Heterogeneous Catalysis in Organic Chemistry

Academic Press
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The features of this book which will be of special interest to academic organic chemists are the introduction (Chapter 1), which presents a short course on the concepts and language of heterogeneous catalysis, covers organic reaction mechanisms of hydrogenation (Chapter 2), hydrogenolysis (Chapter 4), and oxidation (Chapter 6), a presents problems and solutions specific for running heterogeneous catalytic organic reactions in solution. These materials can supplement advanced chemistry courses.

Most synthetic organic chemists use a variety of "protecting groups" which they attach to functional groups (reactive groups of atoms) while some reaction is being conducted on another part of the molecule. These protecting groups prevent reactions of the functional groups during other reactions and are removed later by a heterogeneous catalytic method called hydrogenolysis. One unique feature of this book, not found in other books on catalysis, is an exhaustive chapter (Chapter 4) on hydrogenolysis, which is dredged from the recent synthetic literature published by modern organic chemists. Academic organic chemists should find this chapter extremely useful and may wish to adopt the book as a supplement for advanced organic chemistry courses designed for seniors and for graduate students. It will also be useful for professors and their research groups engaged in synthetic organic chemistry.

Many academic organic chemists are not aware of recent advances in heterogeneous enantioselective catalysis (Chapter 3) or in selective low temperature, liquid phase heterogeneous catalytic oxidations by hydrogen peroxide (Chapter 6). These specialty topics are timely and may be new to academic organic chemists and can be used to supplement their advanced courses.

Several features of this book will also be of special interest to industrial chemists who are unfamiliar with heterogeneous catalysis. Many good organic chemists are hire by industry. They synthesize a new compound using standard organic synthetic techniques but are informed by their supervisor that they must convert some of their synthetic steps into heterogeneous catalytic steps. They may not have been exposed to heterogeneous catalysis and have few places to turn. This book offers them a crash course in heterogeneous catalysis as well as many examples of reactions and conditions with which they can start their search.

Those industrial organic chemists already familiar with heterogeneous catalysis will find this book useful as a reference to many examples in the recent literature. They will find recent surface science discoveries correlated with heterogeneous catalysis or organic reactions and mechanistic suggestions designed to stimulate innovative nontraditional thinking about organic reactions on surfaces.

  • Written by organic chemists for organic chemists
  • Introduces heterogeneous catalysis concepts and language
  • Presents a comprehensive compilation of protecting group removal procedures
  • Covers liquid-phase hydrogenations, hydrogenolysis, and oxidations
  • Addresses heterogeneous methods for producing pure enantiomers of chiral products
  • Examines the emerging field of heterogenized homogeneous catalysts
  • Mixes practical applications with mechanistic interpretations
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Additional Information

Publisher
Academic Press
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Published on
Jun 30, 1999
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Pages
346
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ISBN
9780080524801
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Chemistry / Organic
Technology & Engineering / Chemical & Biochemical
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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Advances in Asymmetric Autocatalysis and Related Topics provides various viewpoints on the important developments in asymmetric autocatalysis that have occurred in the past few years, also including brand new information in the field.

Asymmetric autocatalysis is a chemical reaction which leads from achiral starting materials to chiral products, and in which the product accelerates its own formation reaction (conventional catalysis) and promotes the prevalence of its own chiral configuration (asymmetric induction). The combination of these two effects in the same reaction was unprecedented before 1995 when it was first described by Kenso SOAI at the Tokyo University of Science.

Since then, several new combinations of this effect have been found, most intriguingly the possibility of absolute asymmetric synthesis, which is the spontaneous formation of the excess of one of the enantiomers of the product, a dream of organic chemists for more than a century.

The book contains expert-contributed chapters that describe the most exciting recent developments in the field of the Soai reaction and in related topics, ranging from mechanistic studies and theoretical research, to very practical problems in chiral syntheses and products.

Features contributions from global experts, including several chapters from Kenso Soai and expert colleaguesFocuses on recent developments in the field of asymmetric autocatalysis and newly reported findingsExplores the Soai reaction, new developments, and the light it sheds on homochirality in certain biomolecules
Catalyst production for the transformation of crudes into gasoline and other fuel products is a billion dollar/year business and fluid cracking catalysts (FCCs) represent almost half of the refinery catalyst market. During the cracking reactions, the FCC surface is contaminated by metals (Ni, V, Fe, Cu, Na) and by coke deposition. As a result, the catalyst activity and product selectivity is reduced to unacceptable levels thus forcing refiners to replace part of the recirculating equilibrium FCC inventory with fresh FCC to compensate for losses in catalyst performance. About 1,100 tons/day of FCC are used worldwide in over 200 fluid cracking catalyst units (FCCUs). It is for these reasons that refiners' interest in FCC research has remained high through the years almost independantly, of crude oil prices. However, recent oil company mergers and the dissolution of research laboratories, have drastically decreased the number of researchers involved in petroleum refining research projects; as a result the emphasis of research has shifted from new materials to process improvements and this trend is clearly reflected in the type of papers contained in this volume.
Modern spectroscopic techniques continue to be essential in the understanding of catalyst performance and several chapters in the book describe the use of 27Al, 29Si and 13C NMR to study variation in FCC acidity during aging and coke deposition. In addition several chapters have been dedicated to the modeling of FCC deactivation, and to the understanding of contact times on FCC performance. Refiners efforts to conform with environmental regulations are reflected in chapters dealing with sulfur removal, metals contaminants and olefin generation.

Heterogeneous Enantioselective Hydrogenation: Theory and Practice reviews the development of enantioselective hydrogenation reaction catalysts. It looks at the first relatively ineffective catalysts right through to modern highly effective enantioselective catalytic systems, comparable in their efficiency to chiral metal complexes and enzymatic systems. The book begins with a summary of the first work on heterogeneous metal catalysts, which showed only the principal possibilities of enantioselective reactions. It then elaborates on metal catalysts which have enantioselectivities close to 100%. Finally, the practical utilization of chiral catalytic systems in processes of hydrogenation is described. The alpha- and beta-hydroxy carboxylic acid esters produced are precursors for manufacturing many synthones used for medicines as well as for monomers used for biodegradable polyesters, both of which have important practical applications.

The volume summarizes more than 800 scientific papers in the field of enantioselective catalytic hydrogenation reactions, mainly those using heterogeneous metal catalysts. It provides detailed explanations of special techniques for the preparation of effective dissymmetric catalysts which provide highly efficient catalytic systems. This book differs from previous publications by virtue of the recommendations for the practical utilization of recently described preparations of metal catalysts.

This book will be an invaluable resource to catalysis researchers as well as to those utilizing the technology.

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