It presents a unique diamond-based luminometer with a detailed performance study.
The online bunch-by-bunch luminosity measurements provide an invaluable feedback to the Collider for beam optimisation and for the understanding of beam dynamics.
The precision of the luminosity measurement is crucial for all physics analyses. This book highlights the Van der Meer method, which is used for the calibration of the luminometers of the CMS (Compact Muon Solenoid) experiment, and describes the estimate of systematic uncertainties, e.g. due to radiation damage of sensors and electronics and uncertainties of beam parameters.
For the future high-luminosity upgrade of the collider, sapphire sensors are investigated in a test beam. It is demonstrated for the first time that sapphire sensors can be used as single particle detectors. A model for the charge transport in sapphire is developed and successfully applied.
The book provides the material honestly without misrepresenting the science for the sake of excitement or glossing over difficult notions. The principles behind each type of accelerator is made accessible to the undergraduate student and even to a lay reader with cartoons, illustrations and metaphors. Simultaneously, the book also caters to different levels of reader’s background and provides additional materials for the more interested or diligent reader.
The objective of this book is to collect together the basic science and technology that underlies the Electrostatic Accelerator field so it can serve as a handbook, reference guide and textbook for accelerator engineers as well as students and researchers who work with Electrostatic Accelerators.
Part I gathers the basic tools, recalling the essentials of electrostatics and electrodynamics as well as of particle dynamics in electromagnetic fields.
Part II is an extensive primer in beam dynamics, followed in Part III by the introduction and description of the main beam parameters. Part IV is devoted to the treatment of perturbations in beam dynamics. Part V discusses the details of charged particle acceleration. Part VI and Part VII introduce the more advanced topics of coupled beam dynamics and the description of very intense beams. Part VIII is an exhaustive treatment of radiation from accelerated charges and introduces important sources of coherent radiation such as synchrotrons and free-electron lasers. Part IX collects the appendices gathering useful mathematical and physical formulae, parameters and units. Solutions to many end-of-chapter problems are given.
This textbook is suitable for an intensive two-semester course starting at the advanced undergraduate level.
Extensive data tables allow the reader to assess rapidly the strengths as well as the pitfalls inherent in each method.
Chapters on chemical composition, optical and crystallographic properties, microtopography, surface processes, tribological, electrical and magnetic properties of surface films are featured. In addition, chapters specializing on applications within the life sciences on the microscopic scale and chemometrics are included.
Surface Characterization is addressed to both academic and industrial audiences. Scientists and engineers working on the production and development of new materials will find it an invaluable reference source. Physicist, chemists, chemical engineers, material scientists and engineers from every area of materials research will benefit from the wealth of practical advice the book provides.