The Nature of the Mechanical Bond: From Molecules to Machines

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“The story is told by THE inventor-pioneer-master in the field and is accompanied by amazing illustrations… [it] will become an absolute reference and a best seller in chemistry!” Alberto Credi

“… the great opus on the mechanical bond. A most impressive undertaking!” Jean-Marie Lehn

Congratulations to co-author J. Fraser Stoddart, a 2016 Nobel Laureate in Chemistry.
In molecules, the mechanical bond is not shared between atoms—it is a bond that arises when molecular entities become entangled in space. Just as supermolecules are held together by supramolecular interactions, mechanomolecules, such as catenanes and rotaxanes, are maintained by mechanical bonds. This emergent bond endows mechanomolecules with a whole suite of novel properties relating to both form and function. They hold unlimited promise for countless applications, ranging from their presence in molecular devices and electronics to their involvement in remarkably advanced functional materials. The Nature of the Mechanical Bond is a comprehensive review of much of the contemporary literature on the mechanical bond, accessible to newcomers and veterans alike. Topics covered include:
  • Supramolecular, covalent, and statistical approaches to the formation of entanglements that underpin mechanical bonds in molecules and macromolecules
  • Kinetically and thermodynamically controlled strategies for synthesizing mechanomolecules
  • Chemical topology, molecular architectures, polymers, crystals, and materials with mechanical bonds
  • The stereochemistry of the mechanical bond (mechanostereochemistry), including the novel types of dynamic and static isomerism and chirality that emerge in mechanomolecules
  • Artificial molecular switches and machines based on the large-amplitude translational and rotational motions expressed by suitably designed catenanes and rotaxanes.
This contemporary and highly interdisciplinary field is summarized in a visually appealing, image-driven format, with more than 800 illustrations covering both fundamental and applied research. The Nature of the Mechanical Bond is a must-read for everyone, from students to experienced researchers, with an interest in chemistry’s latest and most non-canonical bond.

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About the author

Carson J. Bruns is a Miller Research Fellow in the College of Chemistry at the University of California, Berkeley. He attended Luther College (2004–2008) where he earned degrees in chemistry, religion, and mathematics. He received a PhD in organic chemistry from Northwestern University (2008–2013), where he was a National Science Foundation (NSF) Graduate Research Fellow. Researching in the United States, Thailand, Korea, and Japan, he has co-authored more than 30 publications which have collectively been cited more than 1000 times. His research interests span all aspects of the mechanical bond, from fundamental science to applied chemical technologies.

J. Fraser Stoddart is a Board of Trustees Professor of Chemistry at Northwestern University. By playing a major role in introducing the mechanical bond into molecules, he is one of the few contemporary chemists to have contributed to the opening up of an entirely new field of chemistry. He has pioneered the development of bistable mechanically interlocked molecules (MIMs) for use in molecular electronic devices and drug delivery vehicles. In 2016 he shared the Nobel Prize in Chemistry with Jean-Pierre Sauvage and Ben Feringa for the design and synthesis of molecular machines.

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Additional Information

John Wiley & Sons
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Published on
Oct 10, 2016
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Science / Chemistry / Organic
Science / Chemistry / Physical & Theoretical
Science / Nanoscience
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The subject of this book — intermolecular interactions — is as important in physics as in chemistry and molecular biology. Intermolecular interactions are responsible for the existence of liquids and solids in nature. They determine the physical and chemical properties of gases, liquids, and crystals, the stability of chemical complexes and biological compounds.

In the first two chapters of this book, the detailed qualitative description of different types of intermolecular forces at large, intermediate and short-range distances is presented. For the first time in the monographic literature, the temperature dependence of the dispersion forces is discussed, and it is shown that at finite temperatures the famous Casimir-Polder asymptotic formula is correct only at narrow distance range. The author has aimed to make the presentation understandable to a broad scope of readers without oversimplification. In Chapter 3, the methods of quantitative calculation of the intermolecular interactions are discussed and modern achievements are presented. This chapter should be helpful for scientists performing computer calculations of many-electron systems.

