Using Tenses in English

English Daily Use

Book 15
Manik Joshi
19
Free sample

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

What are “Tenses”?
AGREEMENT between SUBJECT and VERB
TWENTY-FOUR Auxiliary Verbs
REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS
PRESENT TENSE
Present Indefinite Tense
Present Continuous/Progressive Tense
Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
PAST TENSE
Past Indefinite Tense
Past Continuous/Progressive Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
FUTURE TENSE
Future Indefinite Tense
Future Continuous/Progressive Tense
Future Perfect Tense
Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
Useful Notes
Exercises

Sample This:

Tenses could be defined as “any of the form of a verb that may be used to show the time of the action or an event or state expressed by the verb”.

THERE ARE THREE KINDS OF TENSES:

The Past Tense – The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that happened in the past
[Action happened before present]

The Present Tense – The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that happens at this time
[Action happens in present]

The Future Tense – The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that will happen in future
[Action will happen after present]


EACH OF THESE THREE KINDS OF SENTENCES HAS FOUR TYPES OF FORMS:
Indefinite or Simple Form
Continuous or Progressive Form
Perfect Form
Perfect Continuous or Perfect Progressive Form


EACH OF THESE FOUR TYPES OF FORMS HAS FOUR KINDS OF STATEMENTS:
Affirmative Statement --
Used to Show ‘Agreement’
Negative Statement --
Used to Show ‘Disagreement’
Interrogative Statement --
Used to Ask ‘Question’
Interrogative-Negative Statement --
Used to Ask ‘Question’ and Show ‘Disagreement’

Present Indefinite Tense

Expresses –
Permanent situation [in the past, present and future]
Example: Our family lives in Seattle.

General truth (fact or statement)
Example: Clean water is fundamental to public health.
Example: Many barrages have no utility and causes floods.

Habitual action [actions that occurs regularly]
Example: She listens to music every day.

‘Future meaning’ (timetable, planned event, etc.)
Example: My shop closes at 9pm.
Example: The train arrives at 7:30pm.

Traditions, rituals, customs
Example: Indians celebrate festival of light in the month of Oct-Nov.

Commands and Instructions [Imperative Sentences]
[Note: In imperatives, subject ‘you’ remains hidden]
Example: Condemn perpetrators of terrorism.
Example: Promote values of humanity and tolerance.
Example: Tell us about the exact nature of your work.

Used in if-clause of present and future real conditional sentences
Example: If I go there, I meet him.
Example: If things don't work out, we won't be panicked.

Headlines in news reporting [Use of simple present tense instead of simple past tense is common in news headlines]
Example: Flight skids on landing at airport.
Example: Thunder storm brings relief to residents.


(A). AFFIRMATIVE PATTERN –
subject + first form of main verb + other words
Singular Verb is used with subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects.
Plural Verb is used with subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural Subjects.
Examples:
He/She talks. I/We/You/They talk.
We seek opportunity to chart out our own course.
Lean margin of victory or defeat gives an impression of a tough contest.
Nowadays, voters value development over other issues.
They want civic amenities and employment opportunities.


(B). NEGATIVE PATTERN –
subject + auxiliary verb ‘do/does’ + not + first form of main verb + other words
Auxiliary Verb ‘Does’ is used with subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects.
Auxiliary Verb ‘Do’ is used with subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural Subjects.
Examples:
He/She does not talk. I/We/You/They do not talk.
Most buses do not cater to interior parts of the villages.
He does not know what to say.
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About the author

Manik Joshi was born on Jan 26, 1979 at Ranikhet and is permanent resident of Haldwani, Kumaon zone of India. He is an Internet Marketer by profession. He is interested in domaining (business of buying and selling domain names), web designing (creating websites), and various online jobs (including 'self book publishing'). He is science graduate with ZBC (zoology, botany, and chemistry) subjects. He is also an MBA (with specialization in marketing). He has done three diploma courses in computer too.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Manik Joshi
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Published on
Oct 25, 2014
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Pages
75
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ISBN
9781301080984
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Public Speaking
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This Book Covers The Following Topics:

