English Grammar- Have, Has, Had

English Daily Use

Book 18
Manik Joshi
8
Free sample

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

VERB – ‘HAVE’

PART (A). Ordinary Verb -- ‘HAVE’

PART (B). Auxiliary Verb -- ‘HAVE’
1. Have/Has/Had + Third Form of Verb
2. Have/Has/Had + Been + Third Form of Verb
3. Have/Has/Had + Been + -ING Form of Verb
4. Have/Has/Had + Been
5. Have/Has/Had + Had

PART (C). Modal Verb -- ‘HAVE’
1A. [Have/Has + To + First Form of Verb]
1B. [Have/Has + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
2A. [Had + To + First Form of Verb]
2B. [Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
3A. [Have/Has + Had + To + First Form of Verb]
3B. [Have/Has + Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
4A. [Had + Had + To + First Form of Verb]
4B. [Had + Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
5A. [Having + To + First Form of Verb]
5B. [To + Have + To + First Form of Verb]

Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
Exercises: 3(A) to 3(C)

Sample This:


VERB – ‘HAVE’

Verb ‘HAVE’ is used as an AUXILIARY VERB as well as a MAIN (ORDINARY) VERB. It also does function of ‘MODAL VERB’.

MAIN VERB: When used as main verb, verb ‘have’ is followed by an object.
AUXILIARY VERB: When used as an auxiliary verb, it forms the perfect and perfect continuous tenses. [Note: ‘Auxiliary verb’ is a verb which is used with main verb to show tenses, etc.]
MODAL VERB: ‘Modal verb’ is a verb that is used with main verb to express intention, permission, possibility, probability, obligation, etc. Following patterns are possible: “have to, has to, had to, have had to, has had to, had had to, having to”

FORMS OF VERB ‘HAVE’:
Present form – Have or Has
Past form – Had
Past Participle form – Had

IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT VERB ‘HAVE’
‘Have’ Is Used With Subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural Subjects
‘Has’ Is Used With Subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects
‘Had’ Is Used With All Subjects (Singular or Plural)

USE OF ‘HAVE GOT’
In some senses, you can also use ‘have got’.
‘have got’ is especially used in ‘British English’.
She has got a loose temper. (= She has a loose temper.)
I have got a backache. (= I have a backache.)
He has got a management degree (= He has a management degree.)

PART (A). Ordinary Verb -- ‘HAVE’

As a Main Verb, ‘Have’ is used to express different kinds of thoughts: Some of them are as follows: to possess, to own, to show a quality, to show a feature, to suffer from illness, to perform a particular action, to produce a particular effect, to trick, to cheat, to hold, to experience, to receive, to allow, to put in a position, etc.
When used as main verb, ‘have’ is followed by an object.

I have an American passport.
He has an American passport.
She had an American passport.

Negative Forms Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Do not have (Don’t have)
Has – Does not have (Doesn’t have)
Had – Did not have (Didn’t have)
I don’t have an American passport.
He doesn’t have an American passport.
She didn’t have an American passport.

NOTE– Instead of using do/does/did, you can also use modal verbs (may, can, must, should, etc.) in negative sentences to show possibility, intention, obligation, etc.
I may not have an American passport.
He may not have an American passport.
She may not have an American passport.

You can also use ‘Never have/Never has/Never had’ to emphasize negative statements.
I never have my breakfast at 7 am.
This park never has any trace of greenery.
We never had the guts to question him.


Interrogative Patterns Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Do + Subject + Have
Has – Does + Subject + Have
Had – Did + Subject + Have
Do I have an American passport?
Does he have an American passport?
Did she have an American passport?

NOTE– Instead of using do/does/did, you can also use modal verbs (may, can, must, should, etc.) in interrogative sentences to show possibility, intention, obligation, etc.
Can I have an American passport?
Can he have an American passport?
Can she have an American passport?

Interrogative-Negative Patterns Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Don’t + Subject + Have
Has – Doesn’t + Subject + Have
Had – Didn’t + Subject + Have
Don’t I have an American passport?
Doesn’t he have an American passport?
Didn’t she have an American passport?
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About the author

Manik Joshi was born on Jan 26, 1979 at Ranikhet and is permanent resident of Haldwani, Kumaon zone of India. He is an Internet Marketer by profession. He is interested in domaining (business of buying and selling domain names), web designing (creating websites), and various online jobs (including 'self book publishing'). He is science graduate with ZBC (zoology, botany, and chemistry) subjects. He is also an MBA (with specialization in marketing). He has done three diploma courses in computer too.

