The Historical Development of the Malay Nationalism Before Independence

GRIN Verlag
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Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2014 in the subject History - Asia, National University of Malaysia, course: History, language: English, abstract: This study will analyze the historical development of Malay nationalism against Western powers, particularly the British in Malaya before independence in 1957. The method used in this study is based on the method of observation of the resources available at the library and the National Archives of Malaysia. This study will begin with the dismantling of the prior history of Malaya’s early economic development. The arrival of the Western powers, namely the Portuguese, Dutch and British to Malaya was due to the economic importance of Malaya, which is also known as the Land of Gold and Gold Peninsular by foreign races. Malaya was colonized for more than 400 years since the Portuguese colonization in 1511. When the British controlled Malaya, the inclusion of their pro-Western idea has created conflict with the Malay community. This study will focus on the historiography of the Malay community to look at the historical development of Malay nationalism and the parties involved in the resistance against the British. After the country gained independence, the implementation of the Look East Policy by Tun Dr. Mahathir Mohamad in 1982 is seen to end the continuous conflict between pro-Western idea that been brought by the colonists and the Malay nationalism spirit, with the Japanese model representing the East model has replaced the long-standing Western models that dominate the lives of the Malays as far back as the Portuguese domination of Malacca in 1511.
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About the author

Currently working as the founder of Gold Eagle Company, Dr. Uqbah Iqbal was born in the United States and emigrated to Malaysia at the age of six. Winning Second Place in Malaysian Historical Essay Writing Competition 2013, he was the recipient of Research University Fellowship Scheme from the National University of Malaysia, MyBrain 15 (MyPhD) Postgraduate Scholarship Programme from Ministry of Education Malaysia, Graduate on Time Award and Outstanding Student Award from Faculty of Social Sciences and Humanities, the National University of Malaysia as well as the Youngest Ph.D. in History Holder and the only Malaysian achieved a Ph.D. in History in conjunction with the 43rd Convocation of the National University of Malaysia. He’s authoring 67 books/ebooks and 208 journal articles. He’s joining the editorial board of 81 journals and also a reviewer for 210 journals and 10 book publishing companies/book websites. Until now, he has published 368 publications and reviewed 1,437 manuscripts and articles for journals and conferences. Through his involvement as a reviewer with the Nonfiction Authors Association, 7 of his reviewed books received 3 Gold, 2 Silver and 2 Bronze Awards. By 2017, 383 Journals and Conferences recognized him as one of the Best Social Scientist, Reviewer, Author, Researcher, Editor, Reviewer Board Member and Editorial Board Member and 369 of his articles get appreciation. In 2016, OMICS Publishing Group recognized him as a Valuable Author, Editor and Reviewer under Management Journals Category. In 2017, Scientific Federation recognized him as one of the brilliant and most gifted minds of this century while International Agency for Standards and Ratings recognized him as the World Champion in Social Science (Winner among 5,462 nominations from 67 countries) (Sept - Oct), the World Champion in Humanities (Winner among 5,756 nominations from 56 countries) (Oct - Nov), the World Champion in Social Science (Winner among 5,371 nominations from 51 countries) (Nov), the World Champion in Humanities (Winner among 5,455 nominations from 55 countries) (Nov) and the World Champion in Social Science (Winner among 5,119 nominations from 59 countries) (Nov). He is the First Malaysian Historian that has his own 3 special issue journals, most journal articles and considers himself as the last Malaysian historian from his generation. Currently, there are 118 book companies around the world who are selling his books/ebooks.

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GRIN Verlag
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Published on
Dec 16, 2014
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History / Asia / General
History / General
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The name Genghis Khan often conjures the image of a relentless, bloodthirsty barbarian on horseback leading a ruthless band of nomadic warriors in the looting of the civilized world. But the surprising truth is that Genghis Khan was a visionary leader whose conquests joined backward Europe with the flourishing cultures of Asia to trigger a global awakening, an unprecedented explosion of technologies, trade, and ideas. In Genghis Khan and the Making of the Modern World, Jack Weatherford, the only Western scholar ever to be allowed into the Mongols’ “Great Taboo”—Genghis Khan’s homeland and forbidden burial site—tracks the astonishing story of Genghis Khan and his descendants, and their conquest and transformation of the world.

