Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code

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As the application of object technology--particularly the Java programming language--has become commonplace, a new problem has emerged to confront the software development community. Significant numbers of poorly designed programs have been created by less-experienced developers, resulting in applications that are inefficient and hard to maintain and extend. Increasingly, software system professionals are discovering just how difficult it is to work with these inherited, "non-optimal" applications. For several years, expert-level object programmers have employed a growing collection of techniques to improve the structural integrity and performance of such existing software programs. Referred to as "refactoring," these practices have remained in the domain of experts because no attempt has been made to transcribe the lore into a form that all developers could use. . .until now. In Refactoring: Improving the Design of Existing Code, renowned object technology mentor Martin Fowler breaks new ground, demystifying these master practices and demonstrating how software practitioners can realize the significant benefits of this new process.

With proper training a skilled system designer can take a bad design and rework it into well-designed, robust code. In this book, Martin Fowler shows you where opportunities for refactoring typically can be found, and how to go about reworking a bad design into a good one. Each refactoring step is simple--seemingly too simple to be worth doing. Refactoring may involve moving a field from one class to another, or pulling some code out of a method to turn it into its own method, or even pushing some code up or down a hierarchy. While these individual steps may seem elementary, the cumulative effect of such small changes can radically improve the design. Refactoring is a proven way to prevent software decay.

In addition to discussing the various techniques of refactoring, the author provides a detailed catalog of more than seventy proven refactorings with helpful pointers that teach you when to apply them; step-by-step instructions for applying each refactoring; and an example illustrating how the refactoring works. The illustrative examples are written in Java, but the ideas are applicable to any object-oriented programming language.

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About the author

Martin Fowler is the Chief Scientist of ThoughtWorks, an enterprise-application development and delivery company. He's been applying object-oriented techniques to enterprise software development for over a decade. He is notorious for his work on patterns, the UML, refactoring, and agile methods. Martin lives in Melrose, Massachusetts, with his wife, Cindy, and a very strange cat. His homepage is http://martinfowler.com.

Kent Beck consistently challenges software engineering dogma, promoting ideas like patterns, test-driven development, and Extreme Programming. Currently affiliated with Three Rivers Institute and Agitar Software, he is the author of many Addison-Wesley titles.

John Brant and Don Roberts are the authors of the Refactoring Browser for Smalltalk, which is found at http://st-www.cs.uiuc.edu/~brant/RefactoringBrowser/. They are also consultants who have studied both the practical and theoretical aspects of refactoring for six years.

William Opdyke's doctoral research on refactoring object-oriented frameworks at the University of Illinois led to the first major publication on this topic. He is currently a Distinguished Member of Technical Staff at Lucent Technologies/Bell Laboratories.

John Brant and Don Roberts are the authors of the Refactoring Browser for Smalltalk, which is found at http://st-www.cs.uiuc.edu/~brant/RefactoringBrowser/. They are also consultants who have studied both the practical and theoretical aspects of refactoring for six years.



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Additional Information

Publisher
Addison-Wesley
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Published on
Mar 9, 2012
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Pages
99998
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ISBN
9780133065268
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Language
English
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Genres
Computers / Programming / Object Oriented
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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The Object-Oriented Thought Process, Fourth Edition

An introduction to object-oriented concepts for developers looking to master modern application practices


Object-oriented programming (OOP) is the foundation of modern programming languages, including C++, Java, C#, Visual Basic .NET, Ruby, and Objective-C. Objects also form the basis for many web technologies such as JavaScript, Python, and PHP.


It is of vital importance to learn the fundamental concepts of object orientation before starting to use object-oriented development environments. OOP promotes good design practices, code portability, and reuse–but it requires a shift in thinking to be fully understood. Programmers new to OOP should resist the temptation to jump directly into a particular programming language (such as Objective-C, VB .NET, C++, C# .NET, or Java) or a modeling language (such as UML), and instead first take the time to learn what author Matt Weisfeld calls “the object-oriented thought process.”


