Hypernyms and Hyponyms

English Word Power

Book 14
Manik Joshi
1
Free sample

What are “Hypernyms and Hyponyms”?

HYPERNYM ----
[Hyper- Over; -Onym: Name]
Hypernym is a word that denotes general category.
Hypernym [singular] | Hypernyms [plural]
Examples: game, bird, etc.
Hypernym is also called ‘Generic term’, ‘Super-ordinate’, ‘Super-type’, or ‘Superset’.

Derived terms related to ‘Hypernyms’:
Hypernymous
Words that are hypernyms are said to be hypernymous.
Hypernymy
The state of being a hypernym is called hypernymy.

HYPONYM ----
[Hypo- Under; -Onym: Name]
Hyponym is a word that denotes particular item from general category.
Hyponym [singular] | Hyponyms [plural]
Examples: football/hockey/cricket, eagle/peacock/sparrow, etc.
Hyponym is also called ‘Subordinate’, ‘Subtype’ or ‘Subset’.

Derived terms related to ‘Hyponyms’:
Hyponymous
Words that are hyponyms are said to be hyponymous.
Hyponymy
The state of being a hyponym is called hyponymy.

In above examples, ‘game’ is the hypernym (or supertype) of ‘cricket’, ‘football’ and ‘hockey’.
‘Cricket’, ‘football’ and ‘hockey’ are hyponyms (or subtypes) of ‘game’.

Similarly, ‘bird’ is the hypernym (or supertype) of ‘eagle’, ‘peacock’ and ‘sparrow’.
‘Eagle’, ‘peacock’ and ‘sparrow’ are hyponyms (or subtypes) of ‘bird’.


IMPORTANT NOTE 1:
Relationship between hypernym and hyponym is termed as ‘is-a relationship’.
Pattern:
Hyponym + is-a/an + Hypernym

Example 1:
Hypernym: game
Hyponym: cricket, football, hockey

Cricket is a game.
Football is a game.
Hockey is a game.

Example 2:
Hypernym: bird
Hyponym: eagle, peacock, sparrow

Eagle is a bird.
Peacock is a bird.
Sparrow is a bird.


Hypernyms and Hyponyms -- A

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A1 --
Hypernym -- acid
Hyponyms -- amino acid / ascetic acid / ascorbic acid / boric acid / carbonic acid / citric acid / hydrochloric acid / hydrofluoric acid / lactic acid / nitric acid / nucleic acid / oxalic acid / phosphoric acid / sulfuric (sulphuric) acid


Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A2 --
Hypernym -- account
Hyponyms -- budget account / checking account / current account / deposit account / savings account


Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A3 --
Hypernym -- affix
Hyponyms -- prefix / suffix


Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A4 --
Hypernym -- African
Hyponyms -- Algerian / Congolese / Egyptian / Kenyan / Liberian / Libyan / Moroccan / Senegalese / Sudanese / Ugandan


Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A5 --
Hypernym -- algae
Hyponyms -- anabaena / cowstail / cuvie / dabbylocks / featherweed / flans / grapestone / gulf weed / honeyware / laver / liadhaig / murlins / nostoc / pod weed / pompon / oscillatoria / rockweed / seaweed / thong weed / watersilk


Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A6 --
Hypernym -- age [a particular period of history
Hyponyms -- bronze age / iron age / new age / stone age


Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A7 --
Hypernym -- agent
Hyponyms -- double agent / estate agent / land agent / press agent / secret agent / special agent / travel agent


Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A08 --
Hypernym -- alloy
Hyponyms -- amalgam / billon / brass / bronze / iron / magnalium / megallium / nichrome / scandium / solder / steel / stellite

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A09 --
Hypernym -- amphibian
Hyponyms -- frog / salamander / toad

Hypernym / Hyponym -- Example A10 --
Hypernym -- angle
Hyponyms -- acute angle / adjacent angle / exterior angle / interior angle / obtuse angle / reflex angle / right angle
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About the author

Manik Joshi was born on Jan 26, 1979 at Ranikhet and is permanent resident of Haldwani, Kumaon zone of India. He is an Internet Marketer by profession. He is interested in domaining (business of buying and selling domain names), web designing (creating websites), and various online jobs (including 'self book publishing'). He is science graduate with ZBC (zoology, botany, and chemistry) subjects. He is also an MBA (with specialization in marketing). He has done three diploma courses in computer too.

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Publisher
Manik Joshi
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Published on
Oct 25, 2014
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Pages
50
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Public Speaking
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What are “Holonyms and Meronyms”?