Verb ‘To Be’
Verb ‘To Be’ -- Negative Patterns
Verb ‘To Be’ -- Interrogative Patterns
1A. English Grammar – ‘Am’
1B. AM + -ING Form of Verb
1C. AM + Being + Past Participle
1D. AM + Past Participle
2A. English Grammar – ‘Is’
2B. IS + -ING Form of Verb
2C. IS + Being + Past Participle
2D. IS + Past Participle
3A. English Grammar – ‘Are’
3B. ARE + -ING Form of Verb
3C. ARE + Being + Past Participle
3D. ARE + Past Participle
4A. English Grammar – ‘Was’
4B. WAS + -ING Form of Verb
4C. WAS + Being + Past Participle
4D. WAS + Past Participle
5A. English Grammar – ‘Were’
5B. WERE + -ING Form of Verb
5C. WERE + Being + Past Participle
5D. WERE + Past Participle
Useful Notes
(1): Question Tags
(2): Short Answers (Ellipsis]
(3): Addition to Remarks
(4): There Is/Was and There Are/Were
(5): Subjunctive Mood – ‘Were’
(6): Be + Going To + Verb Word
(7): ‘Used to’ Vs. ‘Be + Used to’
(8): Be + To + Verb Word
(9): Be + ‘Being”+ Adjective
(10): Mixed Sentences
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) to 2(E)



Sample This:

Verb ‘To Be’

The Verb ‘to be’ is used to represent the following English verbs:
‘Am’, ‘Is’, ‘Are’, ‘Was’, ‘Were’
The verb ‘to be’ is used as both linking verb and auxiliary verb.

LINKING VERB:
A verb that connects a subject with the complement (adjective or noun) that describes it.
Example: He is an engineer. [In this sentence, subject (he) and noun (engineer) is connected by linking verb ‘is’. There is no main verb in this sentence.]
Some more examples:
I am happy. [linking verb – am]
Is he good boy? [linking verb – is]
We are very proud of ourselves. [linking verb – are]
She was intelligent. [linking verb – was]
They were not late by half an hour. [linking verb – were]

AUXILIARY VERB:
A verb which is used with main verb to show tenses, etc.
Example: He is going to office. [In this sentence, -ing form of main verb ‘go’ has been used with auxiliary verb ‘is’.
Some more examples:
I am studying a book. [auxiliary verb – am | main verb – study (-ing form)]
He is working on his project [auxiliary verb – is | main verb – work (-ing form)]
We are not expected to tell the secret. [auxiliary verb – are | main verb – expect (past participle form)]
She was taught by me. [auxiliary verb – was | main verb – teach (past participle form)]
Were they burdened by high taxation [auxiliary verb – were | main verb – burden (past participle form)]


IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT VERB ‘TO BE’

‘AM’ –
Singular Verb
Used In Present Tense
Used with Subject ‘I’

‘IS’ –
Singular Verb
Used In Present Tense
Used with Subject ‘He’ ‘She’, ‘It’ and other Singular Subjects

‘ARE’ –
Plural Verb
Used In Present Tense
Used with Subject ‘We’, ‘You’, ‘They’ and other Plural Subjects

‘WAS’ –
Singular Verb
Used In Past Tense
Used with Subject ‘I’, ‘He’, She’, ‘It’ and other Singular Subjects

‘WERE’ –
Plural Verb
Used In Past Tense
Used with Subject ‘We’, ‘You’ and other Plural Subjects
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

English Grammar – ‘DO/DOES/DID’

English Grammar – ‘DO’
VERB ‘DO’ -- (A) – Affirmative Sentences
VERB ‘DO’ -- (B) – Negative Sentences
VERB ‘DO’ -- (C) – Interrogative Sentences
VERB ‘DO’ -- (D) – 'Short Answers’ and ‘Question Tags’

English Grammar – ‘DOES’
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (A) – Affirmative Sentences
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (B) – Negative Sentences
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (C) – Interrogative Sentences
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (D) – 'Short Answers’ and ‘Question Tags’

English Grammar – ‘DID’
VERB ‘DID’ -- (A) – Affirmative Sentences
VERB ‘DID’ -- (B) – Negative Sentences
VERB ‘DID’ -- (C) – Interrogative Sentences
VERB ‘DID’ -- (D) – 'Short Answers’ and ‘Question Tags’

Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) to 2(D)


Sample This:

English Grammar – ‘DO/DOES/DID’

Verb 'Do’ is used as an AUXILIARY VERB as well as an MAIN (ORDINARY) VERB.
MAIN VERB: When used as main verb, verb ‘do’ is followed by an object.
AUXILIARY VERB: ‘Auxiliary verb’ is a verb which is used with main verb to show tenses, etc.]

He does not do these kinds of things. [In this sentence, ‘Does’ has been used as an ‘Auxiliary Verb’, while ‘Do’ has been used as a ‘Main Verb’]
They do not do nation-building. [In this sentence, ‘Do’ has been used as both an ‘Auxiliary Verb’ and a “Main Verb’]

NOTE: Verb ‘do’ has the following forms:
(1). Present form – Do or Does
[‘Do’ is used with ‘You, I, We, They’ and all other plural subjects in present tense. ‘Does’ is used with ‘He, She, It’ and all other singular subjects in present tense.]

(2). Past form – Did
[‘Did’ is used with ‘You, I, We, They, He, She, It’ and all other singular and plural subjects in past tense.]

