AIDS in Africa: Edition 2

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The way we deal with AIDS in Africa will All of them take account of the local cultural determine Africa’s future. The devastation context. But they all have something else in wrought by HIV/AIDS on the continent is so common; they stem from a political will to acute that it has become one of the main fight AIDS, and a recognition that facing up obstacles to development itself. AIDS to the problem is the first step towards c- threatens to unravel whole societies, com- quering it. I am convinced that, given that munities, and economies. In this way, AIDS will, every society can do the same. is not only taking away Africa’s present—it We have seen a growing understanding is taking away Africa’s future. of the inextricable link between prevention This crisis requires an unprecedented and treatment, and a conviction that tre- response. It requires communities, nations, ment can work even in the poorest societies. and regions, the public and the private sector, We have seen AIDS drugs become more international organizations and nongovern- available and affordable in poor countries, mental groups to come together in concerted, and scientific progress promises simplified coordinated action. Only when all these treatment regimes. Above all, we have seen a forces join in a common effort will we be able growing understanding that the key is poli- to expand our fight against the epidemic to cal commitment to providing treatment, decrease risk, vulnerability, and impact. All backed up by community involvement.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
May 8, 2007
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Pages
724
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ISBN
9780306478178
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Language
English
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Genres
Medical / Epidemiology
Medical / General
Medical / Preventive Medicine
Medical / Public Health
Social Science / Anthropology / Cultural & Social
Social Science / Anthropology / General
Social Science / General
Social Science / Sociology / General
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It has now been 25 years since the apocryphal report in the CDC Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report dated June 5, 1981 entitled, “Pneumocystis Pneumonia - Los Angeles”, which announced what was to become HIV/AIDS. HIV has now affected virtually all countries that have looked for it and has had a devastating impact on the public health and medical care infrastructure around the world. HIV/AIDS has also disproportionately affected nations with the least capacity to confront it, especially the developing world nations in Sub-Saharan Africa, South and Southeast Asia, and the emerging republics of Eastern and Central Asia. The pandemic, unlike any other disease of our time, has had profound impacts on the practice of public health itself: bringing affected communities into decision making; demanding North-South partnerships and collaborations; and changing the basic conduct of clinical and prevention trials research. While much has been written in scholarly publications for medical, epidemiologic and disease control specialists, there is no comprehensive review of the public health impact and response to HIV/AIDS in the developing world.

This edited volume seeks to systematically describe the emergence and form of the epidemics (epidemiology), the social, community and political response, and the various measures to confront and control the epidemic, with varying levels of success. Of particular importance are strategies that appear to have been useful in ameliorating the epidemic, while contrasting the situation in a neighboring country or region where contrasting prevention or care initiatives have had a deleterious outcome. Common to all responses has been the international multi-sectoral response represented by the Global Fund for HIV/AIDS, Malaria and Tuberculosis, the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS Relief, and the Gates Foundation, among others, to promote HIV pharmacologic therapy in resource-poor settings. The chapter authors will explore the political challenges in meeting HIV/AIDS prevention and care in concert with the public health realities in specific country and regional context.

In Para-States and Medical Science, P. Wenzel Geissler and the contributors examine how medicine and public health in Africa have been transformed as a result of economic and political liberalization and globalization, intertwined with epidemiological and technological changes. The resulting fragmented medical science landscape is shaped and sustained by transnational flows of expertise and resources. NGOs, universities, pharmaceutical companies and other nonstate actors now play a significant role in medical research and treatment. But as the contributors to this volume argue, these groups have not supplanted the primacy of the nation-state in Africa. Although not necessarily stable or responsive, national governments remain crucial in medical care, both as employers of health care professionals and as sources of regulation, access, and – albeit sometimes counterintuitively - trust for their people. “The state” has morphed into the “para-state” — not a monolithic and predictable source of sovereignty and governance, but a shifting, and at times ephemeral, figure.  Tracing the emergence of the “global health” paradigm in Africa in the treatment of HIV, malaria, and leprosy, this book challenges familiar notions of African statehood as weak or illegitimate by elaborating complex new frameworks of governmentality that can be simultaneously functioning and dysfunctional.

Contributors. Uli Beisel, Didier Fassin, P. Wenzel Geissler, Rene Gerrets, Ann Kelly, Guillaume Lachenal, John Manton, Lotte Meinert, Vinh-Kim Nguyen, Branwyn Poleykett, Susan Reynolds Whyte
 
Scientists agree that a pathogen is likely to cause a global pandemic in the near future. But which one? And how?

Over the past fifty years, more than three hundred infectious diseases have either newly emerged or reemerged, appearing in territories where they’ve never been seen before. Ninety percent of epidemiologists expect that one of them will cause a deadly pandemic sometime in the next two generations. It could be Ebola, avian flu, a drug-resistant superbug, or something completely new. While we can’t know which pathogen will cause the next pandemic, by unraveling the story of how pathogens have caused pandemics in the past, we can make predictions about the future. In Pandemic: Tracking Contagions, from Cholera to Ebola and Beyond, the prizewinning journalist Sonia Shah—whose book on malaria, The Fever, was called a “tour-de-force history” (The New York Times) and “revelatory” (The New Republic)—interweaves history, original reportage, and personal narrative to explore the origins of contagions, drawing parallels between cholera, one of history’s most deadly and disruptive pandemic-causing pathogens, and the new diseases that stalk humankind today.

To reveal how a new pandemic might develop, Sonia Shah tracks each stage of cholera’s dramatic journey, from its emergence in the South Asian hinterlands as a harmless microbe to its rapid dispersal across the nineteenth-century world, all the way to its latest beachhead in Haiti. Along the way she reports on the pathogens now following in cholera’s footsteps, from the MRSA bacterium that besieges her own family to the never-before-seen killers coming out of China’s wet markets, the surgical wards of New Delhi, and the suburban backyards of the East Coast.

By delving into the convoluted science, strange politics, and checkered history of one of the world’s deadliest diseases, Pandemic reveals what the next global contagion might look like— and what we can do to prevent it.

Asia has become the new battle ground for the war against HIV/AIDS. The magnitude of the potential public health problems caused by AIDS in this populous continent may become a catastrophic disaster. A 10% rate of prevalence of HIV-1 in India and China alone would mean more than 200 million people are infected with HIV.
AIDS in Asia is useful as a comprehensive, up-to-date AIDS reference book for public health and medical professionals. This volume provides concrete information on the diagnosis, treatment, care, prevention and impact of AIDS. Part I contains 'Snapshots of HIV/AIDS in Asia.' Countries and regions included in this section are: Thailand, India, China, Japan, Vietnam, Laos, Cambodia, Myanmar, Malaysia, Indonesia, the Philippines, Pakistan, Nepal, Sri Lanka, Hawaii and the Pacific Islands, Hong Kong and Taiwan. Part II addresses the molecular epidemiology of HIV/AIDS. Part III deals with the diagnosis, surveillance and projected scenarios of the AIDS epidemic. Part IV outlines prevention efforts and treatment options. Part V provides an overview of the ongoing collaborative efforts involved in several different nations in the worldwide war against AIDS.
This volume will be invaluable to all the public health professionals and researchers working in this field.

"...the book is a useful addition to the HIV/AIDS literature."

"AIDS in Asia offers a comprehensive, interesting overview of the epidemic there and of general issues that will influence its progression."

-Roger Detels, MD, MS, University of California-Los Angeles

The Journal of the American Medical Association, Book Review, 293:15

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