library's visibility, voice, and presence to the unique contexts, audiences, and cultures within diverse social media sites. This lecture examines the research and theory on social media and libraries, providing an overview of what is known and what is not yet known about libraries and social media. Chapter 1 focuses on the social media environments within which libraries are establishing a presence, including how social media sites differ from each other, yet work together within a social ecosphere. Chapter 2 examines how libraries are engaging with users across a variety of social media platforms and the extent to which libraries are involved in using these different social media platforms, as well as the activities of libraries in presenting a social "self," sharing information, and interacting with users via social media. Chapter 3 explores metrics and measures for assessing the impact of the library's activity in social media sites. The book concludes with Chapter 4 on evolving directions for libraries and social media, including potential implications of new and emerging technologies for libraries in social spaces.
As information becomes more ubiquitous and the demands that searchers have on search systems grow, there is a need to support search behaviors beyond simple lookup. Information seeking is the process or activity of attempting to obtain information in both human and technological contexts. Exploratory search describes an information-seeking problem context that is open-ended, persistent, and multifaceted, and information-seeking processes that are opportunistic, iterative, and multitactical. Exploratory searchers aim to solve complex problems and develop enhanced mental capacities. Exploratory search systems support this through symbiotic human-machine relationships that provide guidance in exploring unfamiliar information landscapes. Exploratory search has gained prominence in recent years. There is an increased interest from the information retrieval, information science, and human-computer interaction communities in moving beyond the traditional turn-taking interaction model supported by major Web search engines, and toward support for human intelligence amplification and information use. In this lecture, we introduce exploratory search, relate it to relevant extant research, outline the features of exploratory search systems, discuss the evaluation of these systems, and suggest some future directions for supporting exploratory search. Exploratory search is a new frontier in the search domain and is becoming increasingly important in shaping our future world.

Table of Contents: Introduction / Defining Exploratory Search / Related Work / Features of Exploratory Search Systems / Evaluation of Exploratory Search Systems / Future Directions and concluding Remarks

Visual information retrieval (VIR) is an active and vibrant research area, which attempts at providing means for organizing, indexing, annotating, and retrieving visual information (images and videos) from large, unstructured repositories. The goal of VIR is to retrieve matches ranked by their relevance to a given query, which is often expressed as an example image and/or a series of keywords. During its early years (1995-2000), the research efforts were dominated by content-based approaches contributed primarily by the image and video processing community. During the past decade, it was widely recognized that the challenges imposed by the lack of coincidence between an image's visual contents and its semantic interpretation, also known as semantic gap, required a clever use of textual metadata (in addition to information extracted from the image's pixel contents) to make image and video retrieval solutions efficient and effective. The need to bridge (or at least narrow) the semantic gap has been one of the driving forces behind current VIR research. Additionally, other related research problems and market opportunities have started to emerge, offering a broad range of exciting problems for computer scientists and engineers to work on. In this introductory book, we focus on a subset of VIR problems where the media consists of images, and the indexing and retrieval methods are based on the pixel contents of those images -- an approach known as content-based image retrieval (CBIR). We present an implementation-oriented overview of CBIR concepts, techniques, algorithms, and figures of merit. Most chapters are supported by examples written in Java, using Lucene (an open-source Java-based indexing and search implementation) and LIRE (Lucene Image REtrieval), an open-source Java-based library for CBIR.
These proceedings contain the papers presented at ECIR 2010, the 32nd Eu- pean Conference on Information Retrieval. The conference was organizedby the Knowledge Media Institute (KMi), the Open University, in co-operation with Dublin City University and the University of Essex, and was supported by the Information Retrieval Specialist Group of the British Computer Society (BCS- IRSG) and the Special Interest Group on Information Retrieval (ACM SIGIR). It was held during March 28-31, 2010 in Milton Keynes, UK. ECIR 2010 received a total of 202 full-paper submissions from Continental Europe (40%), UK (14%), North and South America (15%), Asia and Australia (28%), Middle East and Africa (3%). All submitted papers were reviewed by at leastthreemembersoftheinternationalProgramCommittee.Outofthe202- pers 44 were selected asfull researchpapers. ECIR has alwaysbeen a conference with a strong student focus. To allow as much interaction between delegates as possible and to keep in the spirit of the conference we decided to run ECIR 2010 as a single-track event. As a result we decided to have two presentation formats for full papers. Some of them were presented orally, the others in poster format. The presentation format does not represent any di?erence in quality. Instead, the presentation format was decided after the full papers had been accepted at the Program Committee meeting held at the University of Essex. The views of the reviewers were then taken into consideration to select the most appropriate presentation format for each paper.
©2018 GoogleSite Terms of ServicePrivacyDevelopersArtistsAbout Google
By purchasing this item, you are transacting with Google Payments and agreeing to the Google Payments Terms of Service and Privacy Notice.