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of Genghis Khan’s accomplishments challenge the limits of imagination. Genghis Khan was an innovative leader, the first ruler in many conquered countries to put the power of law above his own power, encourage religious freedom, create public schools, grant diplomatic immunity, abolish torture, and institute free trade. The trade routes he created became lucrative pathways for commerce, but also for ideas, technologies, and expertise that transformed the way people lived. The Mongols introduced the first international paper currency and postal system and developed and spread revolutionary technologies like printing, the cannon, compass, and abacus. They took local foods and products like lemons, carrots, noodles, tea, rugs, playing cards, and pants and turned them into staples of life around the world. The Mongols were the architects of a new way of life at a pivotal time in history.

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From the Hardcover edition.
Research Paper (undergraduate) from the year 2014 in the subject Economics - History, National University of Malaysia, course: History, language: English, abstract: This study analyzes the historical development of the economic nature of the Malay community in the East Coast and Northern Malay Peninsula during pre-colonial era. The method used is based on the screening methods of the resources that are available in the library and the National Archives of Malaysia. The study objective are to dismantling the historical development of the Malay peninsula economic from the perspective of the Malay world, the economic nature of the Malay community during pre-colonial era, and the impact of international trade on the Malay Peninsula economic at this time. The Malay Peninsula became the focus of the study because of its economy is the cord to the formation of the Malaysian economy. The historical development of the Malay Peninsula economic will focus on the East Coast and the North. While studies published by the Western scholar more emphasis on the states on the West Coast of the Malay Peninsula, the majority Malay community at that time concentrated in the East Coast and Northern Malay Peninsula. In contrast to the study of the Western scholar, the study will look at the historical development of the Malay Peninsula economic and Malay society economic nature from the perspective of the Malay world itself. It allows in-depth investigations to the extent to which socio-economic structure of the Malays changing as a result of international trade. Findings showed that local traditional society has their own socio-economic life, with the political structure in the form of feudalism and consists of one single society before the arrival of British colonialism.
This clearly written and engrossing book presents a global narrative of the origins of the modern world from 1400 to the present. Unlike most studies, which assume that the “rise of the West” is the story of the coming of the modern world, this history, drawing upon new scholarship on Asia, Africa, and the New World and upon the maturing field of environmental history, constructs a story in which those parts of the world play major roles, including their impacts on the environment. Robert B. Marks defines the modern world as one marked by industry, the nation state, interstate warfare, a large and growing gap between the wealthiest and poorest parts of the world, increasing inequality within the wealthiest industrialized countries, and an escape from the environmental constraints of the “biological old regime.” He explains its origins by emphasizing contingencies (such as the conquest of the New World); the broad comparability of the most advanced regions in China, India, and Europe; the reasons why England was able to escape from common ecological constraints facing all of those regions by the eighteenth century; a conjuncture of human and natural forces that solidified a gap between the industrialized and non-industrialized parts of the world; and the mounting environmental crisis that defines the modern world.

