Thermodynamics for Chemists, Physicists and Engineers

Springer Science & Business Media
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This textbook takes an interdisciplinary approach to the subject of thermodynamics and is therefore suitable for undergraduates in chemistry, physics and engineering courses. The book is an introduction to phenomenological thermodynamics and its applications to phase transitions and chemical reactions, with some references to statistical mechanics. It strikes the balance between the rigorousness of the Callen text and phenomenological approach of the Atkins text.

The book is divided in three parts. The first introduces the postulates and laws of thermodynamics and complements these initial explanations with practical examples. The second part is devoted to applications of thermodynamics to phase transitions in pure substances and mixtures. The third part covers thermodynamic systems in which chemical reactions take place. There are some sections on more advanced topics such as thermodynamic potentials, natural variables, non-ideal mixtures and electrochemical reactions, which make this book of suitable also to post-graduate students.


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About the author

Robert Hołyst (1963) is a professor at the Institute of Physical Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences. He specializes in statistical physics, physical chemistry, biologistics and soft matter physics. He has published 182 papers and 2 books. He presented his works at multiple universities/institutes, e.g. Harvard, MIT, University of Chicago, ESPCI-Paris, ENS-Paris, several Max Planck Institutes, University of Tokyo, Oxford and Cambridge. He has over 17 years experience in teaching thermodynamics for undergraduate students.

Andrzej Poniewierski (1951), professor at the Institute of Physical Chemistry Polish Academy of Sciences; published 53 papers and two books, specializes in soft matter and statistical physics, liquid crystals and applications of density functional theory to complex fluids. He has also taught thermodynamics for undergraduate students for several years.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Jul 5, 2012
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Pages
344
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ISBN
9789400729995
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Chemistry / Physical & Theoretical
Science / Mechanics / Thermodynamics
Technology & Engineering / Power Resources / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Based on courses for students of science, engineering, and systems science at the Zurich University of Applied Sciences at Winterthur, this text approaches the fundamentals of thermodynamics from the point of view of continuum physics. By describing physical processes in terms of the flow and balance of physical quantities, the author achieves a unified approach to hydraulics, electricity, mechanics and thermodynamics. In this way, it becomes clear that entropy is the fundamental property that is transported in thermal processes (i.e., heat), and that temperature is the corresponding potential. The resulting theory of the creation, flow, and balance of entropy provides the foundation of a dynamical theory of heat.

This extensively revised and updated second edition includes new material on dynamical chemical processes, thermoelectricity, and explicit dynamical modeling of thermal and chemical processes. To make the book more useful for courses on thermodynamics and physical chemistry at different levels, coverage of topics is divided into introductory and more advanced and formal treatments. Previous knowledge of thermodynamics is not required, but the reader should be familiar with basic electricity, mechanics, and chemistry and should have some knowledge of elementary calculus. The special feature of the first edition -- the integration of thermodynamics, heat transfer, and chemical processes -- has been maintained and strengthened.

Key Features:

· First revised edition of a successful text/reference in fourteen years

· More than 25 percent new material

· Provides a unified approach to thermodynamics and heat transport in fundamental physical and chemical processes

· Includes worked examples, questions, and problem sets for use as a teaching text or to test the reader's understanding

· Includes many system dynamics models of laboratory experiments

This small book on the properties of continuously distributed matter covers a huge field. It sets out the governing principles of continuum physics and illustrates them by carefully chosen examples. These examples comprise structural mechanics and elasticity, fluid media, electricity and optics, thermoelectricity, fluctuation phenomena and more, from Archimedes' principle via Brownian motion to white dwarfs. Metamaterials, pattern formation by reaction-diffusion and surface plasmon polaritons are dealt with as well as classical topics such as Stokes' formula, beam bending and buckling, crystal optics and electro- and magnetooptic effects, dielectric waveguides, Ohm's law, surface acoustic waves, to mention just some.

The set of balance equations for content, flow and production of particles, mass, charge, momentum, energy and entropy is augmented by material, or constitutive equations. They describe entire classes of materials, such as viscid fluids and gases, elastic media, dielectrics or electrical conductors. We discuss the response of matter to rapidly oscillating external parameters, in particular the electric field strength of light, in the framework of statistical thermodynamics. An appendix on fields and a glossary round off this bird's-eye view on continuum physics. /p

Students of physics, engineering and related fields will benefit from the clear presentation of worked examples and the variety of solution methods, including numerical techniques. Lecturers or advanced students may profit from the unified view on a substantial part of physics. It may help them to embed their research field conceptually within a wider context.

Given that thermodynamics books are not a rarity on the market, why would an additional one be useful? The answer is simple: at any level, thermodynamics is usually taught as a somewhat abstruse discipline where many students get lost in a maze of difficult concepts. However, thermodynamics is not as intricate a subject as most people feel. This book fills a niche between elementary textbooks and mathematically oriented treatises, and provides readers with a distinct approach to the subject. As indicated by the title, this book explains thermodynamic phenomena and concepts in physical terms before proceeding to focus on the requisite mathematical aspects. It focuses on the effects of pressure, temperature and chemical composition on thermodynamic properties and places emphasis on rapidly evolving fields such as amorphous materials, metastable phases, numerical simulations of microsystems and high-pressure thermodynamics. Topics like redox reactions are dealt with in less depth, due to the fact that there is already much literature available. Without requiring a background in quantum mechanics, this book also illustrates the main practical applications of statistical thermodynamics and gives a microscopic interpretation of temperature, pressure and entropy.
This book is perfect for undergraduate and graduate students who already have a basic knowledge of thermodynamics and who wish to truly understand the subject and put it in a broader physical perspective. The book is aimed not at theoretical physicists, but rather at practitioners with a variety of backgrounds from physics to biochemistry for whom thermodynamics is a tool which would be better used if better understood.
All macroscopic systems consist ultimately of atoms obeying the laws of quantum mechanics. That premise forms the basis for this comprehensive text, intended for a first upper-level course in statistical and thermal physics. Reif emphasizes that the combination of microscopic concepts with some statistical postulates leads readily to conclusions on a purely macroscopic level. The authors writing style and penchant for description energize interest in condensed matter physics as well as provide a conceptual grounding with information that is crystal clear and memorable.

Reif first introduces basic probability concepts and statistical methods used throughout all of physics. Statistical ideas are then applied to systems of particles in equilibrium to enhance an understanding of the basic notions of statistical mechanics, from which derive the purely macroscopic general statements of thermodynamics. Next, he turns to the more complicated equilibrium situations, such as phase transformations and quantum gases, before discussing nonequilibrium situations in which he treats transport theory and dilute gases at varying levels of sophistication. In the last chapter, he addresses some general questions involving irreversible processes and fluctuations.

A large amount of material is presented to facilitate students later access to more advanced works, to allow those with higher levels of curiosity to read beyond the minimum given on a topic, and to enhance understanding by presenting several ways of looking at a particular question. Formatting within the text either signals material that instructors can assign at their own discretion or highlights important results for easy reference to them. Additionally, by solving many of the 230 problems contained in the text, students activate and embed their knowledge of the subject matter.
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