Brain Literacy for Educators and Psychologists

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Although educators are expected to bring about functional changes in the brain--the organ of human learning--they are given no formal training in the structure, function or development of the brain in formal or atypically developing children as part of their education. This book is organized around three conceptual themes: First, the interplay between nature (genetics) and nurture (experience and environment) is emphasized. Second, the functional systems of the brain are explained in terms of how they lead to reading, writing and mathematics and the design of instruction. Thirdly, research is presented, not as a finished product, but as a step forward within the field of educational neuropsychology. The book differs from neuropsychology and neuroscience books in that it is aimed at practitioners, focuses on high incidence neuropsychological conditions seen in the classroom, and is the only book that integrates both brain research with the practice of effective literacy, and mathematics instruction of the general and special education school-aged populations.
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About the author

Professor of Educational Psychology at the University of Washington; Director of the NICHD funded Multidisciplinary Learning Disabilities Center

Professor of Radiology at the University of Washington; Principle Investigator for the Brain Imaging Project at the Multidisciplinary Learning Disabilities Center

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Additional Information

Publisher
Elsevier
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Published on
Jun 6, 2002
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Pages
384
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ISBN
9780080500263
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Language
English
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Genres
Psychology / Cognitive Neuroscience & Cognitive Neuropsychology
Psychology / Physiological Psychology
Science / Cognitive Science
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Recent advances in neuroimaging and genetics technologies have enhanced our understanding of neurodevelopmental disorders in adults. The authors in this volume not only discuss such advances as they apply to adults with learning disorders, but also address their translation into clinical practice.

One cluster of chapters addresses developmental concerns as children and adolescents with learning disorders approach young adulthood. Experts discuss dyslexia, language-based and writing disorders, perhaps the most widely studied group of learning disorders, from the point of view of neuroimaging and genetic underpinnings. Chapters on the neuroscience of nonverbal, math and executive function disorders are also included.

Clinically-oriented chapters with case studies, recommendations for accommodation, and considerations for evaluation follow. Study of specialized populations - such as late high school students, college, medical and law students - further demonstrate how our expanded knowledge base may be applicable to clinical practice. The heterogeneity of adults with learning disorders, the complexity of their clinical presentation and co-existing disorders are addressed from both a scientific and clinical point of view demonstrating how empirical research and clinical practice inform each other.

This volume will enhance the practice of clinicians and educators working with adults with neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as providing essential current information for researchers of adults with learning disorders.

A child with developmental dyslexia or an adult with a reading disorder following brain damage might read the word shoe as ‘show’, why does this happen?

Most current information processing models of reading distinguish between two alternative procedures for the pronunciation of a printed word. The difference between these concerns the level at which orthography is translated to phonology in one, the word-level procedure, a word is read aloud with reference to knowledge specific to that whole word. In the other, the sub-word-level procedure, a printed word is pronounced with reference to knowledge about smaller segments which occur in many different words.

Both procedures contribute to normal skilled reading and its acquisition. But if one of the procedures is disrupted, then oral reading will be forced to rely on the alternative routine. Surface dyslexia is a general label for any disorder of reading which results from inadequate functioning of the word-level procedure and in consequence abnormal reliance on sub-word level translation from orthography to phonology.

Originally published in 1985, this book provides new evidence about the diverse manifestations of surface dyslexia in adult neurological patients and in children with developmental disorders of reading. The data are drawn from speakers of a range of languages with distinct orthographies. Process models for the pronunciation of print are elaborated, and an appendix gives neurological information on the patients reported.

The publication of this very important volume comes at a timely juncture in the history of learning disabilities. The focus of this volume is on developing a multidisciplinary understanding of the complexities of the research on learning disabilities and its various sUbtypes. It also will serve as an important compendium of the subtyping literature, particularly with respect to pertinent issues of nosology, specific sUbtyping models, neuro psychological diagnosis, and treatment. As the authors so correctly suggest, the differential diagnosis of learning disabilities subtypes is a critical first step in developing theoretically sound programs of psychoeducational intervention. Clearly, one must have some idea about the general abilities of a child before realistic expectations can be charted. Also, how can one plan a program of intervention without some knowledge of the deficient components of achievement within a do main? Does it not make both conceptual and practical sense to identify an individual's relative strengths and weaknesses so that abilities or strengths can be utilized to optimize functioning in areas of deficit? Although these all sound like reasonable precursors to assisting individuals in need of academic assistance, there are those who would argue otherwise. Impor tantly, however, the Director of the National Institutes of Health, in a recent report to Congress, advocates exactly what this volume proposes. Indeed, there are important needs to be addressed, and the literature reviewed herein strongly supports the conclusions drawn by these authors.
An insightful look at the role of neuroscience and neuropsychology as it relates to Response to Intervention (RTI) in learning disability diagnosis, treatment, and policy reform

Neuropsychological Perspectives on Learning Disabilities in the Era of RTI is a revolutionary new volume presenting the latest research—in question-and-answer format—from leading scholars about the contributions of neuroscience and neuropsychology as it relates to Response to Intervention (RTI) in learning disability identification, diagnosis, and recommended interventions.

