Le 3 mai 1814, Louis XVIII monte sur le trône de France, mettant fin à vingt-cinq ans de turbulences politiques. Pendant seize ans — exception faite de l'épisode des Cent-Jours qui sonne le glas de l'Empire —, la première puis la seconde Restauration vont tenter de réorganiser l'État et de redresser le pays, d'abord en lui offrant la paix, en dépit des contradictions qui leur sont inhérentes.
Singulière époque, en vérité, que celle où Louis XVIII puis Charles X — les deux frères de Louis XVI — gouvernent, avec un personnel politique constitué de nobles retour d'émigration, de régicides et de bourgeois, une France tournée désormais vers la révolution industrielle, l'ère des chemins de fer et le grand dessein colonial du XIXe siècle.
Certes, on pourra relever bien des maladresses dans la politique du nouveau régime, moins sans doute que ne l'a voulu une certaine « légende noire ». Le pouvoir des ultras, le fameux « milliard des émigrés », la loi sur les sacrilèges ou l'ébranlement que représente l'affaire du radeau de la Méduse ne suffisent pas, en effet, à comprendre cette période. Car la Restauration c'est aussi le mouvement romantique emmené par Hugo, ce sont les complots des Charbonniers, la naissance du monde ouvrier ou la passion que suscite l'indépendance de la Grèce, toutes choses qui font de ce moment de l'histoire de France un foisonnement d'événements, d'idées et de talents.
As philosophers of Voltaire's day contended with the problem of evil, so too does Candide in this short novel, albeit more directly and humorously. Voltaire ridicules religion, theologians, governments, armies, philosophies, and philosophers through allegory; most conspicuously, he assaults Leibniz and his optimism.
Voltaire's men and women point his case against optimism by starting high and falling low. A modern could not go about it after this fashion. He would not plunge his people into an unfamiliar misery. He would just keep them in the misery they were born to.
But such an account of Voltaire's procedure is as misleading as the plaster cast of a dance. Look at his procedure again. Mademoiselle Cunégonde, the illustrious Westphalian, sprung from a family that could prove seventy-one quarterings, descends and descends until we find her earning her keep by washing dishes in the Propontis. The aged faithful attendant, victim of a hundred acts of rape by negro pirates, remembers that she is the daughter of a pope, and that in honor of her approaching marriage with a Prince of Massa-Carrara all Italy wrote sonnets of which not one was passable. We do not need to know French literature before Voltaire in order to feel, although the lurking parody may escape us, that he is poking fun at us and at himself. His laughter at his own methods grows more unmistakable at the last, when he caricatures them by casually assembling six fallen monarchs in an inn at Venice.
A modern assailant of optimism would arm himself with social pity. There is no social pity in "Candide." Voltaire, whose light touch on familiar institutions opens them and reveals their absurdity, likes to remind us that the slaughter and pillage and murder which Candide witnessed among the Bulgarians was perfectly regular, having been conducted according to the laws and usages of war.
Had Voltaire lived today he would have done to poverty what he did to war. Pitying the poor, he would have shown us poverty as a ridiculous anachronism, and both the ridicule and the pity would have expressed his indignation.
François-Marie Arouet (1694 – 1778), known by his nom de plume Voltaire, was a French Enlightenment writer, historian and philosopher famous for his wit, his attacks on the established Catholic Church, and his advocacy of freedom of religion, freedom of expression, and separation of church and state. Voltaire was a versatile writer, producing works in almost every literary form, including plays, poems, novels, essays, and historical and scientific works.
He wrote more than 20,000 letters and more than 2,000 books and pamphlets. He was an outspoken advocate, despite the risk this placed him in under the strict censorship laws of the time. As a satirical polemicist, he frequently made use of his works to criticize intolerance, religious dogma, and the French institutions of his day.