Part I introduces ethics, the relationship of religion to ethics, how we assess ethical arguments, and a method ethicists use to reason about ethical theories. Part II demonstrates the relevance of ethical reasoning to the environment, land, farms, food, biotechnology, genetically modified foods, animals in agriculture and research, climate change, and nanotechnology. Part III presents case studies for the topics found in Part II.
The growing human population, rapid climate changes and limited amounts of arable land are creating substantial challenges in connection with the availability and affordability of nutritious food for smallholder farmers in developing countries. In this context, climate smart crops are essential to alleviating the hunger of the millions of poor and undernourished people living in developing countries. In addition to cereals, grain legumes are an integral part of the human diet and provide sustainable income for smallholder farmers in the arid and semi-arid regions of the world. Among grain legumes, the chickpea (Cicer arietinum) is the second most important in terms of production and productivity. Besides being a rich source of proteins, it can fix atmospheric nitrogen through symbiosis with rhizobia and increase the input of combined nitrogen. Several abiotic stresses like drought, heat, salinity, together with biotic stresses like Fusarium wilt, Ascochyta blight, and Botrytis grey mould have led to production losses, as the chickpeas is typically grown in the harsh climates of our planet’s semi-arid regions.
Radish (Raphanus sativus) is a member of the Brassicaceae family and is cultivated worldwide. Its varieties have been diversified in terms of size, shape, and the color of their roots and bio-components. Thanks to the development of high-throughput molecular techniques using next generation sequencers, complete genomes of cultivated and wild radish plants have been sequenced and published with annotations of predicted genes and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) information between radish cultivars and accessions. These, together with the construction of a high-density genetic map of radish and profiling of expression sequences in radish organs, have accelerated genetic studies, such as the identification of genes or loci associated with root development, pungent components, and plant disease resistance. Providing an overview of these advances, this book is a valuable resource for scientists involved in plant genetic research and crop breeding.