This book offers a cultural and intellectual approach to early modern environmental history and will be of special interest to environmental, cultural and intellectual historians, as well as anyone with an interest in the culture and politics of environmental governance.
Comprised of 34 chapters, this book begins by outlining an alternative approach to environmental modeling in which comprehensive models are replaced by a network of simpler models, focused on specific aspects of the reality and sponsored by corresponding decision-making organizations. The reader is then introduced to some socio-economic aspects of health care planning; structural modeling in a class of systems by fuzzy sets theory; and the role of legal measures in the orientation of urban growth. Subsequent chapters deal with the use of Environmental Assessment Scale as a technique for environmental evaluation; computer simulation of economy management systems; and optimal control models of regional economies. A model for pollution reduction and control is also described.
This monograph will be of interest to urban planners and environmental policymakers.
The book celebrates the deserved attractiveness of the parks as wilderness or 'spectacle' to millions of visitors, but also emphasises how there was nothing inevitable, self-sustaining or without cost in their magnificence and accessibility. Those early parks were a powerful unifying force as national 'playgrounds', especially as motor transport democratised their use. However they also provoked bitter conflict in their dispossession of local communities and perhaps deliberate segregation of people from scenery and wildlife.
That first century of national parks, which concluded with the significant break of the Second World War and the subsequent development of more international approaches to conservation, left an uncertain legacy. It was a fragile foundation from which to build what became an integral part of today's conservation movement.