American leaders characterize the members of the current government of the Islamic Republic of Iran as Mad Mullahs, wild-eyed and irrational. They accuse them of fomenting the hostage crisis, in which American embassy personnel were held for 444 days at the end of the Carter administration, dealing a severe blow to U.S. national honor. The Bush administration has further accused the Iranians of being part of an Axis of Evil on the basis of their alleged support of terrorists, oppression of women and minorities, and development of nuclear weapons. Giving a thorough account of the background of U.S.-Iranian relations, Beeman claims that the current accusations of both Iran and the United States are baseless, consisting largely of public invective and symbolic rhetoric according to their own mythologies of evil.
As Philadelphia struggled with deindustrialization, Jordan Stanger-Ross shows, Italian ethnicity in South Philly remained closely linked with preserving turf and marking boundaries. Toronto’s thriving Little Italy, on the other hand, drew Italians together from across the wider region. These distinctive ethnic enclaves, Stanger-Ross argues, were shaped by each city’s response to suburbanization, segregation, and economic restructuring. By situating malleable ethnic bonds in the context of political economy and racial dynamics, he offers a fresh perspective on the potential of local environments to shape individual identities and social experience.