Duhem's 1908 essay questions the relation between physical theory and metaphysics and, more specifically, between astronomy and physics–an issue still of importance today. He critiques the answers given by Greek thought, Arabic science, medieval Christian scholasticism, and, finally, the astronomers of the Renaissance.
About the author
Pierre Duhem (1861-1916), a mathematical physicist, was among the founders of philosophy of science as an aspect of intellectual history.
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