State Death: The Politics and Geography of Conquest, Occupation, and Annexation

Princeton University Press
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If you were to examine an 1816 map of the world, you would discover that half the countries represented there no longer exist. Yet since 1945, the disappearance of individual states from the world stage has become rare. State Death is the first book to systematically examine the reasons why some states die while others survive, and the remarkable decline of state death since the end of World War II.

Grappling with what is a core issue of international relations, Tanisha Fazal explores two hundred years of military invasion and occupation, from eighteenth-century Poland to present-day Iraq, to derive conclusions that challenge conventional wisdom about state death. The fate of sovereign states, she reveals, is largely a matter of political geography and changing norms of conquest. Fazal shows how buffer states--those that lie between two rivals--are the most vulnerable and likely to die except in rare cases that constrain the resources or incentives of neighboring states. She argues that the United States has imposed such constraints with its global norm against conquest--an international standard that has largely prevented the violent takeover of states since 1945.

State Death serves as a timely reminder that should there be a shift in U.S. power or preferences that erodes the norm against conquest, violent state death may once again become commonplace in international relations.

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About the author

Tanisha M. Fazal is assistant professor of political science at Columbia University.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Princeton University Press
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Published on
Oct 30, 2011
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Pages
320
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ISBN
9781400841448
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Language
English
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Genres
Political Science / Comparative Politics
Political Science / Geopolitics
Political Science / International Relations / General
Political Science / Political Freedom
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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In Wars of Law, Tanisha M. Fazal assesses the unintended consequences of the proliferation of the laws of war for the commencement, conduct, and conclusion of wars over the course of the past one hundred fifty years.

After a brief history of the codification of international humanitarian law (IHL), Fazal outlines three main arguments: early laws of war favored belligerents but more recent additions have constrained them; this shift may be attributable to a growing divide between lawmakers and those who must comply with IHL; and lawmakers have been consistently inattentive to how rebel groups might receive these laws.

By using the laws of war strategically, Fazal suggests, belligerents in both interstate and civil wars relate those laws to their big-picture goals. In Wars of Law, we learn that, as codified IHL proliferates and changes in character—with an ever-greater focus on protected persons—states fighting interstate wars become increasingly reluctant to step over any bright lines that unequivocally oblige them to comply with IHL. On the other hand, Fazal argues, secessionists fighting wars for independence are more likely to engage with the laws of war because they have strong incentives to persuade the international community that, if admitted to the club of states, they will be good and capable members of that club.

Why have states stopped issuing formal declarations of war? Why have states stopped concluding formal peace treaties? Why are civil wars especially likely to end in peace treaties today? Addressing such basic questions about international conflict, Fazal provides a lively and intriguing account of the implications of the laws of war.

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In his provocative book, George Friedman turns his eye on the future—offering a lucid, highly readable forecast of the changes we can expect around the world during the twenty-first century. He explains where and why future wars will erupt (and how they will be fought), which nations will gain and lose economic and political power, and how new technologies and cultural trends will alter the way we live in the new century.
The Next 100 Years draws on a fascinating exploration of history and geopolitical patterns dating back hundreds of years. Friedman shows that we are now, for the first time in half a millennium, at the dawn of a new era—with changes in store, including:

• The U.S.-Jihadist war will conclude—replaced by a second full-blown cold war with Russia.
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• A new global war will unfold toward the middle of the century between the United States and an unexpected coalition from Eastern Europe, Eurasia, and the Far East; but armies will be much smaller and wars will be less deadly.
• Technology will focus on space—both for major military uses and for a dramatic new energy resource that will have radical environmental implications.
• The United States will experience a Golden Age in the second half of the century.

Written with the keen insight and thoughtful analysis that has made George Friedman a renowned expert in geopolitics and forecasting, The Next 100 Years presents a fascinating picture of what lies ahead.

For continual, updated analysis and supplemental material, go to www.Stratfor.com
    When looking into the existence and alleged activities of the infamous Illuminati secret society, one finds an overwhelming amount of conspiracy theories, hidden history, half-truths and hoaxes.  