Written by a developer for developers who want to make the leap to object-oriented technologies, The Object-Oriented Thought Process provides a solutions-oriented approach to object-oriented programming. Readers will learn to understand the proper uses of inheritance and composition, the difference between aggregation and association, and the important distinction between interfaces and implementations.


While programming technologies have been changing and evolving over the years, object-oriented concepts remain a constant–no matter what the platform. This revised edition focuses on interoperability across programming technologies, whether you are using objects in traditional application design, in XML-based data transactions, in web page development, in mobile apps, or in any modern programming environment.


“Programmers who aim to create high quality software–as all programmers should–must learn the varied subtleties of the familiar yet not so familiar beasts called objects and classes. Doing so entails careful study of books such as Matt Weisfeld’s The Object-Oriented Thought Process.”

–Bill McCarty, author of Java Distributed Objects, and Object-Oriented Design in Java


Contents at a Glance

1 Introduction to Object-Oriented Concepts
2 How to Think in Terms of Objects
3 Advanced Object-Oriented Concepts
4 The Anatomy of a Class
5 Class Design Guidelines
6 Designing with Objects
7 Mastering Inheritance and Composition
8 Frameworks and Reuse: Designing with Interfaces and Abstract Classes
9 Building Objects and Object-Oriented Design
10 Creating Object Models
11 Objects and Portable Data: XML and JSON
12 Persistent Objects: Serialization, Marshaling, and Relational Databases
13 Objects in Web Services, Mobile Apps, and Hybrids
14 Objects and Client/Server Applications
15 Design Patterns

Object-Oriented Design with Applications has long been the essential reference to object-oriented technology, which, in turn, has evolved to join the mainstream of industrial-strength software development. In this third edition--the first revision in 13 years--readers can learn to apply object-oriented methods using new paradigms such as Java, the Unified Modeling Language (UML) 2.0, and .NET.

The authors draw upon their rich and varied experience to offer improved methods for object development and numerous examples that tackle the complex problems faced by software engineers, including systems architecture, data acquisition, cryptoanalysis, control systems, and Web development. They illustrate essential concepts, explain the method, and show successful applications in a variety of fields. You'll also find pragmatic advice on a host of issues, including classification, implementation strategies, and cost-effective project management.

New to this new edition are

An introduction to the new UML 2.0, from the notation's most fundamental and advanced elements with an emphasis on key changes New domains and contexts A greatly enhanced focus on modeling--as eagerly requested by readers--with five chapters that each delve into one phase of the overall development lifecycle. Fresh approaches to reasoning about complex systems An examination of the conceptual foundation of the widely misunderstood fundamental elements of the object model, such as abstraction, encapsulation, modularity, and hierarchy How to allocate the resources of a team of developers and mange the risks associated with developing complex software systems An appendix on object-oriented programming languages

This is the seminal text for anyone who wishes to use object-oriented technology to manage the complexity inherent in many kinds of systems.


Sidebars
Preface
Acknowledgments
About the Authors
Section I: Concepts
Chapter 1: Complexity
Chapter 2: The Object Model
Chapter 3: Classes and Objects
Chapter 4: Classification
Section II: Method
Chapter 5: Notation
Chapter 6: Process
Chapter 7: Pragmatics
Chapter 8: System Architecture: Satellite-Based Navigation
Chapter 9: Control System: Traffic Management
Chapter 10: Artificial Intelligence: Cryptanalysis
Chapter 11: Data Acquisition: Weather Monitoring Station
Chapter 12: Web Application: Vacation Tracking System
Appendix A: Object-Oriented Programming Languages
Appendix B: Further Reading
Notes
Glossary
Classified Bibliography
Index
Design Patterns in Java™ gives you the hands-on practice and deep insight you need to fully leverage the significant power of design patterns in any Java software project. The perfect complement to the classic Design Patterns, this learn-by-doing workbook applies the latest Java features and best practices to all of the original 23 patterns identified in that groundbreaking text.

Drawing on their extensive experience as Java instructors and programmers, Steve Metsker and Bill Wake illuminate each pattern with real Java programs, clear UML diagrams, and compelling exercises. You'll move quickly from theory to application–learning how to improve new code and refactor existing code for simplicity, manageability, and performance.