(3). Past Participle form – Done
[Past participles are accompanied by auxiliary verbs ‘HAVE’ or ‘BE’ (in the correct tense)]
You have done your country proud.
This type of job is done in this factory.

Main Verb ‘Do’ may denote the following actions –
to find the answer to something: - Can they do this puzzle?
to perform an activity or a task: - Sometimes you like to do things that are a little scary.
to produce something: - He did a painting last night.
to study something: - I am doing English these days.
to talk about household chores (cleaning, washing, etc.): - They will have to do (wash) dishes.
to work at something as a job: - What do you do for your livelihood?

Main Verb ‘Do’ is also used to show the following actions:
to attend, to cook, to copy somebody’s behavior, to travel, to visit somewhere as a tourist, to cheat, to punish, to steal, etc.

Some more sentences with ‘MAIN VERB’ – DO/DOES/DID/DONE:
She is happy that she will be able to do something for the poor and downtrodden.
We are ready to do whatever it takes to avoid being suspended from competition.
I like to do extensive research before I invest hard-earned money on a new purchase.
It's no secret we do things we know we shouldn't.
It is not uncommon to come across people who do jobs that have nothing to do with their academic degree.
What ultraviolet light does to skin to cause sunburn?
What caffeine does to your brain?
It is not yet clear what exactly this software did.
Work was done according to the rules.
He has done an obligation to me.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

VERB – ‘HAVE’

PART (A). Ordinary Verb -- ‘HAVE’

PART (B). Auxiliary Verb -- ‘HAVE’
1. Have/Has/Had + Third Form of Verb
2. Have/Has/Had + Been + Third Form of Verb
3. Have/Has/Had + Been + -ING Form of Verb
4. Have/Has/Had + Been
5. Have/Has/Had + Had

PART (C). Modal Verb -- ‘HAVE’
1A. [Have/Has + To + First Form of Verb]
1B. [Have/Has + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
2A. [Had + To + First Form of Verb]
2B. [Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
3A. [Have/Has + Had + To + First Form of Verb]
3B. [Have/Has + Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
4A. [Had + Had + To + First Form of Verb]
4B. [Had + Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
5A. [Having + To + First Form of Verb]
5B. [To + Have + To + First Form of Verb]

Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
Exercises: 3(A) to 3(C)

Sample This:


VERB – ‘HAVE’

Verb ‘HAVE’ is used as an AUXILIARY VERB as well as a MAIN (ORDINARY) VERB. It also does function of ‘MODAL VERB’.

MAIN VERB: When used as main verb, verb ‘have’ is followed by an object.
AUXILIARY VERB: When used as an auxiliary verb, it forms the perfect and perfect continuous tenses. [Note: ‘Auxiliary verb’ is a verb which is used with main verb to show tenses, etc.]
MODAL VERB: ‘Modal verb’ is a verb that is used with main verb to express intention, permission, possibility, probability, obligation, etc. Following patterns are possible: “have to, has to, had to, have had to, has had to, had had to, having to”

FORMS OF VERB ‘HAVE’:
Present form – Have or Has
Past form – Had
Past Participle form – Had

IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT VERB ‘HAVE’
‘Have’ Is Used With Subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural Subjects
‘Has’ Is Used With Subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects
‘Had’ Is Used With All Subjects (Singular or Plural)

USE OF ‘HAVE GOT’
In some senses, you can also use ‘have got’.
‘have got’ is especially used in ‘British English’.
She has got a loose temper. (= She has a loose temper.)
I have got a backache. (= I have a backache.)
He has got a management degree (= He has a management degree.)

PART (A). Ordinary Verb -- ‘HAVE’

As a Main Verb, ‘Have’ is used to express different kinds of thoughts: Some of them are as follows: to possess, to own, to show a quality, to show a feature, to suffer from illness, to perform a particular action, to produce a particular effect, to trick, to cheat, to hold, to experience, to receive, to allow, to put in a position, etc.
When used as main verb, ‘have’ is followed by an object.

I have an American passport.
He has an American passport.
She had an American passport.

Negative Forms Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Do not have (Don’t have)
Has – Does not have (Doesn’t have)
Had – Did not have (Didn’t have)
I don’t have an American passport.
He doesn’t have an American passport.
She didn’t have an American passport.

NOTE– Instead of using do/does/did, you can also use modal verbs (may, can, must, should, etc.) in negative sentences to show possibility, intention, obligation, etc.
I may not have an American passport.
He may not have an American passport.
She may not have an American passport.

You can also use ‘Never have/Never has/Never had’ to emphasize negative statements.
I never have my breakfast at 7 am.
This park never has any trace of greenery.
We never had the guts to question him.


