Macro-Engineering

Water Science and Technology Library

Book 54
Springer Science & Business Media
Free sample

Macro-engineering involves the large-scale modification and manipulation of natural systems for the benefit of mankind. The primary goals of some Earth-based macroprojects described in this book are power production, land reclamation, food production, climate change, environment, water, transport and coastal protection. Other Earth or space projects considered here have a more futuristic ring, but our present-day technical skill makes their realization possible. Earth-based macroprojects usually combine different aspects and aims. They have a major impact on the ecology of a region and the inhabitant's means of living (like tourism, fishing, shipping). Its effects may be felt worldwide, like the rise in global sea level after the damming and evaporation of large ocean gulfs for power production, or the change in climate following the regional reduction of solar insolation.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
May 27, 2007
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Pages
318
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ISBN
9781402046049
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Language
English
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Genres
Nature / General
Nature / Natural Resources
Nature / Reference
Science / General
Technology & Engineering / Engineering (General)
Technology & Engineering / Environmental / General
Technology & Engineering / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Design of water control structures, reservoir management, economic evaluation of flood protection projects, land use planning and management, flood insurance assessment, and other projects rely on knowledge of magnitude and frequency of floods. Often, estimation of floods is not easy because of lack of flood records at the target sites. Regional flood frequency analysis (RFFA) alleviates this problem by utilizing flood records pooled from other watersheds, which are similar to the watershed of the target site in flood characteristics.

Clustering techniques are used to identify group(s) of watersheds which have similar flood characteristics. This book is a comprehensive reference on how to use these techniques for RFFA and is the first of its kind. It provides a detailed account of several recently developed clustering techniques, including those based on fuzzy set theory and artificial neural networks. It also documents research findings on application of clustering techniques to RFFA that remain scattered in various hydrology and water resources journals.

The optimal number of groups defined in an area is based on cluster validation measures and L-moment based homogeneity tests. These form the bases to check the regions for homogeneity.

The subjectivity involved and the effort needed to identify homogeneous groups of watersheds with conventional approaches are greatly reduced by using efficient clustering techniques discussed in this book. Furthermore, better flood estimates with smaller confidence intervals are obtained by analysis of data from homogeneous watersheds. Consequently, the problem of over- or under-designing by using these flood estimates is reduced. This leads to optimal economic design of structures. The advantages of better regionalization of watersheds and their utility are entering into hydrologic practice.

Audience:
This book will be of interest to researchers in stochastic hydrology, practitioners in hydrology and graduate students.

Ernst G. Frankel This book has its origin in lecture notes developed over several years for use in a course in Systems Reliability f~r engineers concerned with the design of physical systems such as civil structures, power plants, and transport systems of all types. Increasing public concern with the reliability of systems for reasons of human safety, environmental protection, and acceptable investment risk limitations has resulted in an increasing interest by engineers in the formal application of reliability theory to engineering design. At the same time there is a demand for more effective approaches to the design of procedures for the operation and use of man made systems, more meaningful assessment of the risks introduced, and use such a system poses both when operating as designed and when operating at below design performance. The purpose of the book is to provide a sound, yet practical, introduction to reliability analysis and risk assessment which can be used by professionals in engineering, planning, management, and economics to improve the design, operation, and risk assessment of systems of interest. The text should be useful for students in many disciplines and is designed for fourth-year undergraduates or first-year graduate students. I would like to acknowledge the help of many of my graduate students who contributed to the development of this book by offering comments and criticism. Similarly, I would like to thank Mrs. Sheila McNary who typed untold drafts of the manuscript, and Mr.
The First Conference on Engineering Probability in Flood Defense was orga nized by the Department of Mathematics and Informatics of the Delft U niver sity of Technology and the Department of Industrial Engineering and Opera tions Research of the University of California at Berkeley, and was held on June 1,2 1995 in Delft. Groups at Berkeley and Delft were both deeply engaged in modeling deterioration in civil structures, particularly flood defense structures. The plans for the conference were well under way when the dramatic floods in The Netherlands and California in the winter of 1994-1995 focused world attention on these problems. The design of civil engineering structures and systems is essentially an example of decision making under uncertainty. Although the decision making part of the process is generally acknowledged, the uncertainty in variables and param eters in the design problem is less frequently recognized. In many practical design procedures the uncertainty is concealed behind sharp probabilistic de sign targets like 'once in a thousand years' combined with a standardized use of safety factors. The choice of these probabilistic design targets, however, is based on an assessment of the uncertainty of the variable under consideration, and on its assessed importance. The value of the safety factor is governed by similar considerations. Standard practice is simply accu~ulated experience and engineering judgment. In light of the great number of civil engineering structures that function suc-. cessfully, one may say that this standard practice has proven itself broadly satisfactory.
Environmental restoration has entered an era of faster, better, cheaper. Uniquely suited to meet all of those requirements, macroengineering has become one of the hottest concepts in the field. Macroengineering: An Environmental Restoration Management Process provides a comprehensive understanding of all the technical, cost, and regulatory issues that an environmental project manager would potentially face on a large scale environmental restoration project. The author makes the case for integrated planning and management of environmental restoration projects and provides money-saving solutions.