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Publisher
Manik Joshi
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Published on
Oct 25, 2014
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Pages
76
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ISBN
9781497597891
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Public Speaking
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This content is DRM protected.
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This Book Covers The Following Topics:

Pattern (01) -- To + Be
Pattern (02) -- To + Be + -ING Form of Verb
Pattern (03) -- To + First Form of Verb
Pattern (04) -- To + Be + Third Form of Verb
Pattern (05) -- To + Have
Pattern (06) -- To + Have + Been
Pattern (07) -- To + Have + Been + -ING Form of Verb
Pattern (08) -- To + Have + Third Form of Verb
Pattern (09) -- To + Have + Been + Third Form of Verb
Pattern (10) -- Being (Present) And Having Been (Past)
Pattern (11) -- ‘Verb + -ING’ and ‘Having + Past Participle’
Pattern (12) -- Being, Having Been And Past Participle
Pattern (13) – “Be” + To
EXERCISE


Sample This:

Pattern (01) -- To + Be

[PAST EVENTS]
EXAMPLE 1:-
He thought that he was safe there.
First Part - He thought. [Main Verb In Past]
Second Part - He was safe there. [Verb ‘Be’ – Was]
Using – ‘To + Be’
He thought that he was safe there.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Remove ‘that’
B. Replace Subject pronoun (he) with Reflexive pronoun (himself)
C. Replace Verb ‘Was’ With To Be
He thought himself to be safe there [Main Verb In Past + To + Be]

EXAMPLE 2:
I believed that he was a rival.
First Part - I believed. [Main Verb In Past]
Second Part - He was a rival. [Verb ‘Be’ – Was]
Using – ‘To + Be’
I believed that he was a rival.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Remove ‘that’
B. Replace Subject pronoun (he) with Object pronoun (him)
C. Replace Verb ‘Was’ With ‘To Be’
I believed him to be a rival. [Main Verb In Past + To + Be]

EXAMPLE 3:
It was said that he was in China.
First Part - It was said [Main Verb in Past]
Second Part - He was in China [Verb ‘Be’ – Was]
Using – ‘To + Be’
It was said that he was in China.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Use Subject of Second Part as the Main Subject
B. Remove ‘that’
C. Replace Verb ‘Was’ (Second Part) With ‘To Be’
He was said to be in China. [Main Verb In Past + To + Be]

MORE EXAMPLES:
He appeared to be mentally disturbed.
He appeared to be in the age group of 23-25 years.
The family claimed it to be a case of medical negligence.
Others seemed to be fast asleep.
Speeding seemed to be the reason behind the accident.
We never expected him to be part of scandal.
More than a dozen children were believed to be among the passengers on the plane.
Samples of the body said to be of 23-year body did not match despite investigation agency having thrice sent the sample to a laboratory.
He grew up to be a brave man.
A closer look showed it to be the head of a boy neck-deep in the quicksand.
Wait turned out to be long and futile.
Kidnapper turned out to be none other than his own relative.
They found four passengers who turned out to be thieves.
Everyone wanted to be first to be out from hotel.


[PRESENT EVENTS]
EXAMPLE 1:
We know that he is alive.
First Part - We know. [Main Verb In Present]
Second Part - He is alive. [Verb ‘Be’ – Is]
Using – ‘To + Be’
We know that he is alive.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Remove ‘that’
B. Replace Subject pronoun (he) with Object pronoun (him)
C. Replace Verb ‘Is’ With To Be
We know him to be alive. [Main Verb In Present + To + Be]

EXAMPLE 2:
It is said that his condition is critical.
First Part – It is said. [Main Verb In Present]
Second Part - His condition is critical. [Verb ‘Be’ – Is]
Using – ‘To + Be’
It is said that his condition is critical.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Use Subject of Second Part as the Main Subject
B. Remove ‘that’
C. Replace Verb ‘Is’ (Second Part) With ‘To Be’
His condition is said to be critical. [Main Verb In Present + To + Be]

MORE EXAMPLES:
It appears to be a replay of 1997 hit and run case.
The ball appears to be in the finance ministry’s court.
Friends are known to be sympathetic during tough times.
They cease to be MPs.
Today happens to be your birthday.
They are reported to be safe.
He wants it to be a low-key affair.
I want this to be more of an inspirational story.
The incident seems to be fallout of property dispute.
The shelter is expected to be ready by next week.
He is considered to be close to president.
Time management is said to be the key of success.
He is believed to be in a serious but stable condition.
The Nile is said to be longer the all other rivers.
He has been found to be a millionaire.
Modal Auxiliary Verb (or ‘Modal Verb’ or ‘Modal Auxiliary’) is a verb that is used with another verb (not a modal verb) to express ability, intention, necessity, obligation, permission, possibility, probability, etc.

English modal auxiliary verbs - may, might, can, could, will, would, shall, should, must, need, used(to), ought(to), dare | different patterns and examples | may and might are used to express- possibility, compulsion, obligation, probability (in present and future) | can, could are used to express- ability, probability, possibility, suggestion, request, condition | will, would are used to express- action in future, present habit, compulsion, obligation | shall, should are used to express- action in future, suggestion, surprise, importance or purpose | need is used to express necessity | used(to) is used to express- past habit | ought(to) is used to express- probability, recommendation, obligation, advise | dare is used to express– be brave enough to

Sample This:

Modal Auxiliary Verb -- May and Might

‘May’ and ‘Might’ are used to show Possibility and Probability
‘May’ and ‘Might’ are used to ask for Permission
‘May’ is used to give or refuse Permission

Some Important Uses of ‘May’ and ‘Might’

To say what the purpose of something is
We eat that we may live.
Her prayer was that the child might live.
That he might be well fed his mother starved herself.