Interrogative Patterns Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Do + Subject + Have
Has – Does + Subject + Have
Had – Did + Subject + Have
Do I have an American passport?
Does he have an American passport?
Did she have an American passport?

NOTE– Instead of using do/does/did, you can also use modal verbs (may, can, must, should, etc.) in interrogative sentences to show possibility, intention, obligation, etc.
Can I have an American passport?
Can he have an American passport?
Can she have an American passport?

Interrogative-Negative Patterns Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Don’t + Subject + Have
Has – Doesn’t + Subject + Have
Had – Didn’t + Subject + Have
Don’t I have an American passport?
Doesn’t he have an American passport?
Didn’t she have an American passport?
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

Pattern (01) -- To + Be
Pattern (02) -- To + Be + -ING Form of Verb
Pattern (03) -- To + First Form of Verb
Pattern (04) -- To + Be + Third Form of Verb
Pattern (05) -- To + Have
Pattern (06) -- To + Have + Been
Pattern (07) -- To + Have + Been + -ING Form of Verb
Pattern (08) -- To + Have + Third Form of Verb
Pattern (09) -- To + Have + Been + Third Form of Verb
Pattern (10) -- Being (Present) And Having Been (Past)
Pattern (11) -- ‘Verb + -ING’ and ‘Having + Past Participle’
Pattern (12) -- Being, Having Been And Past Participle
Pattern (13) – “Be” + To
EXERCISE


Sample This:

Pattern (01) -- To + Be

[PAST EVENTS]
EXAMPLE 1:-
He thought that he was safe there.
First Part - He thought. [Main Verb In Past]
Second Part - He was safe there. [Verb ‘Be’ – Was]
Using – ‘To + Be’
He thought that he was safe there.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Remove ‘that’
B. Replace Subject pronoun (he) with Reflexive pronoun (himself)
C. Replace Verb ‘Was’ With To Be
He thought himself to be safe there [Main Verb In Past + To + Be]

EXAMPLE 2:
I believed that he was a rival.
First Part - I believed. [Main Verb In Past]
Second Part - He was a rival. [Verb ‘Be’ – Was]
Using – ‘To + Be’
I believed that he was a rival.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Remove ‘that’
B. Replace Subject pronoun (he) with Object pronoun (him)
C. Replace Verb ‘Was’ With ‘To Be’
I believed him to be a rival. [Main Verb In Past + To + Be]

EXAMPLE 3:
It was said that he was in China.
First Part - It was said [Main Verb in Past]
Second Part - He was in China [Verb ‘Be’ – Was]
Using – ‘To + Be’
It was said that he was in China.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Use Subject of Second Part as the Main Subject
B. Remove ‘that’
C. Replace Verb ‘Was’ (Second Part) With ‘To Be’
He was said to be in China. [Main Verb In Past + To + Be]

MORE EXAMPLES:
He appeared to be mentally disturbed.
He appeared to be in the age group of 23-25 years.
The family claimed it to be a case of medical negligence.
Others seemed to be fast asleep.
Speeding seemed to be the reason behind the accident.
We never expected him to be part of scandal.
More than a dozen children were believed to be among the passengers on the plane.
Samples of the body said to be of 23-year body did not match despite investigation agency having thrice sent the sample to a laboratory.
He grew up to be a brave man.
A closer look showed it to be the head of a boy neck-deep in the quicksand.
Wait turned out to be long and futile.
Kidnapper turned out to be none other than his own relative.
They found four passengers who turned out to be thieves.
Everyone wanted to be first to be out from hotel.


[PRESENT EVENTS]
EXAMPLE 1:
We know that he is alive.
First Part - We know. [Main Verb In Present]
Second Part - He is alive. [Verb ‘Be’ – Is]
Using – ‘To + Be’
We know that he is alive.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Remove ‘that’
B. Replace Subject pronoun (he) with Object pronoun (him)
C. Replace Verb ‘Is’ With To Be
We know him to be alive. [Main Verb In Present + To + Be]

EXAMPLE 2:
It is said that his condition is critical.
First Part – It is said. [Main Verb In Present]
Second Part - His condition is critical. [Verb ‘Be’ – Is]
Using – ‘To + Be’
It is said that his condition is critical.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Use Subject of Second Part as the Main Subject
B. Remove ‘that’
C. Replace Verb ‘Is’ (Second Part) With ‘To Be’
His condition is said to be critical. [Main Verb In Present + To + Be]

MORE EXAMPLES:
It appears to be a replay of 1997 hit and run case.
The ball appears to be in the finance ministry’s court.
Friends are known to be sympathetic during tough times.
They cease to be MPs.
Today happens to be your birthday.
They are reported to be safe.
He wants it to be a low-key affair.
I want this to be more of an inspirational story.
The incident seems to be fallout of property dispute.
The shelter is expected to be ready by next week.
He is considered to be close to president.
Time management is said to be the key of success.
He is believed to be in a serious but stable condition.
The Nile is said to be longer the all other rivers.
He has been found to be a millionaire.
Modal Auxiliary Verb (or ‘Modal Verb’ or ‘Modal Auxiliary’) is a verb that is used with another verb (not a modal verb) to express ability, intention, necessity, obligation, permission, possibility, probability, etc.

