Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems

CRC Press
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Soluble and insoluble impurities present in water used for domestic and industrial applications can lead to the deposition of unwanted materials on equipment surfaces. Impurities such as dissolved minerals, natural organic compounds, and suspended particles can impact various processes and systems including boiling and cooling processes, desalination, geothermal power generation, milk pasteurization, oil and gas refining, the pulp and paper industry, and biological systems. Understanding the mechanisms of scale inhibition and dispersion is important in addressing the resulting challenges.

Mineral Scales in Biological and Industrial Systems presents developments in mineral scale formation and control in a variety of industrial and biological systems, providing in-depth discussions on topics important to academic researchers and industrial technologists. With contributions from experts in their respective fields, this book comprises 22 chapters in 5 parts. It begins by addressing precipitation and inhibition of various scale-forming salts—such as calcium carbonate, calcium sulfate, calcium fluoride, and calcium phosphate—in various industrial systems, including boilers, cooling, and high-pressure and high-temperature applications.

Part II describes the precipitation and inhibition of salts encountered in sugar refining and geothermal power generation. Part III describes mineral scales that are important in biological systems. Part IV deals with the control of suspended matter in industrial water systems. Part V examines analytical techniques commonly used to characterize mineral scales and deposits during in-house evaluation of new products and deposit samples received for characterization from industrial installations, as well as product failure analyses. Covering the broad scope of mineral scales, this book both reviews current concepts and presents new information, with detailed discussions on fundamental and mechanistic aspects of mineral scale formation and inhibition.
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About the author

Zahid Amjad, Ph.D., is a visiting professor in the Division of Mathematics and Sciences at Walsh University, North Canton, Ohio. During his more than 30 years at Calgon Corporation, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, and Lubrizol Advanced Materials, Inc., Cleveland, Ohio, Dr. Amjad has worked in various fields, including cosmetics, home care, oral care, pharmaceutics, water treatment, water purification, and related fields. His major interests include biological and industrial applications of water-soluble and water-swellable polymers, interactions of polymers with different substrates, crystal growth and dissolution, and adsorption and desorption phenomena in aqueous systems. Dr. Amjad has published more than 160 technical papers, has contributed to numerous book chapters, has edited 6 books, and holds 30 US patents. Dr. Amjad is also the owner of Aqua Science and Technology LLC, Columbus, Ohio, which provides consulting services for industrial water treatment, separation processes, and related technologies.

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Additional Information

Publisher
CRC Press
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Published on
Oct 26, 2013
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Pages
450
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ISBN
9781466568686
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Chemistry / Industrial & Technical
Science / Earth Sciences / Hydrology
Technology & Engineering / Chemical & Biochemical
Technology & Engineering / Environmental / Water Supply
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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Mineral scale deposits, corrosion, suspended matter, and microbiological growth are factors that must be controlled in industrial water systems. Research on understanding the mechanisms of these problems has attracted considerable attention in the past three decades as has progress concerning water treatment additives to ameliorate these concerns. The Science and Technology of Industrial Water Treatment provides a comprehensive discussion on the topic from specialists in industry and academia.

The book begins with an overview of water chemistry and covers the characteristics of commonly encountered mineral scales. It addresses the formation and control of different scales in various systems and examines new developments in membrane-based separation processes. Next, it provides a detailed account on the operational challenges of reverse osmosis systems and scale control in thermal distillation processes. The text explores corrosion control in cooling, boiler, geothermal, and desalination systems and it discusses the interactions of polyelectrolytes with suspended matter.

Includes coverage of a range of bacterial species, including Legionella

The book examines bacterial species commonly encountered in water supplies, the mechanisms of biofouling, approaches to control it, and criteria for selecting biocides for water treatment applications. An entire chapter is devoted to Legionella in water systems. Contributors describe various analytical techniques for identifying mineral scales and deposits. They also examine applications of polymers for treating industrial and wastewater systems and give an account of analytical approaches for monitoring various operational parameters and chemicals used to treat industrial water systems.

A valuable addition to the library of academic researchers, this volume will also prove useful to those working not only in the water treatment industry, but also to those in petroleum, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and other areas where purity processes are a significant concern.