HOLONYMS ----
[Holo- Whole; -Onym: Name]
Holonym is a word that denotes a thing that is complete in itself and whose part, member or substance is represented by another word.
Holonym [singular] | Holonyms [plural]
Example: ‘Bird’ is a holonym of ‘Feather’.

Derived terms related to ‘Holonyms’:
Holonymous
Words that are Holonyms are said to be Holonymous.
Holonymy
The state of being a Holonym is called Holonymy.

MERONYMS ----
[Mero- Part; -Onym: Name]
Meronym is a word that denotes a constituent part, member or substance of something that is complete in itself.
Meronym [singular] | Meronyms [plural]
Example: ‘Feather’ is a meronym of ‘Bird’.

Derived terms related to ‘Meronyms’:
Meronymous
Words that are Meronyms are said to be Meronymous.
Meronymy
The state of being a Meronym is called Meronymy.


Holonyms and Meronyms -- A

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A1 --
Holonym -- air-conditioner
Meronyms -- blower / compressor / condenser coil / control panel / cooling coil / evaporator coil / expansion valve / fan / motor / temperature sensing bulb / thermostat

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A2 --
Holonym -- airplane (aeroplane)
Meronyms -- aileron / altimeter / black box / cabin / cargo / cockpit / cowling / elevator / fin / flap / flight deck / fuselage / galley / hatch / jet engine / leading edge / nose / propeller / rudder / seat / slat / tail / trailing edge / undercarriage / wing

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A3 --
Holonym -- airport
Meronyms -- airplane / airstrip / air terminal / control tower / hangar / lounge / taxiway / terminal

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A4 --
Holonym -- algae
Meronyms -- cell membrane / cell wall / chloroplast / cytoplasm / flagellum / nucleolus / nucleus / starch vacuole

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A5 --
Holonym -- atom
Meronyms -- electron / neutron / proton

Other Examples:
Holonym / Meronym -- Example A6 –
‘abacus’ is the holonym of ‘wire’
wire’ is a meronym of ‘abacus’

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A7 –
‘album’ is the holonym of ‘photograph’
‘photograph’ is a meronym of ‘album’

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A8 --
‘asparagus’ is the holonym of ‘spear’
‘spear’ is a meronym of ‘asparagus’

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A9 --
‘atmosphere’ is the holonym of ‘stratosphere’
‘stratosphere’ is a meronym of ‘atmosphere’
What are “Oronym Words”?

ORONYMS ----
[Oro- Whole; Nym: Name]
An oronym is a word or phrase that sounds very much the same as another word or phrase, often as a result of sounds running together. Oronyms are spelt differently and they have different meanings.

Oronym [singular] | Oronyms [plural]
Example: A name ---- an aim

Some Important Points:
1. An oronym is also called a continunym or a sliceonym.

2. An oronym generally originates when it is difficult to tell where one word ends and the next begins (e.g. a name -- an aim). An oronym also originates when a particular word may be divided into two or more meaningful words (e.g. affection -- a faction).

3. Effectiveness of oronyms may depend on what somebody is saying in context with the rest of the conversation.

3(A). Oronyms may completely alter the meaning of what somebody is saying.
Example:
They wanted the allocation of house.
They wanted the location of house.

3(B). Oronyms may also make conversation very funny.
Example:
Teacher asked the student to give an example.
Teacher asked the student to give an egg sample.

3(C). Oronyms may also make conversation completely senseless.
Example:
They will appoint a new manager at the earliest.
They will a point a new manager at the earliest.

4. Oronyms may also include abbreviations (shortened form of a word or group of words)
Examples:
ICT -- I see tea
VC -- we see


Derived Terms Related To ‘Oronyms’:
Oronymous
Words or phrases that are Oronyms are said to be Oronymous.
Oronymy
The state of being an Oronym is called Oronymy.

Following is the detailed list of Oronyms:


Oronym Words -- A

Oronym Pair -- A1
air-to-air ---- year-to-year
Example:
The jets had air-to-air weapons.
The jets had year-to-year weapons.

Oronym Pair -- A2
aggregate ---- a green gate
[aggregate -- total]

Oronym Pair -- A3
aggregator ---- a grass eater
[aggregator -- a kind of Internet company]

Oronym Pair -- A4
agree to differ ---- a great offer
[agree to differ -- (of two people) to not discuss their different views about something | offer -- proposal]

Oronym Pair -- A5
angry response ---- a grey sponge

Oronym Pair -- A6
accede ---- a seat
[accede -- to agree]

Oronym Pair -- A7
accent ---- a cent
[accent -- pronunciation | cent -- a coin]

Oronym Pair -- A8
accord ---- a cord
[accord -- agreement | cord -- string or rope]