English modal auxiliary verbs - may, might, can, could, will, would, shall, should, must, need, used(to), ought(to), dare | different patterns and examples | may and might are used to express- possibility, compulsion, obligation, probability (in present and future) | can, could are used to express- ability, probability, possibility, suggestion, request, condition | will, would are used to express- action in future, present habit, compulsion, obligation | shall, should are used to express- action in future, suggestion, surprise, importance or purpose | need is used to express necessity | used(to) is used to express- past habit | ought(to) is used to express- probability, recommendation, obligation, advise | dare is used to express– be brave enough to

Sample This:

Modal Auxiliary Verb -- May and Might

‘May’ and ‘Might’ are used to show Possibility and Probability
‘May’ and ‘Might’ are used to ask for Permission
‘May’ is used to give or refuse Permission

Some Important Uses of ‘May’ and ‘Might’

To say what the purpose of something is
We eat that we may live.
Her prayer was that the child might live.
That he might be well fed his mother starved herself.

To admit that something is true before introducing another point, argument, etc.
You may not return to past glory, but don't stop believing.
City may not have the roads to drive sports car, but it has excellent infrastructure.
It may not be wise, but using force may be lawful.
I may not have deserved the house I bought, but I'm glad I own it.
He may not have been loved, but he was respected.
We may have had to go without food, but he is very considerate.

‘May’ is used to express wishes and hopes
May you live prosperous life!

‘May’ is used to give or refuse Permission [In Informal and Polite Way]
You may contact us for queries regarding donations.
When you have finished your work you may go home.
Note: Never use ‘might’ to give permission. [Always use ‘may’]
Never use ‘might not’ to refuse permission. [Always use ‘may not’]

Difference between ‘May’ and ‘Might’
Note: ‘Might’ is the past equivalent of ‘may’ in indirect speech.
But it is used in the same way as ‘may’ to talk about the present or future.

‘May’ denotes more possibility/probability
‘Might’ denotes less possibility/probability
It may rain tomorrow (Perhaps a 75% chance) - More possible
It might rain tomorrow (Perhaps a 50% chance) - Less possible

‘Might’ also denotes ‘would perhaps’
You might attract President’s attention later. (= Perhaps you would attract.)
He might have to go (Perhaps he had to go.)

‘Might’ is frequently used In conditional sentences
If I pursued studies further, I might learn more.
If I had pursued studies further, I might have learned more.

‘Might’ has limitations while ‘asking permission’
‘Might’ is very polite and formal. It is not common. It is mostly used in indirect questions.
I wonder if I might work on your computer.

Note: ‘Maybe’ is an adverb. [‘Maybe’ means ‘perhaps’]
Maybe he came to know something secret and was removed from the post.

ALSO NOTE:
Difference Between ‘May’ and ‘Can’
‘May’ is more formal than ‘Can’
‘May’ is mostly used in ‘formal’ English.
‘Can’ is mostly used in ‘informal’ (or spoken) English
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

Verb ‘To Be’
Verb ‘To Be’ -- Negative Patterns
Verb ‘To Be’ -- Interrogative Patterns
1A. English Grammar – ‘Am’
1B. AM + -ING Form of Verb
1C. AM + Being + Past Participle
1D. AM + Past Participle
2A. English Grammar – ‘Is’
2B. IS + -ING Form of Verb
2C. IS + Being + Past Participle
2D. IS + Past Participle
3A. English Grammar – ‘Are’
3B. ARE + -ING Form of Verb
3C. ARE + Being + Past Participle
3D. ARE + Past Participle
4A. English Grammar – ‘Was’
4B. WAS + -ING Form of Verb
4C. WAS + Being + Past Participle
4D. WAS + Past Participle
5A. English Grammar – ‘Were’
5B. WERE + -ING Form of Verb
5C. WERE + Being + Past Participle
5D. WERE + Past Participle
Useful Notes
(1): Question Tags
(2): Short Answers (Ellipsis]
(3): Addition to Remarks
(4): There Is/Was and There Are/Were
(5): Subjunctive Mood – ‘Were’
(6): Be + Going To + Verb Word
(7): ‘Used to’ Vs. ‘Be + Used to’
(8): Be + To + Verb Word
(9): Be + ‘Being”+ Adjective
(10): Mixed Sentences
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) to 2(E)



Sample This:

Verb ‘To Be’

The Verb ‘to be’ is used to represent the following English verbs:
‘Am’, ‘Is’, ‘Are’, ‘Was’, ‘Were’
The verb ‘to be’ is used as both linking verb and auxiliary verb.