Coverage includes

Using Adapter to provide consistent interfaces to clients Using Facade to simplify the use of reusable toolkits Understanding the role of Bridge in Java database connectivity The Observer pattern, Model-View-Controller, and GUI behavior Java Remote Method Invocation (RMI) and the Proxy pattern Streamlining designs using the Chain of Responsibility pattern Using patterns to go beyond Java's built-in constructor features Implementing Undo capabilities with Memento Using the State pattern to manage state more cleanly and simply Optimizing existing codebases with extension patterns Providing thread-safe iteration with the Iterator pattern Using Visitor to define new operations without changing hierarchy classes

If you're a Java programmer wanting to save time while writing better code, this book's techniques, tips, and clear explanations and examples will help you harness the power of patterns to improve every program you write, design, or maintain.

All source code is available for download at http://www.oozinoz.com.

The practice of enterprise application development has benefited from the emergence of many new enabling technologies. Multi-tiered object-oriented platforms, such as Java and .NET, have become commonplace. These new tools and technologies are capable of building powerful applications, but they are not easily implemented. Common failures in enterprise applications often occur because their developers do not understand the architectural lessons that experienced object developers have learned.

Patterns of Enterprise Application Architecture is written in direct response to the stiff challenges that face enterprise application developers. The author, noted object-oriented designer Martin Fowler, noticed that despite changes in technology--from Smalltalk to CORBA to Java to .NET--the same basic design ideas can be adapted and applied to solve common problems. With the help of an expert group of contributors, Martin distills over forty recurring solutions into patterns. The result is an indispensable handbook of solutions that are applicable to any enterprise application platform.

This book is actually two books in one. The first section is a short tutorial on developing enterprise applications, which you can read from start to finish to understand the scope of the book's lessons. The next section, the bulk of the book, is a detailed reference to the patterns themselves. Each pattern provides usage and implementation information, as well as detailed code examples in Java or C#. The entire book is also richly illustrated with UML diagrams to further explain the concepts.

Armed with this book, you will have the knowledge necessary to make important architectural decisions about building an enterprise application and the proven patterns for use when building them.

The topics covered include

· Dividing an enterprise application into layers

· The major approaches to organizing business logic

· An in-depth treatment of mapping between objects and relational databases

· Using Model-View-Controller to organize a Web presentation

· Handling concurrency for data that spans multiple transactions

· Designing distributed object interfaces

In 1994, Design Patterns changed the landscape of object-oriented development by introducing classic solutions to recurring design problems. In 1999, Refactoring revolutionized design by introducing an effective process for improving code. With the highly anticipated Refactoring to Patterns , Joshua Kerievsky has changed our approach to design by forever uniting patterns with the evolutionary process of refactoring.

This book introduces the theory and practice of pattern-directed refactorings: sequences of low-level refactorings that allow designers to safely move designs to, towards, or away from pattern implementations. Using code from real-world projects, Kerievsky documents the thinking and steps underlying over two dozen pattern-based design transformations. Along the way he offers insights into pattern differences and how to implement patterns in the simplest possible ways.

Coverage includes:

A catalog of twenty-seven pattern-directed refactorings, featuring real-world code examples Descriptions of twelve design smells that indicate the need for this book’s refactorings General information and new insights about patterns and refactoring Detailed implementation mechanics: how low-level refactorings are combined to implement high-level patterns Multiple ways to implement the same pattern–and when to use each Practical ways to get started even if you have little experience with patterns or refactoring

Refactoring to Patterns reflects three years of refinement and the insights of more than sixty software engineering thought leaders in the global patterns, refactoring, and agile development communities. Whether you’re focused on legacy or “greenfield” development, this book will make you a better software designer by helping you learn how to make important design changes safely and effectively.

What others in the trenches say about The Pragmatic Programmer...

“The cool thing about this book is that it’s great for keeping the programming process fresh. The book helps you to continue to grow and clearly comes from people who have been there.”

—Kent Beck, author of Extreme Programming Explained: Embrace Change

“I found this book to be a great mix of solid advice and wonderful analogies!”