Oronym Pair -- A9
accounting ---- a counting
[accounting -- bookkeeping]

Oronym Pair -- A10
accrue ---- a crew
[accrue -- amass | crew -- team]
What are “Root Words”? -- A root, or root word is a word which is used to form another word. It is also called a base word. A root does not have a prefix (A letter or group of letters added to the beginning of a word) or a suffix (A letter or group of letters added to the end of a word). Root is the primary lexical unit of a word, and of a word family. For example, pure is a root. By adding prefixes and suffixes, the following words could be made: impure, purity, pureness. Similarly, play and move are root words. By adding prefixes and suffixes, the following words could be made: plays, played, playing, player; moving, movement, moved, movable, mover, movingly. In this book, I have given most common Greek and Latin roots which are used in English language. Sample this: Root Words -- A-  AB/ABS-Origin: Latin-Meaning: -way, from, off-Examples:-abate -- to subside; abhor -- to hate | related word: abhorrence; abject -- hopeless; abjure -- to renounce; abnormal -- unusual | related words: abnormally, abnormality; abrasion -- cut or scratch; abroad -- out of the country; abscess -- swelling; abscond -- to run away | related word: absconder; abseil -- to go down a steep cliff; absence -- nonattendance | related words: absent / absentee / absenteeism / absentia / absently; absolute -- complete; absolve -- to forgive; absorb -- to soak up | related words: absorbable / absorbance / absorbed / absorbency / absorbent / absorbing / absorption; abstain -- to give up something for moral reason | related words: abstainer / abstention / abstinence; abstemious -- critical; abstinent -- not having something for moral reason; abstract -- theoretical | related words: abstracted / abstractedly / abstraction / abstractly; abstruse -- difficult to understand; obscure; absurd -- ridiculous | related words: absurdist / absurdity / absurdly; abundance -- plenty | related words: abundant / abundantly **** ALB -Origin: Latin - Meaning: white - Examples:- albino -- somebody born with no pigment in skin | related word: albinism; albumen -- white of an egg **** AMBI- Origin: Latin-Meaning: both-Examples:- ambiguous -- double meaning; uncertain; ambidexterity -- ability to use both the left and right hand equally well | related word: ambidextrous; ambivalent -- showing both good and bad feelings **** ANIM- Origin: Latin- Meaning: breath, life - Examples:-animate -- having life; to make something full of liveliness | related words: animated, animatedly, animation, animato, animator; animateur -- a person who promotes social activities; animism -- the belief that natural objects possesses soul | related words: animist, animistic **** AQUA- Origin: Latin- Meaning: water- Examples: -aquaculture -- the act of growing of plants in water for food; aqualung -- a device for breathing for divers; aquamarine -- a pale greenish-blue stone or color; aquaplane -- an equipment used in boat; aquarium -- container to kept fish and water plants; aquarobics -- physical exercises that are done in water; aquatic -- growing near water **** AUD- Origin: Latin- Meaning: hearing- Examples:- audible -- capable of being heard | related words: audibly, audibility; audience -- crowd of listeners; auditorium -- a building for public meetings, etc. **** Other Root Words – A - Root Word [Origin] – Meaning - a [Greek] -- not | ab [Latin] -- away, off | ablat [Latin] -- remove | ablut [Latin] -- wash | abort [Latin] -- born too soon | abr [Greek] -- delicate | abras [Latin] -- rub off | abund [Latin] -- overflow | aca [Greek] -- point; silence | acanth [Greek] -- thorn | acar [Greek] -- tiny | acceler [Latin] -- hasten | ace [Greek] -- heal | acer [Latin] -- sharp | acerb [Latin] -- bitter | acet [Latin] -- vinegar | ach [Greek] -- pain | achr [Greek] -- colorless | acid [Latin] -- sour | acm [Greek] -- summit | aco [Greek] -- relief | acri [Latin] -- bitter | acrib [Greek] -- exact | acrit [Greek] -- confused | acro [Greek] -- height, summit | acut [Latin] -- sharp | ad [Latin] -- toward | ade [Greek] -- enough | adip [Latin] -- fat | adol [Greek] -- genuine | adox [Greek] -- irrelevant | adr [Greek] -- thick | adul [Latin] -- flatter | adulter [Latin] -- pollute | aegi [Latin] -- a shield | aegr [Latin] -- sick | aeno [Greek] -- terrible | aep [Greek] -- tall | aequa [Latin] -- equal | aero [Greek] -- atmosphere | aesthet [Greek] -- sensitive | aeth [Greek] -- unusual | aeti [Greek] -- a cause | ag [Latin] -- toward | aga [Greek] -- very | agall [Greek] -- adorn | agan [Greek] -- gentle | agath [Greek] -- good | agglutin [Latin] -- joined together with glue | agn [Greek] -- pure | agr [Greek] -- booty | agro [Greek] -- field | aist [Greek] -- unseen | alb [Latin] -- white | ale [Greek] -- strong | aleo [Greek] -- warm | alg [Greek] -- pain | alia [Greek] -- assembly | alio [Greek] -- different | alluv [Latin] -- overflow | alter [Latin] -- other | alti [Latin] -- high | am [Greek] -- not, without | ama [Greek] -- together | amal [Greek] -- soft | amar [Latin] -- bitter | ambi Latin] -- both | ambl [Greek] -- blunt | ambo [Latin] -- both | ambul [Latin] -- to walk | ameb/amoeb [Greek] -- change | ami [Latin] -- friend | amor [Latin] -- liking | amphi [Greek] -- both | ampl [Latin] -- plentiful | an [Greek] -- not, without | anch [Greek] -- strangle | anchi [Greek] -- near | andr [Greek] -- masculine | anemo [Greek] -- wind | aneu [Greek] -- without | ang [Greek] -- vessel | ania [Greek] -- trouble | ann [Latin] -- yearly | annal [Latin] -- annual | ano [Greek] -- up | anomal [Greek] -- irregular | ante [Latin] -- before, old | antho [Greek] -- flower | anthra [Greek] -- coal | anthropo [Greek] -- human | anti [Greek] -- against | antr [Greek] -- cavity | anu [Latin] -- ring | aper [Latin] -- open | aphe [Greek] -- touch | aphel [Greek] -- smooth | aphod [Greek] -- departure | aphr [Greek] -- foam | aphron [Greek] -- silly | aphy [Greek] -- suck | apor [Greek] -- away from | apsi [Greek] -- juncture | ar [Greek] -- not, without | ara [Latin] -- plow | arc [Latin] -- arch | arcan [Latin] -- box | arcan [Latin] -- hidden | arch [Greek] -- ruler | archae/arche [Greek] -- ancient | arcy [Greek] -- net | ardo [Greek] -- water, irrigate | aren [Latin] -- sand | argent [Latin] -- silver | ari [Greek] -- much | arid [Latin] -- dry | arist [Greek] -- excellence | arthr [Greek] -- joint | asci [Greek] -- bladder | asine [Greek] -- harmless | aspr [Latin] -- rough | aster [Greek] -- star | atav [Latin] -- ancestor | athl [Greek] -- contest | atm [Greek] -- smoke | atr [Latin] -- black | au [Greek] -- besides | aug [Latin] -- increase | aur [Latin] -- relating to gold | auri [Latin] -- relating to the ear | auro [Latin] -- air | auto [Greek] -- self | avar [Latin] -- greed | avi [Latin] -- bird | axi [Latin] -- axis | axio [Greek] -- precious
Useful English Idioms and their meanings in simple words | Alphabetical list of English Idioms