LINKING VERB:
A verb that connects a subject with the complement (adjective or noun) that describes it.
Example: He is an engineer. [In this sentence, subject (he) and noun (engineer) is connected by linking verb ‘is’. There is no main verb in this sentence.]
Some more examples:
I am happy. [linking verb – am]
Is he good boy? [linking verb – is]
We are very proud of ourselves. [linking verb – are]
She was intelligent. [linking verb – was]
They were not late by half an hour. [linking verb – were]

AUXILIARY VERB:
A verb which is used with main verb to show tenses, etc.
Example: He is going to office. [In this sentence, -ing form of main verb ‘go’ has been used with auxiliary verb ‘is’.
Some more examples:
I am studying a book. [auxiliary verb – am | main verb – study (-ing form)]
He is working on his project [auxiliary verb – is | main verb – work (-ing form)]
We are not expected to tell the secret. [auxiliary verb – are | main verb – expect (past participle form)]
She was taught by me. [auxiliary verb – was | main verb – teach (past participle form)]
Were they burdened by high taxation [auxiliary verb – were | main verb – burden (past participle form)]


IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT VERB ‘TO BE’

‘AM’ –
Singular Verb
Used In Present Tense
Used with Subject ‘I’

‘IS’ –
Singular Verb
Used In Present Tense
Used with Subject ‘He’ ‘She’, ‘It’ and other Singular Subjects

‘ARE’ –
Plural Verb
Used In Present Tense
Used with Subject ‘We’, ‘You’, ‘They’ and other Plural Subjects

‘WAS’ –
Singular Verb
Used In Past Tense
Used with Subject ‘I’, ‘He’, She’, ‘It’ and other Singular Subjects

‘WERE’ –
Plural Verb
Used In Past Tense
Used with Subject ‘We’, ‘You’ and other Plural Subjects
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

How to Start a Sentence
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AFTER’ and ‘BEFORE’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘BY’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘FOR/FROM
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IF’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘OF/ON/OUT’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘TO’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IN’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘WITH’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘QUESTION WORDS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘ING’ FORM of VERBS
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PAST PARTICIPLES’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘-LY Words’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PRONOUNS’
Start a Sentence – Miscellaneous
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)

Sample This:

There are different ways to start a sentence in English. Using pronoun (I, we, you, they, he, she, it) is the most popular way to begin a sentence. But there are many other words which are widely used to start a sentence. They might be question words (what, where, etc.). They might be words formed from verbs, ending in –ing, -ed, -en, etc. Besides, words such as ‘to’ ‘in’ ‘with’, ‘if’, ‘after’ are also used to begin a sentence.
Here, you will learn various words and phrases to start a sentence with.

Important Note:
Starting a sentence with ‘and’ or ‘but’ is correct or not!

Using ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence is generally considered grammatically Incorrect. But there is no hard and fast rule in this regard. So, you can use ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence. But avoid excessive use of these words to begin a sentence. Use these words in the beginning of a sentence only when they really give strength to your language.

Note: It is said that a sentence should not be begun with a conjunction of any kind, especially one of the FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). But this is not hard and fast rule. Particularly in spoken English, starting a sentence with ‘And’ or ‘But’ is common.


How to start a sentence -- Using ‘AS’

As a matter of fact no notice was given to anyone.
As a policeman myself, I am aware of all the laws.
As against last time four days, the fair will last for five days this year.
As always, he won the match.
As an interim arrangement, we directed the authorities not to return the land.
As fate would have it, he crossed the international border.
As for David, he is doing fine.
As he got busy, she picked up his son.
As he grew older, he developed his communications skills.
As if the bad power situation in the city wasn’t enough, the hike in power tariff has come as the last straw for residents.
As in the past, party president distanced herself from the government’s unpopular decision.
As long as here is violence by unruly mobs, use of police force is inevitable.
As often happened, he forgot to send me reply.
As part of the deal, they will hand-over control of five west bank towns.
As penance, he vowed to never scold any kid ever again.
As per his version, nobody had got injured in the incident.
As per rules, the same bill should be passed by the two Houses of the Parliament before it is sent to the President for his signature and promulgation for implementation.
As sanitary workers are absent on most of the days, sweeping of that road is also irregular resulting in trash along the road.
As the bus was nearing, / As the bus neared him, he moved aside.
As the day progressed, over a hundred men protestors gathered at the office.
As the electric cables are hanging loosely, it may anytime lead to major accident if any passer-by comes into contact.
As the mercury levels are dropping each day, difficulties for the poor are constantly rising.
As the war widened, they had to leave the city.
As we progresses, it is going to become more and more difficult.
As you know, I have sent him a letter.
This Book Covers the Following Topics:

