VESTIGII ALE LIMBAJULUI PROTO-INDO-EUROPEAN ÎN ROMÂNĂ: Dovezi complementare ale teritoriului original

Ulici Claudiu-Octavian
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După ce amintesc grosso modo, anumite argumente pro și contra reconstrucției lingvistice și analizei densității semantice, expun câteva chestiuni controversate referitoare la limba română. Datorită faptului că vocabularul de bază din dialectele românești, este omogen și reciproc inteligibil într-un grad ridicat, anul 270 CE pare a fi irelevant pentru apariția acestei limbi.

În partea a doua am căutat, să apropriem demersului nostru, metode tehnice legate de analiza fonologică și a densității semantice.

În partea a treia am utilizat Lista de 200 cuvinte a lingvistului Morris Swadesh, pentru o comparație a reconstrucțiilor ipotetice amintite de J. Pokorny, cu limba română și sanscrită. Pentru a ajunge aici, am găsit inițial  corespondențe pentru toate cele 2222 referințe citate, la unele identitate este surprinzătoare, iar la altele am rearanjat materialul.

Fiecare cuvânt românesc, ce își găsește corespondența în reconstrucțiile PIE, pare a avea o structură fonetică mai apropiată și o încărcătură semantică mai pregnantă, decât cele menținute în limbile care au servit ca punct de referință.

Deoarece schimbări fonetice și gramaticale sunt unidirecționale, odată răspândite, nu ar exista justificarea unei ”repopulări” lexicale de bază a zonei originale de formare, chiar dacă, limbajul în mod evident este evolutiv.    

Datorită mișcărilor de populații, care au avut loc în ultimii 6000 de ani, în și dinspre teritoriu, populația care a avut inițial în uz această limbă este radical schimbată, ceea ce a adus cu sine și modificări esențiale în habitudinile culturale.  Vestigiile cele importante ale limbajului proto-indo-european au rămas în limba română

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About the author

dr. Claudiu-Octavian Ulici E-mail: octavian@ulici.ro, Bd. 21 December 1989 no. 76 ap. 1 Cluj-Napoca County Cluj 400124, Romania

Owns a Ph.D. in philosophy and a practice as lawyer since 1996. In 2004 he contributed as a sole specialist in setting up a professional association at national level and he set up a private court in association with 1,200 lawyers in 2013. Over the years, he promoted various new methods to improve the practice of law by writing books on the basic legal citation of judicial texts, and in particular on the theory of the judicial precedent, to ensure equality of rights. The interest of the topic was generated by the study of conjunctions that made possible the emergence of the current system of jurisdiction and the intent that leads to the violation of the rule of law. The author has an interest in the history that made possible the current social perception.




dr. Remus Octavian Cimpean, remus.cimpean@inflectionpoint.eu, G-ral Ioan Dragalina Str., No. 100, Cluj-Napoca, 400024, Cluj County, Romania

As a background Remus is licensed in Mathematics (1997), with a MSc specialization in Biostatistics (2001), and owning a PhD in applied statistics (2007). For 12 years he was an academics at the University of Medicine and Pharmacy “Iuliu Hatieganu” in Cluj-Napoca being the owner of the Biostatistics Course. In this position he was participating into 3 research grants and published over 10 scientific papers from the pharmaceutical & medical data processing and statistical modelling field. Then Remus started his own consultancy company (www.inflectionpoint.eu) delivering design of data & analytics processes with applications into various industries. In this position, he was involved in more than 40 applied data science projects delivered for global companies, including clients from Forbes500. https://www.linkedin.com/in/remus-octavian-campean-a4404726/.The co-author has an interest into data transcription and analysis of human interaction. From here the preoccupation for digging into historical transformation of languages.



Bibliografie / Bibliography :


Alabarella Umberto, ”Pigs and Humans 10,000 Years of Interaction”, Keithdonbney, Antonerc Ynck & Peter Rowley-Conwy Edited by, Bioarchaeology of Pig Domestication Research Project, Department of Archaeology, University of Durham, Oxford University Press 2007;


Pereltsvaig A., Lewis M. W., The Indo-European Controversy. Facts and Fallacies in Historical Linguistics, Cambridge University Press University of Cambridge, 2015;


Bachhuber C., MALLAART AND THE LUWIANS: A CULTURE-(PRE)HISTORY din LUWIAN IDENTITIES Culture, language and Religion between Anatolia and Aegian, BRILL Leiden-Boston 2013;


Bryant E., The Quest for the Origins of Vedic Culture. The Indo-Aryan Migration Debate, Oxford University Press 2001;


Bouckaert Remco et.all, Mapping the Origins and Expansion of the Indo-European Language Family, SCIENCE VOL 337, 24 AUGUST 2012, p. 957;