The last two chapters are devoted to the many-body effects and model potentials. More than 50 model potentials exploited for processing experimental data and computer simulation in different fields of physics, chemistry and molecular biology are represented. The widely used global optimisation methods: simulated annealing, diffusion equation method, basin-hopping algorithm, and genetic algorithm are described in detail.

Significant efforts have been made to present the book in a self-sufficient way for readers. All the necessary mathematical apparatus, including vector and tensor calculus and the elements of the group theory, as well as the main methods used for quantal calculation of many-electron systems are presented in the appendices.

The aim of these notes is to offer a modern picture of the pertur bative approach to the calculation of intermolecular forces. The point of view taken is that a perturbative series truncated at a low order can provide a valuable way for ~valuating interaction energies, especial ly if one limits oneself to the case of intermediate- and long-range distances between the interacting partners. Although the situation corresponding to short distances is essen tially left out from our presentation, the problems which are within the range of the theory form a vast and important class: a large var iety of phenomena of matter, in fact, depends on the existence of in teractions among atoms or molecules, which over a substantial range of distances should be classified as weak in comparison to the interactions occurring inside atoms or molecules. We are aware of the omission of some topics, which in principle could have been included in our review. For instance, a very scarce at tention has been paid to the analysis of problems involving interacting partners in degenerate states, which is of particular relevance in the case of interactions between excited atoms (only a rather quick presen tation of the formal apparatus of degenerate perturbation theory is in cluded in Chap. III). Interactions involving the simultaneous presence of more than two atoms (or mOlecules) have not been considered, with the consequent non-necessity of considering nonadditive effects which characterize the general N-body problem.
Winner of the PROSE Award for Chemistry & Physics 2010

Acknowledging the very best in professional and scholarly publishing, the annual PROSE Awards recognise publishers' and authors' commitment to pioneering works of research and for contributing to the conception, production, and design of landmark works in their fields. Judged by peer publishers, librarians, and medical professionals, Wiley are pleased to congratulate Professor Ian Fleming, winner of the PROSE Award in Chemistry and Physics for Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions.

Molecular orbital theory is used by chemists to describe the arrangement of electrons in chemical structures. It is also a theory capable of giving some insight into the forces involved in the making and breaking of chemical bonds—the chemical reactions that are often the focus of an organic chemist's interest. Organic chemists with a serious interest in understanding and explaining their work usually express their ideas in molecular orbital terms, so much so that it is now an essential component of every organic chemist's skills to have some acquaintance with molecular orbital theory.

Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions is both a simplified account of molecular orbital theory and a review of its applications in organic chemistry; it provides a basic introduction to the subject and a wealth of illustrative examples. In this book molecular orbital theory is presented in a much simplified, and entirely non-mathematical language, accessible to every organic chemist, whether student or research worker, whether mathematically competent or not. Topics covered include:

Molecular Orbital Theory Molecular Orbitals and the Structures of Organic Molecules Chemical Reactions — How Far and How Fast Ionic Reactions — Reactivity Ionic Reactions — Stereochemistry Pericyclic Reactions Radical Reactions Photochemical Reactions

Slides for lectures and presentations are available on the supplementary website:

Molecular Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions: Student Edition is an invaluable first textbook on this important subject for students of organic, physical organic and computational chemistry.

The Reference Edition edition takes the content and the same non-mathematical approach of the Student Edition, and adds extensive extra subject coverage, detail and over 1500 references. The additional material adds a deeper understanding of the models used, and includes a broader range of applications and case studies. Providing a complete in-depth reference for a more advanced audience, this edition will find a place on the bookshelves of researchers and advanced students of organic, physical organic and computational chemistry. Further information can be viewed here.

"These books are the result of years of work, which began as an attempt to write a second edition of my 1976 book Frontier Orbitals and Organic Chemical Reactions. I wanted to give a rather more thorough introduction to molecular orbitals, while maintaining my focus on the organic chemist who did not want a mathematical account, but still wanted to understand organic chemistry at a physical level. I'm delighted to win this prize, and hope a new generation of chemists will benefit from these books."
-Professor Ian Fleming

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