Sample this:

Useful English Idioms -- A

Aback
be taken aback -- to be shocked

Abeyance
in abeyance -- postponed

Above
above all -- most of all

Abreast
keep abreast of -- to know the latest update

Abstract
in the abstract -- generally

Abundance
in abundance -- in great amounts or quantities

Accident
by accident -- unintentionally

Accompaniment
to the accompaniment of -- in the addition of something else

Accord
in accord -- in agreement
of your own accord -- willingly
with one accord -- in unison

Accordance
in accordance with -- according to a rule or system

Account
by all accounts -- as said by other people
by your own account -- as said by you
of no account -- of no significance
on somebody’s account -- because of other person
on account of -- because of
on no account -- without any reason
on your own account -- by or for yourself
on this account -- because of this
turn something to good account -- to make the best use of something
take account of -- to consider something during decision-making process

Ace
hold all the aces -- to be in the most favorable situation
place your ace -- to use your best argument, etc. to make situation in your favor

Acquaintance
make the acquaintance of somebody -- to be familiar with somebody for the first time
of your acquaintances -- that you know
on first acquaintance -- on first meeting

Acquire
an acquired taste -- something that you like gradually

Act
act of God -- a natural event
do a vanishing act -- to be absent when you are required to be present
get your act together -- to make your best efforts achieve to your goal
a hard act to follow -- to be perfect example of something and thus almost impossible to be emulated
in the act of doing something -- while somebody is doing something
in action -- doing the usual activity
into action -- to be implemented
out of action -- not working