This volume contains a series of papers originally presented at the symposium on Water Soluble Polymers: Solution Properties and Applications, sponsored by the Division of Colloids and Surface Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. The symposium took place in Las Vegas City, Nevada on 9 to 11th September, 1997 at the 214th American Chemical Society National Meeting. Recognized experts in their - spective fields were invited to speak. There was a strong attendance from academia, g- ernment, and industrial research centers. The purpose of the symposium was to present and discuss recent developments in the solution properties of water soluble polymers and their applications in aqueous systems. Water soluble polymers find applications in a number of fields of which the following may be worth mentioning: cosmetics, detergent, oral care, industrial water treatment, g- thermal, wastewater treatment, water purification and reuse, pulp and paper production, sugar refining, and many more. Moreover, water soluble polymers play vital role in the oil industry, especially in enhanced oil recovery. Water soluble polymers are also used in ag- culture and controlled release pharmaceutical applications. Therefore, a fundamental kno- edge of solution properties of these polymers is essential for most industrial scientists. An understanding of the basic phenomena involved in the application of these polymers, such as adsorption and interaction with different substrates (i. e. , tooth enamel, hair, reverse - mosis membrane, heat exchanger surfaces, etc. ) is of vital importance in developing high performance formulations for achieving optimum efficiency of the system.
This volume contains a series of papers originally presented at the symposium on Water Soluble Polymers: Solution Properties and Applications, sponsored by the Division of Colloids and Surface Chemistry of the American Chemical Society. The symposium took place in Las Vegas City, Nevada on 9 to 11th September, 1997 at the 214th American Chemical Society National Meeting. Recognized experts in their - spective fields were invited to speak. There was a strong attendance from academia, g- ernment, and industrial research centers. The purpose of the symposium was to present and discuss recent developments in the solution properties of water soluble polymers and their applications in aqueous systems. Water soluble polymers find applications in a number of fields of which the following may be worth mentioning: cosmetics, detergent, oral care, industrial water treatment, g- thermal, wastewater treatment, water purification and reuse, pulp and paper production, sugar refining, and many more. Moreover, water soluble polymers play vital role in the oil industry, especially in enhanced oil recovery. Water soluble polymers are also used in ag- culture and controlled release pharmaceutical applications. Therefore, a fundamental kno- edge of solution properties of these polymers is essential for most industrial scientists. An understanding of the basic phenomena involved in the application of these polymers, such as adsorption and interaction with different substrates (i. e. , tooth enamel, hair, reverse - mosis membrane, heat exchanger surfaces, etc. ) is of vital importance in developing high performance formulations for achieving optimum efficiency of the system.
Mineral scale deposits, corrosion, suspended matter, and microbiological growth are factors that must be controlled in industrial water systems. Research on understanding the mechanisms of these problems has attracted considerable attention in the past three decades as has progress concerning water treatment additives to ameliorate these concerns. The Science and Technology of Industrial Water Treatment provides a comprehensive discussion on the topic from specialists in industry and academia.

The book begins with an overview of water chemistry and covers the characteristics of commonly encountered mineral scales. It addresses the formation and control of different scales in various systems and examines new developments in membrane-based separation processes. Next, it provides a detailed account on the operational challenges of reverse osmosis systems and scale control in thermal distillation processes. The text explores corrosion control in cooling, boiler, geothermal, and desalination systems and it discusses the interactions of polyelectrolytes with suspended matter.

Includes coverage of a range of bacterial species, including Legionella

The book examines bacterial species commonly encountered in water supplies, the mechanisms of biofouling, approaches to control it, and criteria for selecting biocides for water treatment applications. An entire chapter is devoted to Legionella in water systems. Contributors describe various analytical techniques for identifying mineral scales and deposits. They also examine applications of polymers for treating industrial and wastewater systems and give an account of analytical approaches for monitoring various operational parameters and chemicals used to treat industrial water systems.

A valuable addition to the library of academic researchers, this volume will also prove useful to those working not only in the water treatment industry, but also to those in petroleum, textiles, pharmaceuticals, and other areas where purity processes are a significant concern.

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