Encyclopedia of Twentieth Century Photography, Lynne Warren: Photography

Bukupedia
Free sample

 Editor’s note

: These definitions err on the side of succinctness and are intended to be beginning points for the

serious student. An attempt to standardize terminology commonly found in the medium of fine arts

photographs that avoids copyrighted term or trade names (‘‘dye-destruction print’’ in lieu of ‘‘Cibachrome’’

and so on) has been made using guidelines set forth by the J. Paul Getty Institute. In acknowledgment of the

increase in collecting vintage prints and the perennial interest in historical processes, many nineteenth

century processes and obsolete terms are included.

Cross referencing within the glossary is indicated by italics; encyclopedia entries are indicated by small

capitals.

Additive colors

The primary colors of red, green and blue which are mixed to form all other colors in photo-

graphic reproduction. See entry

COLOR THEORY: NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC

.

Agfacolor

Trade name for a subtractive color film manufactured by the European company Agfa-Gevaert;

analogous to Kodachrome and Ansocolor.

Albumen print

Prints obtained from a process in wide use during the nineteenth century in which paper is

prepared with an albumen emulsion obtained from egg whites and made light sensitive with a silver nitrate

solution. See also

Collodion process

;

Dry plate processes

.

Amberlith

An orange acetate historically used for masking mechanicals during the process of preparing plates for

commercial printing. The area so masked photographs as black to the camera, printing clear on the

resulting positive film. See also

Rubylith

.

Ambrotype

An image created by the collodion process, historically on glass, which gives the illusion of being

positive when placed against a dark backing, often a layer of black lacquer, paper, or velvet. Also

see

Ferrotype

.

Anamorphic image

An image featuring differing scales of magnification across the picture plane, especially

varying along the vertical and horizontal axes, with the result being extreme distortion.

Aniline

A rapid-drying oil-based solvent used in the preparation of dyes and inks for photographic

applications.

Aniline process

A method of making prints directly from line art (drawings) on translucent materials bypassing

the need for a negative. Also see

Diazo process

.

Aniline printing

See

Flexography

.

Angle of incidence

The measurement in degrees in terms of the deviation from the perpendicular of the angle at

which light hits a surface.

Angle of view

The measurement in degrees of the angle formed by lines projected from the optical center of a lens

to the edges of the field of view. This measurement is used to identify lenses and their appropriateness to

capture various widths or degrees of actual space in a photographic representation, thus an extreme

telephoto lens captures between 6 and 15


Read more
Collapse

About the author

 

Editor’s note

: These definitions err on the side of succinctness and are intended to be beginning points for the

serious student. An attempt to standardize terminology commonly found in the medium of fine arts

photographs that avoids copyrighted term or trade names (‘‘dye-destruction print’’ in lieu of ‘‘Cibachrome’’

and so on) has been made using guidelines set forth by the J. Paul Getty Institute. In acknowledgment of the

increase in collecting vintage prints and the perennial interest in historical processes, many nineteenth

century processes and obsolete terms are included.

Cross referencing within the glossary is indicated by italics; encyclopedia entries are indicated by small

capitals.

Additive colors

The primary colors of red, green and blue which are mixed to form all other colors in photo-

graphic reproduction. See entry

COLOR THEORY: NATURAL AND SYNTHETIC

.

Agfacolor

Trade name for a subtractive color film manufactured by the European company Agfa-Gevaert;

analogous to Kodachrome and Ansocolor.

Albumen print

Prints obtained from a process in wide use during the nineteenth century in which paper is

prepared with an albumen emulsion obtained from egg whites and made light sensitive with a silver nitrate

solution. See also

Collodion process

;

Dry plate processes

.

Amberlith

An orange acetate historically used for masking mechanicals during the process of preparing plates for

commercial printing. The area so masked photographs as black to the camera, printing clear on the

resulting positive film. See also

Rubylith

.

Ambrotype

An image created by the collodion process, historically on glass, which gives the illusion of being

positive when placed against a dark backing, often a layer of black lacquer, paper, or velvet. Also

see

Ferrotype

.

Anamorphic image

An image featuring differing scales of magnification across the picture plane, especially

varying along the vertical and horizontal axes, with the result being extreme distortion.

Aniline

A rapid-drying oil-based solvent used in the preparation of dyes and inks for photographic

applications.

Aniline process

A method of making prints directly from line art (drawings) on translucent materials bypassing

the need for a negative. Also see

Diazo process

.

Aniline printing

See

Flexography

.

Angle of incidence

The measurement in degrees in terms of the deviation from the perpendicular of the angle at

which light hits a surface.

Angle of view

The measurement in degrees of the angle formed by lines projected from the optical center of a lens

to the edges of the field of view. This measurement is used to identify lenses and their appropriateness to

capture various widths or degrees of actual space in a photographic representation, thus an extreme

telephoto lens captures between 6 and 15


 

; normal lens generally fall in the 40 to 100


 

range; a ‘‘fisheye’’

wide-angle is 150 to 200


 

(or more).

Anscocolor

Trade name of a subtractive color film manufactured by the European company GAF Corporation.

Anti-halation layer

The light absorbing layer in raw stock that prevents reflection of light back into the light-

sensitive emulsion, preventing unwanted fogging.

Aristotype

Trade name for a variety of non-albumen printing papers which became a general term; largely

obsolete in the twentieth century.

Artigue process

Variation on the carbon process; largely obsolete in the twentieth century.