Da-Wei Caia, Lu Hanb, Xiao-Lei Zhangb, Hui Zhoua și Hong Zhua, DNA analysis of archaeological sheep remains from China, Journal of Archaeological Science Volume 34, Issue 9, September 2007, Pages 1347–1355;


Clackson J., Indo-European Linguistics: An introduction, Cambridge, Cambridge University Press 2007;


”DOOM” - Dictionarul Ortografic, Ortoepic si Morfologic al Limbii Romane (editia a II-a, revizuita si adaugita), Academia Română, Univers Enciclopedic Gold, 2010;


Dumézil G., ”Mit și Epopee” vol.I,II,III, Editura Științifică, București 1993;


Mallory J. P. and Adams D. Q. , The Oxford Introduction to Proto-Indo-European and the Proto-Indo-European World, Oxford University Press 2006;


Mallory J. P. and Adams D. Q., Encyclopedia of Indo-European Culture, Fitzroy Dearborn Publisher London and Chicago 1997;


Mallory J. P., Twenty-first century clouds over Indo-European homelands, Journal of Language Relationship Вопросы языкового родства 9 (2013) P. 145–154;


Mihăilă G. Acad., ”CUVINTELE DE ORIGINE AUTOHTONĂ ÎN LIMBA ROMÂNĂ Academia Română. Discursuri de recepţie, 2006;


Pokorny J. (PRI), Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch, Francke, 1959;


Lazaridis Iosif et.all, ”Close genetic relationship of Neolithic Anatolians to early European farmers”


Iosif Lazaridis 1,2, Songül Alpaslan 3, Daniel Fernandes 4, Mario Nowak 4, Kendra Sirak 4, Nadin Rohland 1,2, Swapan Mallick 1,2,5, Kristin Stewardson 1,5, Fokke Gerritsen 6, Nick Patterson 2, Ron Pinhasi 4, David Reich 1,2,5.

1 Department of Genetics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA

2 Broad Institute of MIT and Harvard, Cambridge, MA USA

3 Independent physical anthropologist, Netherlands

4 Conway Institute of Biomolecular and Biomedical Research, University College Dublin, Dublin, Ireland

5 Howard Hughes Medical Institute, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA USA

6 Netherlands Institute in Turkey, Istiklal Caddesi, Nur-i Ziya Sokak 5, Beyoğlu, Istanbul, Turkey

from 1 st International conference / workshop, Jena 2015 LINGUISTICS ARCHEOLOGY AND GENETICS Integrating new evidence for the origin and spread of the indo-european language, MAX PLANCK – Institute for the science of human history;


Swadesh M., The Origin and Diversification of Language, Transactions Publishers, New Brunswick, New Jersey 2006


Swadesh M.,

(1950) Salish internal relationships. International Journal of American Linguistics 16: 157–167;

(1952) Lexico-statistic dating of prehistoric ethnic contacts with special reference to North American Indians and Eskimos. Proceedings of the American Philosophical Society 96: 452–463;

(1955) Towards greater accuracy in lexicostatistic dating. International Journal of American Linguistics 21: 121–137;


Trask L., McColl M. R., Trask’s Historical Linguistics 3 rd Edition, London and New York Routledge 2015 ;


Walbank F.W., Astin A. E. , Frederiksen M.W. , Ogilvie R.M., edited by, THE CAMBRIDGE ANCIENT HISTORY SECOND EDITION, VOLUME VII, PART 2, The Rise of Rome to 220 B.C., Cambridge University Press, 2008;


West M. L. ”INDO-EUROPEAN POETRY AND MYTH” Oxford University Press, New York 2007;


Woodard R. D. edited by, The Ancient Languages of Europe (from Cambridge Encyclopedia of the World’s Ancient Languages), Cambridge University Press 2008


Referințe electronice:

Cocoș R., Schipor S., Hervella M., Ciangă P., Popescu R., Bănescu C., Constantinescu M, Martinescu A.și Raicu F., Genetic affinities among the historical provinces of Romania and Central Europe as revealed by an mtDNA analysis, BMC GeneticsBMC 07.03.2017 (https://bmcgenet.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12863-017-0487-5);


IPA Chart With Sounds, (http://www.internationalphoneticalphabet.org/ipa-sounds/ipa-chart-with-sounds/) Gilleland M, Merriam Park Software, Levenshtein Distance, in Three Flavors

(http://people.cs.pitt.edu/~kirk/cs1501/Pruhs/Spring2006/assignments/editdistance/Levenshtein%20Distance.htm)


Greenhill S.J., Levenshtein Distances Fail to Identify Language Relationships Accurately (http://www.mitpressjournals.org/doi/pdf/10.1162/COLI_a_00073) 2011;


The Indo-European Lexical Cognacy Database (IELex) (http://ielex.mpi.nl/ 01/01/2017)

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Additional Information

Publisher
Ulici Claudiu-Octavian
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Published on
Aug 26, 2017
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Pages
120
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Language
Romanian
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Genres
History / Reference
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