This collective work includes contributions from more than thirty neuroscientists, neuropsychologists, clinical psychologists, and school psychologists with training in brain-behavior relationships, who explore the answers to questions including: How do you reconcile RTI as a means of diagnosis of learning disability with knowledge from the clinical neurosciences?? What do you think neuroscience has to offer laws and policies associated with learning disability determination? What do you think neuroscience has to offer the assessment and identification of learning disabilities? What role does neurocognitive science play in designing interventions in the context of RTI? What role does neuropsychology have to play in the diagnosis of learning disability? Featuring contributions from leaders in the field of neuropsychology and school psychology, and with a Foreword from Sally Shaywitz, Neuropsychological Perspectives on Learning Disabilities in the Era of RTI illuminates the contributions of neuro-science and neuropsychology to learning disability identification and current educational reform.
In this chapter, we described issues in conducting intervention research with students with learning disabilities on the secondary level. We main tained that interventions should be well-grounded in theories of learning as well as characterizations of learning disabilities (Pressley, Scruggs, & Mastropieri, 1989); that they should first be conducted in a series of highly controlled, laboratory-like experiments to carefully assess the potential utility of the intervention; and that, if the intervention is suc cessful in highly controlled settings, it should then be evaluated in class room applications. We maintained that research designs should evolve as the research questions become more applied, and that the results of laboratory research should be used to support the findings of classroom applications. Finally, we described several research designs that we have found useful in conducting classroom intervention research. There is a great deal more to conducting intervention research, of course, than experimental or quasi-experimental design. Intervention strategies likely to be effective must be identified, relevant literature must be reviewed, experimental materials must be developed, and cooperative schools, teachers, parents, and students must be located. Nevertheless, inadequate research designs can invalidate the best and most successful efforts in all of these areas, while effective and practical research designs can do much to document the best practices and advance our knowledge of effective interventions with students with learning disabilities. References Brigham, F. J. , Scruggs, T. E. , & Mastropieri, M. A. (1992).
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Factfulness: The stress-reducing habit of only carrying opinions for which you have strong supporting facts.

When asked simple questions about global trends—what percentage of the world’s population live in poverty; why the world’s population is increasing; how many girls finish school—we systematically get the answers wrong. So wrong that a chimpanzee choosing answers at random will consistently outguess teachers, journalists, Nobel laureates, and investment bankers.

In Factfulness, Professor of International Health and global TED phenomenon Hans Rosling, together with his two long-time collaborators, Anna and Ola, offers a radical new explanation of why this happens. They reveal the ten instincts that distort our perspective—from our tendency to divide the world into two camps (usually some version of us and them) to the way we consume media (where fear rules) to how we perceive progress (believing that most things are getting worse).

Our problem is that we don’t know what we don’t know, and even our guesses are informed by unconscious and predictable biases.

It turns out that the world, for all its imperfections, is in a much better state than we might think. That doesn’t mean there aren’t real concerns. But when we worry about everything all the time instead of embracing a worldview based on facts, we can lose our ability to focus on the things that threaten us most.

Inspiring and revelatory, filled with lively anecdotes and moving stories, Factfulness is an urgent and essential book that will change the way you see the world and empower you to respond to the crises and opportunities of the future.

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“This book is my last battle in my life-long mission to fight devastating ignorance...Previously I armed myself with huge data sets, eye-opening software, an energetic learning style and a Swedish bayonet for sword-swallowing. It wasn’t enough. But I hope this book will be.” Hans Rosling, February 2017.

In this engrossing journey into the lives of psychopaths and their infamously crafty behaviors, the renowned psychologist Kevin Dutton reveals that there is a scale of "madness" along which we all sit. Incorporating the latest advances in brain scanning and neuroscience, Dutton demonstrates that the brilliant neurosurgeon who lacks empathy has more in common with a Ted Bundy who kills for pleasure than we may wish to admit, and that a mugger in a dimly lit parking lot may well, in fact, have the same nerveless poise as a titan of industry.

Dutton argues that there are indeed "functional psychopaths" among us—different from their murderous counterparts—who use their detached, unflinching, and charismatic personalities to succeed in mainstream society, and that shockingly, in some fields, the more "psychopathic" people are, the more likely they are to succeed. Dutton deconstructs this often misunderstood diagnosis through bold on-the-ground reporting and original scientific research as he mingles with the criminally insane in a high-security ward, shares a drink with one of the world's most successful con artists, and undergoes transcranial magnetic stimulation to discover firsthand exactly how it feels to see through the eyes of a psychopath.

As Dutton develops his theory that we all possess psychopathic tendencies, he puts forward the argument that society as a whole is more psychopathic than ever: after all, psychopaths tend to be fearless, confident, charming, ruthless, and focused—qualities that are tailor-made for success in the twenty-first century. Provocative at every turn, The Wisdom of Psychopaths is a riveting adventure that reveals that it's our much-maligned dark side that often conceals the trump cards of success.

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