—Martin Fowler, author of Refactoring and UML Distilled

“I would buy a copy, read it twice, then tell all my colleagues to run out and grab a copy. This is a book I would never loan because I would worry about it being lost.”

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“Most modern books on software development fail to cover the basics of what makes a great software developer, instead spending their time on syntax or technology where in reality the greatest leverage possible for any software team is in having talented developers who really know their craft well. An excellent book.”

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“Since reading this book, I have implemented many of the practical suggestions and tips it contains. Across the board, they have saved my company time and money while helping me get my job done quicker! This should be a desktop reference for everyone who works with code for a living.”

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“I would like to see this issued to every new employee at my company....”

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“If I’m putting together a project, it’s the authors of this book that I want. . . . And failing that I’d settle for people who’ve read their book.”

—Ward Cunningham

Straight from the programming trenches, The Pragmatic Programmer cuts through the increasing specialization and technicalities of modern software development to examine the core process--taking a requirement and producing working, maintainable code that delights its users. It covers topics ranging from personal responsibility and career development to architectural techniques for keeping your code flexible and easy to adapt and reuse. Read this book, and you'll learn how to

Fight software rot; Avoid the trap of duplicating knowledge; Write flexible, dynamic, and adaptable code; Avoid programming by coincidence; Bullet-proof your code with contracts, assertions, and exceptions; Capture real requirements; Test ruthlessly and effectively; Delight your users; Build teams of pragmatic programmers; and Make your developments more precise with automation.

Written as a series of self-contained sections and filled with entertaining anecdotes, thoughtful examples, and interesting analogies, The Pragmatic Programmer illustrates the best practices and major pitfalls of many different aspects of software development. Whether you're a new coder, an experienced programmer, or a manager responsible for software projects, use these lessons daily, and you'll quickly see improvements in personal productivity, accuracy, and job satisfaction. You'll learn skills and develop habits and attitudes that form the foundation for long-term success in your career. You'll become a Pragmatic Programmer.



"One of the great things about the book is the way the authors explain concepts very simply using analogies rather than programming examples–this has been very inspiring for a product I'm working on: an audio-only introduction to OOP and software development."

–Bruce Eckel

"...I would expect that readers with a basic understanding of object-oriented programming and design would find this book useful, before approaching design patterns completely. Design Patterns Explained complements the existing design patterns texts and may perform a very useful role, fitting between introductory texts such as UML Distilled and the more advanced patterns books."

–James Noble

Leverage the quality and productivity benefits of patterns–without the complexity! Design Patterns Explained, Second Edition is the field's simplest, clearest, most practical introduction to patterns. Using dozens of updated Java examples, it shows programmers and architects exactly how to use patterns to design, develop, and deliver software far more effectively.

You'll start with a complete overview of the fundamental principles of patterns, and the role of object-oriented analysis and design in contemporary software development. Then, using easy-to-understand sample code, Alan Shalloway and James Trott illuminate dozens of today's most useful patterns: their underlying concepts, advantages, tradeoffs, implementation techniques, and pitfalls to avoid. Many patterns are accompanied by UML diagrams.

Building on their best-selling First Edition, Shalloway and Trott have thoroughly updated this book to reflect new software design trends, patterns, and implementation techniques. Reflecting extensive reader feedback, they have deepened and clarified coverage throughout, and reorganized content for even greater ease of understanding. New and revamped coverage in this edition includes

Better ways to start "thinking in patterns" How design patterns can facilitate agile development using eXtreme Programming and other methods How to use commonality and variability analysis to design application architectures The key role of testing into a patterns-driven development process How to use factories to instantiate and manage objects more effectively The Object-Pool Pattern–a new pattern not identified by the "Gang of Four" New study/practice questions at the end of every chapter

Gentle yet thorough, this book assumes no patterns experience whatsoever. It's the ideal "first book" on patterns, and a perfect complement to Gamma's classic Design Patterns. If you're a programmer or architect who wants the clearest possible understanding of design patterns–or if you've struggled to make them work for you–read this book.

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