Add
add insult to injury -- to aggravate the relationship with somebody

Addition
in addition -- besides

Ado
without further ado -- immediately

Advanced
of advanced age -- very old

Advantage
work to your advantage -- to try to get advantage form a particular circumstance
to best advantage -- in a best possible way
turn something to your advantage -- to get an advantage from an unfavorable situation

Advisement
Take something under advisement -- to consider something during decision-making process

Aegis
under the aegis of -- with the support of

Afoul
run afoul of -- to do something illegal

Afar
from afar -- from a long distance away

Afield
far afield -- from a long distance away

Afoul
run afoul of -- to do something illegal

After
after all -- in spite of everything

Age
act your age -- to behave maturely and sensibly
come of age -- to be legally mature
under age -- to be legally immature

Aggregate
in aggregate -- as a total

Agree
agree to differ -- (of two people) to not discuss their different views about something

Aim
take aim at -- to criticize severely

Air
walk on air -- to be delighted
in the air -- felt by many people
on air -- broadcasting on TV, etc.
off air -- not broadcasting on TV, etc.
up in the air -- undecided

Aisle
walk down the aisle -- to get married

Alarm
alarm bells ring -- to be worried and apprehensive in a sudden way

Alive
alive and kicking -- healthy and lively
bring something alive -- to make something exciting
come alive -- to be exciting

And
and all that -- and other things of the same kind
not all that -- not particularly

Allow
allow me -- used to offer help in a polite manner

Allowance
make allowance for something -- to consider something during decision-making process
make allowance for somebody -- to accept somebody’s improper, rude, etc. way of behaving because of special reason

Alone
go it alone -- to do something on your own
leave alone -- to stop annoying somebody
stand alone -- to be independent or unrelated to somebody/something
Useful English phrasal verbs and their meanings in simple words | Alphabetical list of English phrasal verbs
1500 Useful phrasal verbs for daily use

Sample this:

What are “Phrasal Verbs”?

A PHRASAL VERB is made up of a Verb and an Adverb or a Preposition or both.
Adverbs or prepositions which are used in Phrasal Verbs are called ‘Particles’.

Verb + adverb = Phrasal verb
Verb + preposition = Phrasal verb
Verb + adverb + preposition = Phrasal verb

Examples:
break down -- verb + adverb [break= verb; down= adverb]
ward off -- verb + preposition [ward= verb; off= preposition]
keep up with -- verb + adverb + preposition [keep= verb; up= adverb; with=preposition]

‘USUAL’ and ‘IDIOMATIC’ Meanings of Phrasal Verbs
A Phrasal verb may have usual or idiomatic meaning -

Phrasal Verb with Usual meaning:
Verb and Particle keep their ordinary meaning
Example: turn around -- to turn around

Phrasal Verb with Idiomatic meaning:
Verb and Particle doesn’t keep their ordinary meaning
Example: turn down -- to reject an offer

Following is the detailed list of useful Phrasal Verbs and their meanings:


English Phrasal Verbs -- A

Abide
abide by -- to obey/follow a decision, rule, etc.

Abound
abound with/in -- to be full of

Account
account for -- to explain | to be a definite amount for | to destroy

Accustom
accustom to -- to be familiar

Act
act on -- to affect
act out -- to express a feeling or an emotion in your behavior
act up -- to behave inappropriately
act upon -- to take an action on the basis of particular information, etc.; to execute

Add
add in -- to include
add to -- to increase
add up -- to calculate or count | to be sensible or reasonable
add up to -- to have a particular result | to have a certain total amount

Adhere
adhere to -- to follow a particular rule

Agree
not agree with -- to dislike or disapprove

Aim
aim at -- to Intend to achieve particular goal

Alight
alight on -- to find something by chance

Align
align with -- to support a person, rules, etc, openly or publicly because you agree with them

Allow
allow for -- to take something into consideration
allow of -- to make possible; to permit

Allude
allude to -- to refer to

Amount
amount to -- to be equal to something | to count something as a total

Angle
angle for -- to try to get something indirectly by hinting

Answer
answer back -- to make counter-argument | to give rude reply to your senior, an authority, etc.
answer for -- to be responsible
answer to somebody for something -- to explain your decision or action

Appertain
appertain to -- to refer or relate

Argue
argue down -- to beat somebody in an argument or a debate | to persuade people not to accept a proposal or motion | to persuade a seller to reduce the price
argue somebody into doing something -- to give reasons to persuade somebody do or not do something

Arrive
arrive at -- to decide something after deliberation

Arrogate
arrogate to yourself -- to claim/take without having right

Ascribe
ascribe to -- to think or say something is done by somebody

Ask
ask around -- to talk to many people with a view to get information | to invite
ask for -- to request or demand something | to provoke a negative reaction
ask in -- to invite somebody into your house
ask out -- to invite someone for a date

Attend
attend to -- to deal with somebody/something

Auction
auction off -- to sell something at an auction

Avail
avail yourself of -- to take advantage of an opportunity

Average
average out -- to make even; to calculate the average | to balance or equalize

Awake/Awaken
awake/awaken to -- to be aware of possible effects of something
What are “Holonyms and Meronyms”?

