Antibiotic Resistance

BWB Texts

Book 54
Bridget Williams Books
1
Free sample

In ten years’ time, will antibiotics still work? Have we let bacteria get the upper hand in the evolutionary arms race?

In the 1920s the discovery of the antibiotic penicillin started a golden age of medicine. However, experts warn that the end of that age may be just a decade away. In this BWB Text, microbiologist Siouxsie Wiles explores the looming crisis of antibiotic resistance and its threat to New Zealand. Wiles concludes that New Zealand must do more to protect the public from a future without antibiotics.
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About the author

Dr Siouxsie Wiles has made a career of combining her twin passions of bioluminescence (think glow worms and fireflies) and infectious diseases. In a nutshell, Siouxsie and her team make nasty bacteria glow in the dark to better understand how they cause disease and to find new medicines.

Siouxsie studied medical microbiology at the University of Edinburgh, UK and then did a PhD in microbiology at the Centre for Ecology and Hydrology in Oxford. She spent several years working at Imperial College London where her research culminated in winning the inaugural UK National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement and Reduction of Animals in Research prize. In 2009, Siouxsie was awarded a Sir Charles Hercus Fellowship from the Health Research Council of New Zealand and relocated to the University of Auckland where she now heads up the Bioluminescent Superbugs Lab. Siouxsie has a keen interest in demystifying science for the public.

She is a blogger, podcaster, artist, curator and media science commentator and has won numerous prizes for her efforts, including the Prime Minister’s Science Media Communication Prize and the Royal Society of New Zealand Callaghan Medal. In 2016, Siouxsie was named a Blake Leader by the Sir Peter Blake Leadership Trust.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Bridget Williams Books
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Published on
Apr 10, 2017
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Pages
136
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ISBN
9780947518660
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Life Sciences / Bacteriology
Science / Life Sciences / Microbiology
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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The need for novel antibiotics is greater now than perhaps any time since the pre-antibiotic era. Indeed, the recent collapse of many pharmaceutical antibacterial groups, combined with the emergence of hypervirulent and pan-antibiotic-resistant bacteria has severely compromised infection treatment options and led to dramatic increases in the incidence and severity of bacterial infections.

This collection of reviews and laboratory protocols gives the reader an introduction to the causes of antibiotic resistance, the bacterial strains that pose the largest danger to humans (i.e., streptococci, pneumococci and enterococci) and the antimicrobial agents used to combat infections with these organisms. Some new avenues that are being investigated for antibiotic development are also discussed. Such developments include the discovery of agents that inhibit bacterial RNA degradation, the bacterial ribosome, and structure-based approaches to antibiotic drug discovery.

Two laboratory protocols are provided to illustrate different strategies for discovering new antibiotics. One is a bacterial growth inhibition assay to identify inhibitors of bacterial growth that specifically target conditionally essential enzymes in the pathway of interest. The other protocol is used to identify inhibitors of bacterial cell-to-cell signaling.

This e-book — a curated collection from eLS, WIREs, and Current Protocols — offers a fantastic introduction to the field of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance for students or interdisciplinary collaborators.

Table of Contents:

Introduction

Antibiotics and the Evolution of Antibiotic Resistance
eLS
Jose L Martinez, Fernando Baquero

Antimicrobials Against Streptococci, Pneumococci and Enterococci
eLS
Susan Donabedian, Adenike Shoyinka

Techniques & Applications

RNA decay: a novel therapeutic target in bacteria
WIREs RNA
Tess M. Eidem, Christelle M. Roux, Paul M. Dunman

Antibiotics that target protein synthesis
WIREs RNA
Lisa S. McCoy, Yun Xie, Yitzhak Tor

Methods

High-Throughput Assessment of Bacterial Growth Inhibition by Optical Density Measurements
Current Protocols Chemical Biology
Jennifer Campbell

Structure-Based Approaches to Antibiotic Drug Discovery
Current Protocols Microbiology
George Nicola, Ruben Abagyan

Novel Approaches to Bacterial Infection Therapy by Interfering with Cell-to-Cell Signaling
Current Protocols Microbiology
David A. Rasko, Vanessa Sperandio

Antimicrobial resistance is arguably the greatest threat to worldwide human health. This book evaluates the roles of human water use, treatment and conservation in the development and spread of antimicrobial resistance. Designed as a companion volume to Antimicrobial Resistance in the Environment (Wiley-Blackwell, 2012), this book is a multi-disciplinary synthesis of topics related to antimicrobial resistance and wastewater treatment processes.

Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes assembles detailed discussions written by many of the world's best-known experts in microbiology, civil engineering, chemistry, environmental science, public health and related fields. The book presents a collection of subjects that includes:

Current knowledge of the role of the environment in development and spread of antimicrobial resistance Chemical analysis of antibiotics in environmental samples Molecular methods for analysis of antimicrobial resistance genes Advanced wastewater treatment processes and antimicrobial resistance effects Public perception of risk related to health consequences of antimicrobial resistance Public health implications of antimicrobial resistance with focus on wastewater treatment processes

Antimicrobial resistance has gained a foothold in the global consciousness as a serious public health threat. There is a much greater appreciation for the role of the environment in the dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and the effects of pollutants that can potentially promote development of resistance in bacteria. Contaminants released from wastewater treatment plants are a concern. In Antimicrobial Resistance in Wastewater Treatment Processes, readers will be guided through examinations of the current science related to this important health issue.

LURKING in our homes, hospitals, schools, and farms is a terrifying pathogen that is evolving faster than the medical community can track it or drug developers can create antibiotics to quell it. That pathogen is MRSA—methicillin-resistant Staphyloccocus aureus—and Superbug is the first book to tell the story of its shocking spread and the alarming danger it poses to us all.

Doctors long thought that MRSA was confined to hospitals and clinics, infecting almost exclusively those who were either already ill or old. But through remarkable reporting, including hundreds of interviews with the leading researchers and doctors tracking the deadly bacterium, acclaimed science journalist Maryn McKenna reveals the hidden history of MRSA’s relentless advance—how it has overwhelmed hospitals, assaulted families, and infiltrated agriculture and livestock, moving inexorably into the food chain. Taking readers into the medical centers where frustrated physicians must discard drug after drug as they struggle to keep patients alive, she discloses an explosion of cases that demonstrate how MRSA is growing more virulent, while evolving resistance to antibiotics with astonishing speed. It may infect us at any time, no matter how healthy we are; it is carried by a stunning number of our household pets; and it has been detected in food animals from cows to chickens to pigs.

With the sensitivity of a novelist, McKenna portrays the emotional and financial devastation endured by MRSA’s victims, vividly describing the many stealthy ways in which the pathogen overtakes the body and the shock and grief of parents whose healthy children were felled by infection in just hours. Through dogged detective work, she discloses the unheard warnings that predicted the current crisis and lays bare the flaws that have allowed MRSA to rage out of control: misplaced government spending, inadequate public health surveillance, misguided agricultural practices, and vast overuse of the few precious drugs we have left.

Empowering readers with the knowledge they need for self-defense, Superbug sounds an alarm: MRSA has evolved into a global emergency that touches almost every aspect of modern life. It is, as one deeply concerned researcher tells McKenna, "the biggest thing since AIDS."
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