    But how much truth is there to some of these claims you keep hearing about?  What is the real history of the mysterious group?  Do they continue to exist today?  What is the evidence?  And what are they doing?  

    After a decade of research sifting through the facts and the fiction, secret society expert Mark Dice will help you navigate through the complex maze from the original documents to rare revelations by elite politicians, bankers and businessmen, as he takes you Inside the Illuminati.  

SUBJECTS INCLUDE:

How and when the original writings of Adam Weishaupt and the Illuminati were discovered and what they say.  

See their own contingency plans showing they were prepared to continue operating in the event that they were discovered.  

The direct link between the Skull & Bones society at Yale University and the Bavarian Illuminati.

The connection to communism and Karl Marx’ admission that he was a member of a secret society which commissioned him to write The Communist Manifesto.

How they control the mainstream news media and use blockbuster films as propaganda tools to promote their agenda and shape our culture.

How they created various front groups like the Bilderberg Group, the Council on Foreign Relations, and the Federal Reserve to carry out their plans.  

Discover the virtually unknown secret society of secretaries and personal assistants who are trusted to serve elite businessmen and politicians.  

Investigations into the supposed bloodlines of the Illuminati, the Nephilim, and the Divine right of kings.   

Uncovering the Zodiac Club and their little-known twelve-member intimate dinner parties in New York.

The elite secret society of scientists funded by the Department of Defense who were responsible for creating the atomic bomb.  

The secret of “sex magic” and its alleged capabilities and perverted practitioners.  

The Jesuits, the Black Pope, and the Vatican’s child molesting mafia.  

Looking into allegations of child abuse, murder, and snuff films rumored to have taken place at the Bohemian Grove.  

The all-female version of the Bohemian Grove consisting of America’s most powerful women.

Stunning Rockefeller and Rothschild family admissions and the extent of their power and influence.  

The secret Jekyll Island meeting that gave birth to the Federal Reserve System.  

Skull & Bones sister societies Scroll & Key and Wolf’s Head at Yale University and the inter-council meetings these “Big Three” hold.  

The strange spiritual beliefs, philosophies, and occult symbolism of the Mystery Schools and their offshoots.  

Investigations into alleged ex-members ‘Doc’ Marquis, Leo Zagami, Kevin Trudeau, Brice Taylor, George Green, Mark Cleminson, and others.  

The Illuminati’s ultimate goal of creating a New World Order, a cashless society, and soon revealing the “royal secret,” admitting that they do in fact worship Satan.  

Their Transhumanist dream to become immortal Gods using advanced anti-aging technology, cybernetic neural interfaces, and mind uploading for what they see as the final step in human evolution.  

Their preparation for the arrival of the Illuminati messiah (the Antichrist), believing that he will finally rule planet earth as a God.  

How you can work to free yourself from mental, spiritual, and financial enslavement and avoid many of the traps set to ensnare ignorant and uniformed people.  

By the author of The Illuminati: Facts & Fiction

In Wars of Law, Tanisha M. Fazal assesses the unintended consequences of the proliferation of the laws of war for the commencement, conduct, and conclusion of wars over the course of the past one hundred fifty years.

After a brief history of the codification of international humanitarian law (IHL), Fazal outlines three main arguments: early laws of war favored belligerents but more recent additions have constrained them; this shift may be attributable to a growing divide between lawmakers and those who must comply with IHL; and lawmakers have been consistently inattentive to how rebel groups might receive these laws.

By using the laws of war strategically, Fazal suggests, belligerents in both interstate and civil wars relate those laws to their big-picture goals. In Wars of Law, we learn that, as codified IHL proliferates and changes in character—with an ever-greater focus on protected persons—states fighting interstate wars become increasingly reluctant to step over any bright lines that unequivocally oblige them to comply with IHL. On the other hand, Fazal argues, secessionists fighting wars for independence are more likely to engage with the laws of war because they have strong incentives to persuade the international community that, if admitted to the club of states, they will be good and capable members of that club.

Why have states stopped issuing formal declarations of war? Why have states stopped concluding formal peace treaties? Why are civil wars especially likely to end in peace treaties today? Addressing such basic questions about international conflict, Fazal provides a lively and intriguing account of the implications of the laws of war.

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