HOLONYMS ----
[Holo- Whole; -Onym: Name]
Holonym is a word that denotes a thing that is complete in itself and whose part, member or substance is represented by another word.
Holonym [singular] | Holonyms [plural]
Example: ‘Bird’ is a holonym of ‘Feather’.

Derived terms related to ‘Holonyms’:
Holonymous
Words that are Holonyms are said to be Holonymous.
Holonymy
The state of being a Holonym is called Holonymy.

MERONYMS ----
[Mero- Part; -Onym: Name]
Meronym is a word that denotes a constituent part, member or substance of something that is complete in itself.
Meronym [singular] | Meronyms [plural]
Example: ‘Feather’ is a meronym of ‘Bird’.

Derived terms related to ‘Meronyms’:
Meronymous
Words that are Meronyms are said to be Meronymous.
Meronymy
The state of being a Meronym is called Meronymy.


Holonyms and Meronyms -- A

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A1 --
Holonym -- air-conditioner
Meronyms -- blower / compressor / condenser coil / control panel / cooling coil / evaporator coil / expansion valve / fan / motor / temperature sensing bulb / thermostat

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A2 --
Holonym -- airplane (aeroplane)
Meronyms -- aileron / altimeter / black box / cabin / cargo / cockpit / cowling / elevator / fin / flap / flight deck / fuselage / galley / hatch / jet engine / leading edge / nose / propeller / rudder / seat / slat / tail / trailing edge / undercarriage / wing

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A3 --
Holonym -- airport
Meronyms -- airplane / airstrip / air terminal / control tower / hangar / lounge / taxiway / terminal

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A4 --
Holonym -- algae
Meronyms -- cell membrane / cell wall / chloroplast / cytoplasm / flagellum / nucleolus / nucleus / starch vacuole

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A5 --
Holonym -- atom
Meronyms -- electron / neutron / proton

Other Examples:
Holonym / Meronym -- Example A6 –
‘abacus’ is the holonym of ‘wire’
wire’ is a meronym of ‘abacus’

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A7 –
‘album’ is the holonym of ‘photograph’
‘photograph’ is a meronym of ‘album’

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A8 --
‘asparagus’ is the holonym of ‘spear’
‘spear’ is a meronym of ‘asparagus’

Holonym / Meronym -- Example A9 --
‘atmosphere’ is the holonym of ‘stratosphere’
‘stratosphere’ is a meronym of ‘atmosphere’
500 Words and Their Synonyms

Synonym is a word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word.

Sample This:

English Synonyms – A

001. ABET -- (meaning) to encourage somebody to do something illegal
Synonyms for ‘Abet’ --
incite / instigate / provoke

******

002. ABEYANCE -- (meaning) being stopped for a period of time
Synonyms for ‘Abeyance’ --
dormancy / intermission / suspension

******

003. ABILITY -- (meaning) the fact that somebody is able to do something
Synonyms for ‘Ability’ --
aptitude / capability / competence / knack / potential / proficiency / skill / talent

******

004. ABLAZE -- (meaning) burning; on fire
Synonyms for ‘Ablaze’ --
aflame / afire / alight

******

005. ABRASIVE -- (meaning) not smooth
Synonyms for ‘Abrasive’ --
coarse / harsh / rough

******

006. ABSENCE -- (meaning) not available, present, etc.
Synonyms for ‘Absence’ --
nonexistence / nonappearance / nonattendance

******

007. ABSTRUSE -- (meaning) difficult to understand
Synonyms for ‘Abstruse’ --
arcane / complicated / convoluted / esoteric / garbled / inarticulate / incoherent / incomprehensible / indecipherable / inexplicable / intricate / obscure / rarefied / recondite / unfathomable / unintelligible / unplumbed

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008. ABUSE -- (meaning) unfair or cruel treatment
Synonyms for ‘Abuse’ --
brutality / cruelty / exploitation / ill-treatment / maltreatment / mistreatment / misuse / spitefulness / viciousness

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009. ABYSS -- (meaning) a very deep crack in the ground
Synonyms for ‘Abyss’ --
chasm / gulf

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010. ACCEDE -- (meaning) to agree to a demand, request, proposal, etc.
Synonyms for ‘Accede’ --
acquiesce / approve / assent / commend / comply / endorse / grant / permission / ratify / sanction