The text delineates the many issues a project or program manager will typically face on a complex, large-scale environmental restoration project. The author addresses unique technical issues encountered during DOD and DOE environmental cleanup efforts, such as radionuclide contamination, unexploded ordinance, heavy metals, and other common contaminants. Referencing the most recent regulations and practices in environmental cleanup projects, the book also includes useful charts and tables and serves both as a classroom text and a professional reference.

Describing how to get the job done efficiently and cost-effectively, the text combines practical technological information with project management information to form one comprehensive volume. The author distills knowledge from many disciplines into a concise and cohesive text, providing a starting point and stressing the interconnection between key elements. Emphasizing the integrative nature of macroengineering projects, the book gives you the tools to ensure that organizational resources you have committed to environmental restoration are used to their best advantage.
Following the end of World War II there was a major migra tion of population in the United States and Scandinavian countries to urban areas. As a result of this migration and in part due to the public works moratoria imposed during the war, a major pro gram of sewer construction was instigated, which resulted in the collection and subsequent concentration of large volumes of waste water at single discharge points. As the assimilative capacity of these receiving waters was exceeded, it led to or aggravated existing water pollution problems in these waters. To mitigate this degradation of water quality a massive program to construct wastewater treatment facilities was instigated. In addition, large amounts of money were spent on research to improve the technology of the conventional collection and treatment concept. In contrast, the wastewater disposal problem of the rural home owner received little attention, and in most cases the septic tank soil absorption system (ST-SAS) was the interim solution. In recent years there has been a fundamental change in the population growth pattern in the US and Scandinavian countries. It appears that a great many people are moving back to rural areas where they seem to prefer the suburban or small town envi ronment, yet at the same time want all the conveniences of urban life. The provision of proper wastewater disposal facilities presents a very perplexing problem, because the capital and operating costs of conventional sewers are usually financially impractical for rural areas.
New York Times bestselling author Douglas Adams and zoologist Mark Carwardine take off around the world in search of exotic, endangered creatures.

Join them as they encounter the animal kingdom in its stunning beauty, astonishing variety, and imminent peril: the giant Komodo dragon of Indonesia, the helpless but loveable Kakapo of New Zealand, the blind river dolphins of China, the white rhinos of Zaire, the rare birds of Mauritius island in the Indian Ocean. Hilarious and poignant—as only Douglas Adams can be—Last Chance to See is an entertaining and arresting odyssey through the Earth’s magnificent wildlife galaxy.
 
Praise for Last Chance to See
 
“Lively, sharply satirical, brilliantly written . . . shows how human care can undo what human carelessness has wrought.”—The Atlantic

“These authors don’t hesitate to present the alarming facts: More than 1,000 species of animals (and plants) become extinct every year. . . . Perhaps Adams and Carwardine, with their witty science, will help prevent such misadventures in the future.”—Boston Sunday Herald
 
“Very funny and moving . . . The glimpses of rare fauna seem to have enlarged [Adams’s] thinking, enlivened his world; and so might the animals do for us all, if we were to help them live.”—The Washington Post Book World
 
“[Adams] invites us to enter into a conspiracy of laughter and caring.”—Los Angeles Times
 
“Amusing . . . thought-provoking . . . Its details on the heroic efforts being made to save these animals are inspirational.”—The New York Times Book Review
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