Transforming Central Finance Agencies in Poor Countries: A Political Economy Approach

World Bank Publications
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Enhancing the Capabilities of Central Finance Agencies: Synthesis Report presents the findings of a study of the functions performed by CFAs, defined as government organizations that carry out financial management functions for the whole of government. Using a political economy approach to the analysis of CFAs in ten case studies of low-income countries, the report identifies the principal constraints on the capability of CFAs as: interventions by the head of the state, sometimes outside the provisions of the constitution and budget law, in executive decisions on the institutional arrangements and fiscal policy; deficiencies in management, ranging from excessively centralized and hierarchical decision-making processes to poor staff management and record keeping; and inadequate coordination among donors—and between donors and their clients in finance and planning ministries—in designing and implementing strategies for reforming CFAs and PFM systems. Drawing on results of the cross-country survey of CFAs, the first of its kind, the report presents evidence and offers explanations for an “inverted U-curve” for the concentration of central finance functions across country income groups. In low-income countries, CFA functions are often poorly defined and may be performed by agencies other than the Finance Ministry, leading to fragmented and inconsistent policy implementation. Middle income countries tend to concentrate central finance functions in the Finance Ministry to strengthen their control. In high-income countries, Finance Ministries tend to retain control of policy but delegate operational functions to specialized agencies. The report will be of interest to country authorities seeking to improve coordination across central finance functions and other stakeholders in the reform process
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Additional Information

Publisher
World Bank Publications
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Published on
Jul 17, 2013
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Pages
84
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ISBN
9780821398999
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Language
English
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Genres
Business & Economics / Accounting / Financial
Business & Economics / Banks & Banking
Business & Economics / Development / Business Development
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Content Protection
This content is DRM free.
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Whenever I tell people about my job as a financial advisor, the conversation inevitably turns to how hopeless they feel when it comes to dealing with money. More than once, they’ve begged, “Just tell me what to do.”

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Managing the ability of agriculture to meet rising global demand and to respond to the changes and opportunities will require good policy, sustained investments, and innovation - not business as usual. Investments in public Research and Development, extension, education, and their links with one another have elicited high returns and pro-poor growth, but these investments alone will not elicit innovation at the pace or on the scale required by the intensifying and proliferating challenges confronting agriculture. Experience indicates that aside from a strong capacity in Research and Development, the ability to innovate is often related to collective action, coordination, the exchange of knowledge among diverse actors, the incentives and resources available to form partnerships and develop businesses, and conditions that make it possible for farmers or entrepreneurs to use the innovations. While consensus is developing about what is meant by 'innovation' and 'innovation system', no detailed blueprint exists for making agricultural innovation happen at a given time, in a given place, for a given result. The AIS approach that looks at these multiple conditions and relationships that promote innovation in agriculture, has however moved from a concept to a sub-discipline with principles of analysis and action. AIS investments must be specific to the context, responding to the stage of development in a particular country and agricultural sector, especially the AIS. This sourcebook contributes to identifying, designing, and implementing the investments, approaches, and complementary interventions that appear most likely to strengthen AIS and to promote agricultural innovation and equitable growth. It emphasizes the lessons learned, benefits and impacts, implementation issues, and prospects for replicating or expanding successful practices. The information in this sourcebook derives from approaches that have been tested at different scales in different contexts. It reflects the experiences and evolving understanding of numerous individuals and organizations concerned with agricultural innovation, including the World Bank. This information is targeted to the key operational staff in international and regional development agencies and national governments who design and implement lending projects and to the practitioners who design thematic programs and technical assistance packages. The sourcebook can also be an important resource for the research community and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs).

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As part of the Country Status Report series, this book provides a comprehensive review of the status of education in post-conflict South Sudan. It is a result of collaborative work between MOE, key education stakeholders in South Sudan, and the World Bank. The aim is to contribute to the development of a shared vision for the future of the education system between government, citizens, and partners of the new South Sudan. With the signing of the Comprehensive Peace Agreement in 2005 began the establishment of a new education system specifically for South Sudan. Primary school enrollments approximately doubled between 2005 and 2009 from 0.7 million to 1.4 million; yet, the recent rapid growth has resulted in a concentration of students in the early grades, a high proportion of overage students, repetition, dropout, and weak levels of student learning. Thanks to the detail it offers, this book provides a solid foundation for dialogue about the future of education in South Sudan and will immediately be used to inform the preparation of an Education Sector Plan for the new country. The book underlines the strong progress that South Sudan has made in terms of expanding access to education, but also the many challenges that lie ahead. In particular, it sheds light on such questions as: Is everyone getting a chance at education? How much are students learning? What is the situation of schools and service delivery? What is South Sudan investing in education and how is it using these resources? Are the resources well-deployed and managed to ensure efficient functioning of the education system? The book offers a valuable and comprehensive resource for anyone interested in education in South Sudan.
This Education brief is intended for non-Russian researchers willing to get familiar with Russian education system and more generally for all those involved in education and education policy. It does not represent exhaustive information on Russian education system and all problems and challenges existing there, but provide a snapshot briefly describing its main features. Education brief - 2012 retains its main special feature which is the combination of statistical data and qualitative information to describe the organization and functioning of education system in the Russian Federation. The report provides an up-to-date array of indicators to measure the current state of education in the country. The indicators provide information on the human and financial resources invested in education, on how education and learning subsystems operate and evolve. The analytical parts of the report examine key problems and challenges faced by education system administrators and policymakers in education sphere. The report has the following structure. The opening section provides an overview of education system in the Russian Federation and briefly reviews the most evident emergent trends. Sections 2 through 5 are devoted to description of education system by level. The sections are presented in accordance with the following structure, namely by ascending order of educational level; the information in each section is presented in a progression from the most general to the most specific information. First, data on the current state of education system is provided; it includes data on the human and financial resources allocated to education, describes the network of educational institutions across the country and shows regional disparities concerning their spending on education. Next in each section key problems and challenges are examined; the focus is mainly made on access and quality of educational services. Third, information on recent and ongoing reforms in education sphere is presented; it looks on each subsector separately and defines features typical for each of them. Fourth goes the policy options and analysis of what can be improved in Russian education sphere. And, finally, section 6 is devoted to life-long learning. First, the focus is made on the condition and development trends in that sphere. Then it goes on with examining the state policy, staff training including financing and coverage in that area, and socially deprived groups of people. It ends up with provision of policy options and possible measures for improvement.
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