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011. ACCENTUATE -- (meaning) to make something more noticeable
Synonyms for ‘Accentuate’ --
emphasize / highlight / underline / underscore

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012. ACCLIMATIZE -- (meaning) to get used to new situation
Synonyms for ‘Acclimatize’ --
adapt / adjust

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013. ACCOMPLISH -- (meaning) to succeed in getting something
Synonyms for ‘Accomplish’ --
attain / conquer / manage

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014. ACCOST -- (meaning) to come near to somebody/something
Synonyms for ‘Accost’ --
advance / approach / confront

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015. ACCREDITED -- (meaning) officially recognized
Synonyms for ‘Accredited’ --
certified / endorsed / licensed

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016. ACCRUAL -- (meaning) increase in something over a period of time
Synonyms for ‘Accrual’ --
accretion / addition / amassing / buildup / gathering

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017. ACCUSE -- (meaning) to say somebody is guilty of something
Synonyms for ‘Accuse’ --
arraign / blame / charge / impeach / indict / prosecute

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018. ACQUIT -- (meaning) to say officially that somebody is not guilty for a crime
Synonyms for ‘Acquit’ --
absolve / exculpate / exonerate

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019. ADMIRATION -- (meaning) praise or approval
Synonyms for ‘Admiration’ --
acclaim / accolade / applause / approbation / commendation / ovation

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020. ADMIRING -- (meaning) behavior that shows that you respect somebody/something
Synonyms for ‘Admiring’ --
chivalrous / considerate / courteous / deferential / gracious / respectful / reverent / reverential

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021. ADROIT -- (meaning) skillful and accurate
Synonyms for ‘Adroit’ --
agile / deft / dexterous / natty / nifty / nimble / swift

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022. ALARMING -- (meaning) causing feeling of fear and worry
Synonyms for ‘Alarming’ --
baffling / bewildering / confounding / disconcerting / disquieting / distressing / perplexing / puzzling / tormenting / upsetting / worrying

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Around 3000 daily life sentences, the most common words: after, against, all, around, away, back, before, call, carry, come, continue, down, ever, fall, give, go, hold, into, just, keep, lead, leave, let, lie/lay, like, look, make, name, once, off, on, out, over, pull, push, put, quality, remain, run, set, since, stand, take, through, throw, turn, up, upon, value, way | sample this: around -- flames flared around the stage. Aromas swirled around the room. Blue papers cut in rough triangles struck around the camp. He went around the lake in a motor boat. Houses, cars tossed around like toys. The dark or brown puffs of clouds were scattered around in the sky. They drove around in the city. Reporters rallied around her. Reporters struck around. I have spun around 360 degrees.  They later went around damaging property. 


Sample This:

01 – English Sentences -- After

Period (a particular length of time) + After
[This Pattern Is Used To Denote “Following Something In Time”]
Area was cordoned off an hour after the incident.
A picture was released a day after the attack.
Statement came 10 days after police claim.
The committee was formed two days after expose.
She had gone missing a few days after her husband was kidnapped.
He was saved a few days after other members were rescued.
She was killed weeks after returning from years in exile.
The shooting came less than a year after a massacre at main market.
That was more than 10 years after we had seen each other last.
She received a call soon after at her residence.
Soon after being informed by people, police swung into action.
Chopper collided mid-air shortly after take-off from an air base here.
The satellite started malfunctioning shortly after its deployment in orbit.
People will remember the song long after we are gone.
A week after abducted executive rescued, city has been rocked by abduction.
Three months after she took over reins of the state, she fulfilled her poll promises.
Two days after she got married, a 22-year old woman won the prestigious award.
Three days after hundred patients were treated, fifty more were admitted.

Noun + After + Noun
[This pattern is used to show something happens many times or continuously.]
He missed opportunity after opportunity.
Village has been caught in controversy after controversy.

You Can Also Use The Following Patterns:
One + Noun + After + Another
He missed one opportunity after another.
Village has been caught in one controversy after another.
The industry at large has faced one pain after another.
He indulged in one scam after another.

One After The Other
He established loyalty with three persons one after the other.
Events are taking place one after the other.
Many enemies came into his life one after the other.
One after the other, the survivors came out, each better than the other.
There were false allegations one after the other.

Two Events
Second Event (Simple Past) + After + First Event (Past Perfect)
I returned after he had gone.
He came after night had fallen.
I reached after the train had already left.

Others
She named his daughter after Lincoln.
The scheme (was) named after Party founder.
Indian NSG was modelled after their UK’s SAS.
My dog went after the thief.
Passengers said they heard a loud explosion after which the bus hurtled down.