Transitional Expressions -- Definition
Transitional Expressions – Punctuation Rules
01. Transitional Expressions -- Addition
02. Transitional Expressions -- Cause and Effect
03. Transitional Expressions -- Concession
04. Transitional Expressions -- Condition
05. Transitional Expressions -- Consequence
06. Transitional Expressions -- Contrast
07. Transitional Expressions -- Dismissal
08. Transitional Expressions -- Illustration
09. Transitional Expressions -- Emphasis
10. Transitional Expressions -- Exception
11. Transitional Expressions -- Explanation
12. Transitional Expressions -- Generalization
13. Transitional Expressions -- Location
14. Transitional Expressions -- Purpose
15. Transitional Expressions -- Quantifier
16. Transitional Expressions -- Reference
17. Transitional Expressions -- Sequence
18. Transitional Expressions – Similarity
19. Transitional Expressions -- Summary
20. Transitional Expressions -- Time
Exercise: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercise: 2(A) to 2(C)


SAMPLE THIS:

Transitional Expressions -- Definition

Meaning of ‘Transition’ -- to go from one point to another
“Transitional Expressions” = “Transitional Words” + “Transitional Phrases”
“Transitional (or Transition) Words” are also known as “connecting words”, “linking words” or “signal words“
“Transitional (or Transition) Phrases” are also known as “connecting phrases”, “linking phrases” or “signal phrases“

“Transitional Expressions” (also “Transitions”) could be defined as follows:
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ are words or phrases that provide bridges between sentences, parts of sentences, paragraphs and sections.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ connect and relate sentences and paragraphs.
•    ‘Transitions expressions’ signal the relationship between sentences and paragraphs.
•    ‘Transitions expressions’ state the connections between ideas.
•    ‘Transitions expressions’ help carry over a thought from one part of a sentence to another, from one sentence to another, from one paragraph to another, from one section to another, or from one idea to another.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ connect ideas from sentence to sentence and paragraph to paragraph.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ are placed in the beginning, middle, or end of the sentences/paragraphs to explain connections between two or more ideas.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ help carry over a thought from one idea to another.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ produce clearer expression, by eliminating the excessive use of such words as ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘for’ ‘nor’, ‘or’ ‘so’ ‘yet’, etc.

Choosing Transitional Expression --
Some transitional words and transitional phrases belong to more than one category. A transitional expression can change the whole meaning of a sentence. Therefore, you should choose the transition that best conveys your meaning. You should also avoid repetition and use different transition words or phrases in the same category if necessary.

Placing transitional words:
There are three options for placing transitional words:
• The beginning of a sentence [Most common]
• The middle of a sentence
• The end of a sentence [Least Common]

Example:
Their products come with an insurance pack that covers accidental damage, theft, and breakage for a year. Furthermore, customers can also avail for an additional year of warranty. [Use of transitional word ‘furthermore’ at the beginning of a sentence]

Their products come with an insurance pack that covers accidental damage, theft, and breakage for a year. Customers, furthermore, can also avail for an additional year of warranty. [Use of transitional word ‘furthermore’ in the middle of a sentence]

Their products come with an insurance pack that covers accidental damage, theft, and breakage for a year. Customers can also avail for an additional year of warranty, furthermore. [Use of transitional word ‘furthermore’ in the end of a sentence]
THIS BOOK CONTAINS MEANINGS OF MORE THAN 1400 ADVANCED ENGLISH WORDS (including phrasal verbs and idioms).

English Words And Meanings, Advance English Words And Their Meanings, Learn English Words For Improving Your English, English Words And Meanings From Letter A To Letter Z

Sample This:

("sb" implies somebody, "sth" implies something)

abase yourself to accept sb's power over you
knuckle under to sb/sth to accept sb/sth else's authority
submissive too willing to accept sb else's authority
subservient to sth submissive, less important than sth else

abashed ashamed and embarrassed
bashful shy and easily embarrassed
put sb on the spot to make sb feel embarrassed by asking difficult question

about turn / volte face complete change of opinion, etc.
turn about sudden and complete change in sth

abstemious not allowing yourself to have much food or alcohol or enjoyable activities
austere without any decorations; (of a person) strict and serious; abstemious

ad-lib to give a speech or a performance without preparation or practice
improvise to make or do sth using whatever is available, to ad-lib

abuse unfair or cruel treatment of sb/sth
oppress to treat sb cruelly, to weigh down
persecute to treat sb cruelly