Now in a new edition that brings the saga of the modern world to the present in an environmental context, the book considers how and why the United States emerged as a world power in the twentieth century and became the sole superpower by the twenty-first century, and why the changed relationship of humans to the environmental likely will be the hallmark of the modern era—the “Anthopocene.” Once again arguing that the U.S. rise to global hegemon was contingent, not inevitable, Marks also points to the resurgence of Asia and the vastly changed relationship of humans to the environment that may in the long run overshadow any political and economic milestones of the past hundred years.
Seminar paper from the year 2015 in the subject History - Asia, National University of Malaysia, course: History, language: English, abstract: The focus of this study is to dismantle the concept of the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere during the Second World War. The methodology used is based on the research methods of the resources available in libraries. This concept arose when the trade dispute continues to be a political issue that contributed to the decline of Anglo-Japanese relations up by the Second World War. South Sea is the center of Japan's second most important investment after Manchukuo. Japan announced this concept on August 1, 1940 with two goals, namely freeing Southeast Asia from the exploitation of the Western powers and launching 3 A Movements. The system includes a combination of regional, cultural, economic and defense under Japan's efforts will be made as a buffer against expansion of Western imperialism. The basic aim of Japan’s policy is the establishment of a peaceful world based on Hakko Ichiu spirit (eight corners of the world under one roof). The first step to ensure this success is to establish a New Order in East Asia, with essentially located in Japan, Manchukuo and China. Although all Japanese leaders insist there are no ambitions of expansionism and imperialism against the West, countries that do not have the honesty and do not understand the true intentions of Japan should be taught through military force. Japanese government will be directly involved in exploiting and developing areas of the South Sea which is under its control.
This book is a collection of papers presented at the historical dialogue conducted by the Malaysian Historical Society (on behalf of Malaysia) and Indonesian Historians Society (on behalf of Indonesia) in Johor Bahru from 1-3 October 2010, hosted and organized by Yayasan Warisan Johor. The meeting in Johor Bahru is the third in a series of Malaysia-Indonesia Historical Collective Generating Dialogue. The first dialogue was held in Jakarta from 17 to 19 March 2009, inaugurated by the President of the Republic of Indonesia, Bapak Dr. H. Susilo Bambang Yudhuyuno at the Presidential Palace. The second dialogue takes place in Tanjung Pinang in Riau Islands from October 7 to 10, 2009, inaugurated by the Governor of Riau Province, Bapak Ismeth Abdullah. Dialogue in Johor Bahru is the third in the series and the first to be held in Malaysia, inaugurated by the Chief Minister of Johor, YAB Dato' Haji Abdul Ghani Othman.

Oral evidence is among the most important sources in historical research. Documentation of oral history is a test of our ability as a researcher, about the ability to get other people's beliefs in order to provide their cooperation and ability to dispute their memories in an honest and imaginative. This book is available to help a person achieve the objective of producing recordings and transcripts of historical value as a source of good history. The first chapter introduces the history and historical sources in order to provide basic knowledge about the history and sources for historical research. This knowledge is fundamental in the task of documenting oral histories as sources.

Research Paper (postgraduate) from the year 2016 in the subject History - Asia, National University of Malaysia, course: History, language: English, abstract: The main issue of this study is to unravel the existence of the Look-To-The-East idea in Malaysia which focuses on South Korea before it was made as the central policy, as molded by Dr. Mahathir Mohamad. In terms of the methodology used, the initial phase of this research entails identifying and collecting primary and secondary sources from the libraries, archives and reports from various government’s organizations. Realizing the importance of South Korea’s investment to the Malaysian economy, the Look-To-The-East idea still remained during Tunku Abdul Rahman, Tun Abdul Razak and Tun Hussein Onn era. The continuity of the Eastern-oriented thinking by these three Prime Ministers figures had witnessed South Korea became as inspiration in Malaysia trade relations when Dr. Mahathir Mohamad took over the country’s leadership. The development of the Malaysian economy currently inherited from three previous levels, starting from the growth and rapid development level of natural resources industries from the mid-19th century until the year 1914, followed by a volatility or instability period of natural resources industries between the First and Second World War and last but not least the level of consolidation and rationalization of natural resources industries together with a diversified economy after 1945. Although Malaysia is a former British colony, the importance of Japan’s economy has contributed to the change of the foreign policy from the Pro-West Policy during the colonial and post-colonial era to the Look-to-The-East Policy during the administration of Dr. Mahathir Mohamad.
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