The Art of Public Speaking is a fantastic introduction to public speaking by the master of the art, Dale Carnegie. Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. It is closely allied to "presenting", although the latter has more of a commercial connotation.

In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as "who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Public speaking can also be considered a discourse community. Interpersonal communication and public speaking have several components that embrace such things as motivational speaking, leadership/personal development, business, customer service, large group communication, and mass communication. Public speaking can be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivation, influence, persuasion, informing, translation, or simply entertaining. A confident speaker is more likely to use this as excitement and create effective speech thus increasing their overall ethos.

Dale Breckenridge Carnegie (originally Carnagey until 1922 and possibly somewhat later) (November 24, 1888 – November 1, 1955) was an American writer, lecturer, and the developer of famous courses in self-improvement, salesmanship, corporate training, public speaking, and interpersonal skills. Born in poverty on a farm in Missouri, he was the author of How to Win Friends and Influence People (1936), a massive bestseller that remains popular today. He also wrote How to Stop Worrying and Start Living (1948), Lincoln the Unknown (1932), and several other books.

Perhaps one of Carnegie’s most successful marketing moves was to change the spelling of his last name from “Carnagey” to Carnegie, at a time when Andrew Carnegie (unrelated) was a widely revered and recognized name. By 1916, Dale was able to rent Carnegie Hall itself for a lecture to a packed house. Carnegie's first collection of his writings was Public Speaking: a Practical Course for Business Men (1926), later entitled Public Speaking and Influencing Men in Business (1932). His crowning achievement, however, was when Simon & Schuster published How to Win Friends and Influence People. The book was a bestseller from its debut in 1936, in its 17th printing within a few months. By the time of Carnegie's death, the book had sold five million copies in 31 languages, and there had been 450,000 graduates of his Dale Carnegie Institute. It has been stated in the book that he had critiqued over 150,000 speeches in his participation in the adult education movement of the time. During World War I he served in the U.S. Army.

One of the core ideas in his books is that it is possible to change other people's behavior by changing one's reaction to them.
What are “Oronym Words”?

ORONYMS ----
[Oro- Whole; Nym: Name]
An oronym is a word or phrase that sounds very much the same as another word or phrase, often as a result of sounds running together. Oronyms are spelt differently and they have different meanings.

Oronym [singular] | Oronyms [plural]
Example: A name ---- an aim

Some Important Points:
1. An oronym is also called a continunym or a sliceonym.

2. An oronym generally originates when it is difficult to tell where one word ends and the next begins (e.g. a name -- an aim). An oronym also originates when a particular word may be divided into two or more meaningful words (e.g. affection -- a faction).

3. Effectiveness of oronyms may depend on what somebody is saying in context with the rest of the conversation.

3(A). Oronyms may completely alter the meaning of what somebody is saying.
Example:
They wanted the allocation of house.
They wanted the location of house.

3(B). Oronyms may also make conversation very funny.
Example:
Teacher asked the student to give an example.
Teacher asked the student to give an egg sample.

3(C). Oronyms may also make conversation completely senseless.
Example:
They will appoint a new manager at the earliest.
They will a point a new manager at the earliest.

4. Oronyms may also include abbreviations (shortened form of a word or group of words)
Examples:
ICT -- I see tea
VC -- we see


Derived Terms Related To ‘Oronyms’:
Oronymous
Words or phrases that are Oronyms are said to be Oronymous.
Oronymy
The state of being an Oronym is called Oronymy.

Following is the detailed list of Oronyms:


Oronym Words -- A

Oronym Pair -- A1
air-to-air ---- year-to-year
Example:
The jets had air-to-air weapons.
The jets had year-to-year weapons.

Oronym Pair -- A2
aggregate ---- a green gate
[aggregate -- total]

Oronym Pair -- A3
aggregator ---- a grass eater
[aggregator -- a kind of Internet company]

Oronym Pair -- A4
agree to differ ---- a great offer
[agree to differ -- (of two people) to not discuss their different views about something | offer -- proposal]

Oronym Pair -- A5
angry response ---- a grey sponge

Oronym Pair -- A6
accede ---- a seat
[accede -- to agree]

Oronym Pair -- A7
accent ---- a cent
[accent -- pronunciation | cent -- a coin]

Oronym Pair -- A8
accord ---- a cord
[accord -- agreement | cord -- string or rope]

Oronym Pair -- A9
accounting ---- a counting
[accounting -- bookkeeping]

Oronym Pair -- A10
accrue ---- a crew
[accrue -- amass | crew -- team]
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