Assoc. Prof. inLaw, Istanbul Bilgi University; Director Cyber-Rights Org., in U,K.
A number of issues concerning the linguistic integration of adult migrants are presented here, beginning with the notion of linguistic integration itself. Family reunion, the nature of citizenship and the function of language tests, among others, are dealt with from the point of view of language and language use. Readers are invited to reflect on the type of language competences that need to be acquired as well as an appropriate use of the Common European Framework of Reference for Languages. The collection also sets out approaches and instruments designed to assist in implementing effective policies.
This second annual report on the state of democracy, human rights and the rule of law in Europe assesses the capacities of the member states to guarantee and enhance democratic security within their borders and, collectively, across the continent. It measures the extent to which the Council of Europe’s 47 member states are able to make the five pillars of democratic security a reality, namely: an efficient and independent judiciary, freedom of expression, freedom of assembly and association, the functioning of democratic institutions, and inclusive society and democratic citizenship. The report also draws on the Council of Europe’s capacity to monitor and evaluate performance in terms of democracy, human rights and rule of law and to identify remedies for shortcomings and provide assistance in their implementation.