Xxvii

 

BOARDOFADVISORS

Deborah Bright

Faculty, Photography, Art  and Architectural History

Rhode Island School of Design

Providence, Rhode Island

Philip Brookman

Senior Curator of Photography and Media Arts

The Corcoran Gallery of Art

Washington, D.C.

Patty Carroll

Photographer

Chicago, Illinois

Alan Cohen

Faculty, Art History, Theory and Criticism

School of The Art Institute of Chicago, Illinois

A.D. Coleman

Critic and Historian of Photography

New York, New York

Linda Connor

Faculty, Photography

San Francisco Art Institute

San Francisco, California

Charles Desmarais

Director

Contemporary Arts Center

Cincinnati, Ohio

Natasha Egan

Curator, Museum of Contemporary Photography

Columbia College

Chicago, Illinois

Lisa K. Erf

Curator of Collections

Bank One

Chicago, Illinois

Marta Gili

Head, Photography Department

Serveis Centrals de la Fundacio

 ́

‘‘la Caixa’’

Barcelona, Spain

iii

Contents

Contributors

xi

Alphabetical List of Entries

xv

Thematic List of Entries

xxi

Glossary

xxvii

Introduction

xxxvii

Entries A to Z

1

Index

I1

ix

CONTRIBUTORS

Read more
Collapse
Loading...

Additional Information

Publisher
Bukupedia
Read more
Collapse
Published on
May 16, 2006
Read more
Collapse
Pages
1853
Read more
Collapse
ISBN
9781579583934
Read more
Collapse
Read more
Collapse
Best For
Read more
Collapse
Language
English
Read more
Collapse
Genres
Photography / Individual Photographers / General
Read more
Collapse
Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
Read more
Collapse

Reading information

Smartphones and Tablets

Install the Google Play Books app for Android and iPad/iPhone. It syncs automatically with your account and allows you to read online or offline wherever you are.

Laptops and Computers

You can read books purchased on Google Play using your computer's web browser.

eReaders and other devices

To read on e-ink devices like the Sony eReader or Barnes & Noble Nook, you'll need to download a file and transfer it to your device. Please follow the detailed Help center instructions to transfer the files to supported eReaders.
The Oldest Living Things in the World is an epic journey through time and space. Over the past decade, artist Rachel Sussman has researched, worked with biologists, and traveled the world to photograph continuously living organisms that are 2,000 years old and older. Spanning from Antarctica to Greenland, the Mojave Desert to the Australian Outback, the result is a stunning and unique visual collection of ancient organisms unlike anything that has been created in the arts or sciences before, insightfully and accessibly narrated by Sussman along the way.

Her work is both timeless and timely, and spans disciplines, continents, and millennia. It is underscored by an innate environmentalism and driven by Sussman’s relentless curiosity. She begins at “year zero,” and looks back from there, photographing the past in the present. These ancient individuals live on every continent and range from Greenlandic lichens that grow only one centimeter a century, to unique desert shrubs in Africa and South America, a predatory fungus in Oregon, Caribbean brain coral, to an 80,000-year-old colony of aspen in Utah. Sussman journeyed to Antarctica to photograph 5,500-year-old moss; Australia for stromatolites, primeval organisms tied to the oxygenation of the planet and the beginnings of life on Earth; and to Tasmania to capture a 43,600-year-old self-propagating shrub that’s the last individual of its kind. Her portraits reveal the living history of our planet—and what we stand to lose in the future. These ancient survivors have weathered millennia in some of the world’s most extreme environments, yet climate change and human encroachment have put many of them in danger. Two of her subjects have already met with untimely deaths by human hands.

Alongside the photographs, Sussman relays fascinating – and sometimes harrowing – tales of her global adventures tracking down her subjects and shares insights from the scientists who research them. The oldest living things in the world are a record and celebration of the past, a call to action in the present, and a barometer of our future.
In her long career as Product Evangelist for Adobe Photoshop and Lightroom, Julieanne Kost has taught thousands of digital photographers how to get the most out of Adobe's digital imaging software, in seminars, presentations, and blog posts ranging from nuts-and-bolts tips and tricks to inspirational tutorials on creating sophisticated artistic effects. As Lightroom has grown into the premier image organization and editing tool for photographers, she is often asked by her students and other fans to outline her own Lightroom workflow in a book. This is that book!

Using her own stunning images as the starting point, Julieanne shares her working methods with the reader, starting from the initial idea for a photo project, continuing through planning and executing the shoots, and spending the bulk of the time describing the post-capture workflow: organizing the images in Lightroom, performing basic and advanced edits, off-loading images to Photoshop for special purposes, then packaging the project for publication and distribution as a book, slideshow, or web site.

Readers will reap the benefit of Julieanne's long and deep experience with both Lightroom and Photoshop as well as her refined artist's sensibility. The book deftly combines practical information about working with the camera and computer, but under Julieanne's guidance the practical is always presented in the service of maintaining and supporting the photographer's vision for the overall project.

There are other books on using Lightroom to catalog and edit images, but they tend to be general-purpose manuals that cover any and all types of images and uses. This book focuses on those techniques and workflows that Julieanne finds most useful for her own photographic projects; in this case a series of images shot from the window of a moving car going through a variety of landscapes at different times of the year.

Check out the ad in the back of the book for details on becoming an Adobe Creative Cloud Photography plan member for up to 20% off your first year!

©2019 GoogleSite Terms of ServicePrivacyDevelopersArtistsAbout Google|Location: United StatesLanguage: English (United States)
By purchasing this item, you are transacting with Google Payments and agreeing to the Google Payments Terms of Service and Privacy Notice.