acclaim to praise sb publicly, praise and approval
commendation / plaudits praise and approval

accolade praise or award of honour
laurels honour and praise given to sb because of sth they have achieved

acrid bitter smell or taste
acrimony bitter feelings or words

adolescent young person who is developing from a child into an adult
teens years of a person's life when they are between 13 and 19 years old

affected pretended
disaffected unsatisfied

affront to insult or offend sb
take umbrage at sth to feel offended or upset by sth

aft in the stern of the ship or aircraft
abaft in the stern of a ship
stern the back end of a boat or ship

agglomeration group of things put together in no particular order
conglomeration mixture of different things found all together

a la carte food which is selected from the list of dishes and prices
table d' hot plate of food with fixed price

agnosia inability to recognize people and things
analgesia loss of the ability to feel pain while still conscious
apoplexy inability to feel, move because of injury in the brain
asphyxia difficulty in breathing which may cause death or unconsciousness
dyslexia difficulty in reading and spelling but no effect in intelligence

agoraphobia fear of being in the crowd
claustrophobia fear of being in a small confined place

alimony money, which is given to former husband or wife after the end of the marriage
palimony money which is given to former partner after the end of a relationship

altercation noisy argument or disagreement
argy-bargy noisy disagreement

alumna former woman student
alumnus former male student

amble / saunter / stroll to walk in a slow relaxed way
ramble to walk for pleasure
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

English Grammar – ‘DO/DOES/DID’

English Grammar – ‘DO’
VERB ‘DO’ -- (A) – Affirmative Sentences
VERB ‘DO’ -- (B) – Negative Sentences
VERB ‘DO’ -- (C) – Interrogative Sentences
VERB ‘DO’ -- (D) – 'Short Answers’ and ‘Question Tags’

English Grammar – ‘DOES’
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (A) – Affirmative Sentences
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (B) – Negative Sentences
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (C) – Interrogative Sentences
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (D) – 'Short Answers’ and ‘Question Tags’

English Grammar – ‘DID’
VERB ‘DID’ -- (A) – Affirmative Sentences
VERB ‘DID’ -- (B) – Negative Sentences
VERB ‘DID’ -- (C) – Interrogative Sentences
VERB ‘DID’ -- (D) – 'Short Answers’ and ‘Question Tags’

Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) to 2(D)


Sample This:

English Grammar – ‘DO/DOES/DID’

Verb 'Do’ is used as an AUXILIARY VERB as well as an MAIN (ORDINARY) VERB.
MAIN VERB: When used as main verb, verb ‘do’ is followed by an object.
AUXILIARY VERB: ‘Auxiliary verb’ is a verb which is used with main verb to show tenses, etc.]

He does not do these kinds of things. [In this sentence, ‘Does’ has been used as an ‘Auxiliary Verb’, while ‘Do’ has been used as a ‘Main Verb’]
They do not do nation-building. [In this sentence, ‘Do’ has been used as both an ‘Auxiliary Verb’ and a “Main Verb’]

NOTE: Verb ‘do’ has the following forms:
(1). Present form – Do or Does
[‘Do’ is used with ‘You, I, We, They’ and all other plural subjects in present tense. ‘Does’ is used with ‘He, She, It’ and all other singular subjects in present tense.]

(2). Past form – Did
[‘Did’ is used with ‘You, I, We, They, He, She, It’ and all other singular and plural subjects in past tense.]

(3). Past Participle form – Done
[Past participles are accompanied by auxiliary verbs ‘HAVE’ or ‘BE’ (in the correct tense)]
You have done your country proud.
This type of job is done in this factory.

Main Verb ‘Do’ may denote the following actions –
to find the answer to something: - Can they do this puzzle?
to perform an activity or a task: - Sometimes you like to do things that are a little scary.
to produce something: - He did a painting last night.
to study something: - I am doing English these days.
to talk about household chores (cleaning, washing, etc.): - They will have to do (wash) dishes.
to work at something as a job: - What do you do for your livelihood?

Main Verb ‘Do’ is also used to show the following actions:
to attend, to cook, to copy somebody’s behavior, to travel, to visit somewhere as a tourist, to cheat, to punish, to steal, etc.

Some more sentences with ‘MAIN VERB’ – DO/DOES/DID/DONE:
She is happy that she will be able to do something for the poor and downtrodden.
We are ready to do whatever it takes to avoid being suspended from competition.
I like to do extensive research before I invest hard-earned money on a new purchase.
It's no secret we do things we know we shouldn't.
It is not uncommon to come across people who do jobs that have nothing to do with their academic degree.
What ultraviolet light does to skin to cause sunburn?
What caffeine does to your brain?
It is not yet clear what exactly this software did.
Work was done according to the rules.
He has done an obligation to me.
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