These false paths to scientific knowledge are not treated as deliberate misconduct, but rather as a lack of knowledge and a misunderstanding of the science and technology involved, both of which were sooner or later corrected by men and women of science. Krebs explores the conception and development of scientific thought in five different fields: Medicine and Health; Life Science; Chemistry and Physics; Astrology, Astronomy, and Cosmology; and Conservation, Ecology, and Environmentalism. Within each of these categories, he explores more specific areas, such as the circulatory system, geology, and inner planets. This arrangement provides easy access for the researcher interested in a particular area of science as well as those looking for general information, illuminating how our modern understanding of science is based on much of the developments in our ancient past.
ROBERT E. KREBS is the retired Associate Dean for Research at the University of Illinois Health Sciences Center. He is the author of The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements (Greenwood Press, 1998).
During World War II, the Allied military forces faced severe problems integrating equipment, tactics, and logistics into successful combat operations. To help confront these problems, scientists and engineers developed new means of studying which equipment designs would best meet the military's requirements and how the military could best use the equipment it had on hand. By 1941 they had also begun to gather and analyze data from combat operations to improve military leaders' ordinary planning activities. In Rational Action, William Thomas details these developments, and how they gave rise during the 1950s to a constellation of influential new fields—which he terms the “sciences of policy”—that included operations research, management science, systems analysis, and decision theory.
Proponents of these new sciences embraced a variety of agendas. Some aimed to improve policymaking directly, while others theorized about how one decision could be considered more rational than another. Their work spanned systems engineering, applied mathematics, nuclear strategy, and the philosophy of science, and it found new niches in universities, in businesses, and at think tanks such as the RAND Corporation. The sciences of policy also took a prominent place in epic narratives told about the relationships among science, state, and society in an intellectual culture preoccupied with how technology and reason would shape the future. Thomas follows all these threads to illuminate and make new sense of the intricate relationships among scientific analysis, policymaking procedure, and institutional legitimacy at a crucial moment in British and American history.
A new title in DK's successful "Big Ideas, Simply Explained" series, this book on science and the history of science looks at topics such as why Copernicus's ideas were contentious, how Galileo worked out his theories on motion and inertia, and what the discovery of DNA meant. The Science Book covers every area of science--astronomy, biology, chemistry, geology, math, and physics, and brings the greatest scientific ideas to life with fascinating text, quirky graphics, and pithy quotes.
In this first ever history of sleep research, Kenton Kroker draws on a wide range of material to present the story of how an investigative field – at one time dominated by the study of dreams – slowly morphed into a laboratory-based discipline. The result of this transformation, Kroker argues, has changed the very meaning of sleep from its earlier conception to an issue for public health and biomedical intervention.
Examining a vast historical period of 2500 years, Kroker separates the problems associated with the history of dreaming from those associated with sleep itself and charts sleep-related diseases such as narcolepsy, insomnia, and sleep apnea. He describes the discovery of rapid eye movement – REM – during the 1950s, and shows how this discovery initiated the creation of 'dream laboratories' that later emerged as centres for sleep research during the 1960s and 1970s. Kroker's work is unique in subject and scope and will be enormously useful for both sleep researchers, medical historians, and anybody who's ever lost a night's sleep.
In David Goodstein's varied experience--as a physicist and educator, and as vice provost at Caltech, a job in which he was responsible for investigating all allegations of scientific misconduct--a deceptively simple question has come up time and again: what constitutes fraud in science? Here, Goodstein takes us on a tour of real controversies from the front lines of science and helps readers determine for themselves whether or not fraud occurred. Cases include, among others, those of Robert A. Millikan, whose historic measurement of the electron's charge has been maligned by accusations of fraud; Martin Fleischmann and Stanley Pons and their "discovery" of cold fusion; Victor Ninov and the supposed discovery of element 118; Jan Hendrik Schön from Bell Labs and his work in semiconductors; and J. Georg Bednorz and Karl Müller's discovery of high-temperature superconductivity, a seemingly impossible accomplishment that turned out to be real.
On Fact and Fraud provides a user's guide to identifying, avoiding, and preventing fraud in science, along the way offering valuable insights into how modern science is practiced.
A chapter on the history of earth science illustrates the background of the topic before readers delve into more advanced concepts. Additional material for students includes an appendix with hands-on earth science projects, a glossary, a bibliography, and person and subject indexes for quick reference.
Understanding the Periodic Table of Chemical Elements is critical for success in the chemistry classroom and laboratory. In today's classroom, students not only need to understand the properties of the chemical elements, but how these elements play such an integral role in industry, the earth and the environment, and in modern life. No resource provides a better introduction than Robert Krebs's The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements. In this thoroughly revised edition, with extensive new and updated examples on the use of the chemical elements, the elements are examined within their groups, enabling students to make connections between elements of similar structure. In addition, the discovery and history of each element - from those known from ancient times to those created in the modern laboratory - is explained clearly and concisely.
In addition to the handy Guide to the Chemical Elements that comprises the bulk of the work, The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements includes other useful features:
; Introductory material on the basics of chemistry and the Periodic Table
; Appendices on the discoverers of the chemical elements
; A glossary of words commonly used in chemistry and chemical engineering
; A complete bibliography of useful resources, including websites
All of this information makes The History and Use of Our Earth's Chemical Elements the ideal one-volume resource for understanding the importance of the chemical elements.