This book is about the escape strategies used by cancer cells to avoid the immune response of the host. The main characters of this story are the “Antigen Presenting Molecules” and the “T Lymphocytes”. The former are known as the Major Histocompatibility Complex (MHC): the H-2 and the HLA molecules. The latter are a subgroup of white cells travelling all over our body which are capable to distinguish between “self and non self”.
Readers will know from the inside about the history of the HLA genetic system and will discover how T lymphocytes recognize and destroy cancer cells. One of the key important questions is: Why tumors arise, develop and metastasize? This book tries to answer this question and will explain how cancer cells become invisible to killer T lymphocytes. The loss of the HLA molecules is a major player in this tumor escape mechanism.
Cancer immunotherapy is aimed at stimulating T lymphocytes to destroy tumor cells. However, the clinical response rate is not as high as expected. The molecular mechanisms responsible for MHC/HLA antigen loss play a crucial role in this resistance to immunotherapy. This immune escape mechanism will be discussed in different types of tumors: lung, prostate, bladder and breast...ect. as well as melanoma and lymphoma.
This book will be useful to Oncologists, Pathologists and Immunologist that will enter this fascinating area of research. It will be also interesting for biologist, doctoral students and medical residents interested in “Tumor Immunology”.
This work is thus a guide to help researchers in the field to have a more comprehensive and critical view of the prefoldin world.
Almost all phase III trials in gastric cancer have been performed without taking in consideration histologic subtypes, i.e. they have disregarded the differences between diffuse gastric cancer and general gastric cancer. However, the clinical practice reveals that diffuse gastric cancer is a completely distinct disease, with an aggressive course and generally worse prognosis. The loss of cohesion between tumor cells due to the loss of E-cadherin synthesis is the critical point on the oncogenesis of diffuse gastric cancer and is at the root of its marked heredity. This book intends to give special attention to Diffuse Gastric Cancer as a particular oncological entity, differentiating it from general gastric cancer, exploring and discussing all its peculiarities, and addressing the basic aspects (pathology and genetics) along with the most recent therapeutic alternatives for this condition.
In addition, ongoing research involving genome-wide screens to identify novel modest risk-associated genetic loci are explored, along with new approaches to the application of genetic markers in guiding therapeutic options.
Additionally, while cancer genetics has traditionally focused on mutational events that have their primary effect within the cancer cell, recently the focus has widened, with evidence of the importance of epigenetic events and of cellular interactions in cancer development. The role of common genetic variation in determining the range of individual susceptibility within the population is increasingly recognized, and is now being widely addressed using information from the Human Genome Project. These new research directions will highlight determinants of cancer that lie outside the cancer cell, suggest new targets for intervention, and inform the design of strategies for prevention in groups at increased risk.
Today, the NCI is putting more and more money into research into the genetics of cancer. The very first of the NCI’s stated research priorities is a project called The Cancer Genome Atlas. The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) is a comprehensive and coordinated effort to accelerate the understanding of the molecular basis of cancer through the application of genome analysis technologies, including large-scale genome sequencing. The NCI and the NHGRI (National Human Genome Research Institute, where the series editor is employed) have each committed $50 million over three years to the TCGA Pilot Project.
This book proposes cover the latest findings in the genetics of male reproductive cancers; specifically cancers of the prostate and testes. The volume will cover the epidemiology of these cancers; model systems, pathology, molecular genetics, and inherited susceptibility.