Population and Community Ecology of Ontogenetic Development

Princeton University Press
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Most organisms show substantial changes in size or morphology after they become independent of their parents and have to find their own food. Furthermore, the rate at which these changes occur generally depends on the amount of food they ingest. In this book, André de Roos and Lennart Persson advance a synthetic and individual-based theory of the effects of this plastic ontogenetic development on the dynamics of populations and communities.

De Roos and Persson show how the effects of ontogenetic development on ecological dynamics critically depend on the efficiency with which differently sized individuals convert food into new biomass. Differences in this efficiency--or ontogenetic asymmetry--lead to bottlenecks in and thus population regulation by either maturation or reproduction. De Roos and Persson investigate the community consequences of these bottlenecks for trophic configurations that vary in the number and type of interacting species and in the degree of ontogenetic niche shifts exhibited by their individuals. They also demonstrate how insights into the effects of maturation and reproduction limitation on community equilibrium carry over to the dynamics of size-structured populations and give rise to different types of cohort-driven cycles.


Featuring numerous examples and tests of modeling predictions, this book provides a pioneering and extensive theoretical and empirical treatment of the ecology of ontogenetic growth and development in organisms, emphasizing the importance of an individual-based perspective for understanding population and community dynamics.

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About the author

André M. de Roos is professor of theoretical ecology at the University of Amsterdam. Lennart Persson is professor of aquatic ecology at Umeå University in Sweden.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Princeton University Press
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Published on
Jan 15, 2013
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Pages
552
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ISBN
9781400845613
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Nature / Ecology
Science / Life Sciences / Botany
Science / Life Sciences / Developmental Biology
Science / Life Sciences / Ecology
Science / Life Sciences / Zoology / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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In 1951, the geneticist Luigi Luca Cavalli-Sforza was teaching in Parma when a student--a priest named Antonio Moroni--told him about rich church records of demography and marriages between relatives. After convincing the Church to open its records, Cavalli-Sforza, Moroni, and Gianna Zei embarked on a landmark study that would last fifty years and cover all of Italy. This book assembles and analyzes the team's research for the first time.

Using blood testing as well as church records, the team investigated the frequency of consanguineous marriages and its use for estimating inbreeding and studying the relations between inbreeding and drift. They tested the importance of random genetic drift by studying population structure through demography of the last three centuries, using it to predict the spatial variation of frequencies of genetic markers. The authors find that drift-related genetic variation, including its stabilization by migration, is best predicted by computer simulation. They also analyze the usefulness and limits of the concept of deme for defining Mendelian populations. The genetic effect of consanguineous marriage on recessive genetic diseases and for the detection of dominance in metric characters are also studied.


Ultimately bringing together the many strands of their massive project, Cavalli-Sforza, Moroni, and Zei are able to map genetic drift in all of Italy's approximately 8,000 communes and to demonstrate the relationship between each locality's drift and various ecological and demographic factors. In terms of both methods and findings, their accomplishment is tremendously important for understanding human social structure and the genetic effects of drift and inbreeding.

The seemingly innocent observation that the activities of organisms bring about changes in environments is so obvious that it seems an unlikely focus for a new line of thinking about evolution. Yet niche construction--as this process of organism-driven environmental modification is known--has hidden complexities. By transforming biotic and abiotic sources of natural selection in external environments, niche construction generates feedback in evolution on a scale hitherto underestimated--and in a manner that transforms the evolutionary dynamic. It also plays a critical role in ecology, supporting ecosystem engineering and influencing the flow of energy and nutrients through ecosystems. Despite this, niche construction has been given short shrift in theoretical biology, in part because it cannot be fully understood within the framework of standard evolutionary theory.

Wedding evolution and ecology, this book extends evolutionary theory by formally including niche construction and ecological inheritance as additional evolutionary processes. The authors support their historic move with empirical data, theoretical population genetics, and conceptual models. They also describe new research methods capable of testing the theory. They demonstrate how their theory can resolve long-standing problems in ecology, particularly by advancing the sorely needed synthesis of ecology and evolution, and how it offers an evolutionary basis for the human sciences.


Already hailed as a pioneering work by some of the world's most influential biologists, this is a rare, potentially field-changing contribution to the biological sciences.

Despite often violent fluctuations in nature, species extinction is rare. California red scale, a potentially devastating pest of citrus, has been suppressed for fifty years in California to extremely low yet stable densities by its controlling parasitoid. Some larch budmoth populations undergo extreme cycles; others never cycle. In Consumer-Resource Dynamics, William Murdoch, Cherie Briggs, and Roger Nisbet use these and numerous other biological examples to lay the groundwork for a unifying theory applicable to predator-prey, parasitoid-host, and other consumer-resource interactions. Throughout, the focus is on how the properties of real organisms affect population dynamics.

The core of the book synthesizes and extends the authors' own models involving insect parasitoids and their hosts, and explores in depth how consumer species compete for a dynamic resource. The emerging general consumer-resource theory accounts for how consumers respond to differences among individuals in the resource population. From here the authors move to other models of consumer-resource dynamics and population dynamics in general. Consideration of empirical examples, key concepts, and a necessary review of simple models is followed by examination of spatial processes affecting dynamics, and of implications for biological control of pest organisms. The book establishes the coherence and broad applicability of consumer-resource theory and connects it to single-species dynamics. It closes by stressing the theory's value as a hierarchy of models that allows both generality and testability in the field.

»Febergänget blev den svenska rockjournalistikens Travelling Wilburys, en supergrupp bestående av fyra ikoniska kritiker. Här är alla de bästa texterna de publicerade på Febersajten i en omistlig samlingsvolym. Stora ord. Stor musik. Stora känslor. som Lennart Persson (RIP) skriver om Al Green på sidan 388.« FREDRIK STRAGE

Feber blev en parentes i svensk journalistik. Men precis som i Jackie Wilsons soullåt -(Your Love Keeps Lifting Me) Higher and Higher - är det kanske just parentesen som är det väsentliga. Jan Gradvall, Andres Lokko, Mats Olsson och Lennart Persson - Sveriges fyra mest inflytelserika musikjournalister - tog tillsammans namnet Feber från Lennart Perssons kortlivade åttiotalsfanzine med samma namn.

De lade all sin kraft och kunskap på att skapa den bästa jävla nättidningen om musik någonsin. Mellan oktober 2000 och den sista januari 2002 skrev de tillsammans mer än fem miljoner tecken (motsvarande 17 Mario Puzo-romaner). I det sista numret av Pop publicerades de fyra för första gången samtidigt i en och samma tidning. Här föddes idén till nättidningen Feber.

Krönikor, listor, maildiskussioner, polaroider och essäer om popmusik slogs om utrymmet med en aldrig sinande ström av recensioner. Denna kronologiska antologi med de bästa texterna från Feber kan därför lika gärna ses som ett tidsdokument över musik och journalistisk som ett snitt genom fyra mäns dagböcker.

Pressröster:

»Bättre än så här blir inte musikjournalistik.«
Andreas Utterström, Nerikes Allehanda

»Stilistiskt briljanta texter skrivna av fyra veteraner som trots ålder och erfarenhet inte tycks ha förlorat den ursprungliga passion som var den första och viktigaste anledningen till att de överhuvudtaget började skriva.«

Patrik Svensson, Sydsvenska Dagbladet 

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