To admit that something is true before introducing another point, argument, etc.
You may not return to past glory, but don't stop believing.
City may not have the roads to drive sports car, but it has excellent infrastructure.
It may not be wise, but using force may be lawful.
I may not have deserved the house I bought, but I'm glad I own it.
He may not have been loved, but he was respected.
We may have had to go without food, but he is very considerate.

‘May’ is used to express wishes and hopes
May you live prosperous life!

‘May’ is used to give or refuse Permission [In Informal and Polite Way]
You may contact us for queries regarding donations.
When you have finished your work you may go home.
Note: Never use ‘might’ to give permission. [Always use ‘may’]
Never use ‘might not’ to refuse permission. [Always use ‘may not’]

Difference between ‘May’ and ‘Might’
Note: ‘Might’ is the past equivalent of ‘may’ in indirect speech.
But it is used in the same way as ‘may’ to talk about the present or future.

‘May’ denotes more possibility/probability
‘Might’ denotes less possibility/probability
It may rain tomorrow (Perhaps a 75% chance) - More possible
It might rain tomorrow (Perhaps a 50% chance) - Less possible

‘Might’ also denotes ‘would perhaps’
You might attract President’s attention later. (= Perhaps you would attract.)
He might have to go (Perhaps he had to go.)

‘Might’ is frequently used In conditional sentences
If I pursued studies further, I might learn more.
If I had pursued studies further, I might have learned more.

‘Might’ has limitations while ‘asking permission’
‘Might’ is very polite and formal. It is not common. It is mostly used in indirect questions.
I wonder if I might work on your computer.

Note: ‘Maybe’ is an adverb. [‘Maybe’ means ‘perhaps’]
Maybe he came to know something secret and was removed from the post.

ALSO NOTE:
Difference Between ‘May’ and ‘Can’
‘May’ is more formal than ‘Can’
‘May’ is mostly used in ‘formal’ English.
‘Can’ is mostly used in ‘informal’ (or spoken) English
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

01. Direct and Indirect Speech
02. Expression of Time
03. Important Reporting Verbs
04. Pronoun Change
05. Tenses in Direct and Indirect Speech
06. Reporting Verb with Object
07. Changing Modal Verbs
08. ‘Questions’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
09. ‘Exclamations’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
10. ‘Imperatives’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
11. Direct and Indirect Speech: Mixed Types
12. Where to Put Reporting Verb in Direct Speech
13. Punctuation Rules
14. Other Useful Notes
Exercise -- 01
Exercise -- 02
Exercise -- 03

Sample This:

01. Direct and Indirect Speech

There are two ways to express what someone else has said. On this basis, sentences are of two types: sentences with Direct Speech, and sentences with Indirect Speech

DIRECT SPEECH
Direct Speech is also called Quoted Speech or Direct Narration.
Direct Speech refers exactly what someone has said.
Direct Speech appears within quotation marks (“..”). A comma is used before starting the exact quote within the quotation marks.
Direct Speech should be word for word.
The first letter of the quotation begins with a capital letter.
Example: The president said, “I will not bear corruption in the country at any cost.”

INDIRECT SPEECH
Indirect speech is also called Reported Speech or Indirect Narration.
Indirect Speech does not refer exactly what someone has said.
Indirect Speech doesn't appear within quotation marks but the word “that” may be used as a conjunction between the reporting verb and reported speech.
Indirect Speech shouldn’t be word for word.
Pronoun in Indirect Speech is changed according to speaker and hearer.
Example: The president declared that he would not bear corruption in the country at any cost.

Important rules for changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech are as follows:


02. Expression of Time

You need to change expression of time when changing direct speech (DS) into indirect speech (IDS) to match the moment of speaking. Important expressions of time in direct and indirect speech are as follows:

‘a month ago’ is changed into ‘a month before’
‘a year ago’ is changed into ‘the previous year’ or ‘a year before’
‘last night’ is changed into ‘the night before’
‘last Saturday’ is changed into ‘the Saturday before’
‘last weekend’ is changed into ‘the weekend before’
‘next year’ is changed into ‘the following year’ or ‘the year after’
‘now’ is changed into ‘then’
‘the day after tomorrow’ is changed into ‘in two day’s time’
‘the day before yesterday’ is changed into ‘two days before’
‘these (days)’ is changed into ‘those (days)’
‘this (morning/noon/evening)’ is changed into ‘that (morning/noon/evening)’
‘today’ is changed into ‘that day’
‘tomorrow’ is changed into ‘the next/following day’ or ‘the day after’
‘tonight’ is changed into ‘that night’
‘yesterday’ is changed into ‘the previous day’ or ‘the day before’

Besides expressions of time, there are many other expressions that need to be changed if you are changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech.
‘come’ is changed into ‘go’
‘bring’ is changed into ‘take’
‘thus’ is changed into ‘so’
‘hence’ is changed into ‘thence’
‘hither’ is changed into ‘thither’
‘here’ is changed into ‘there’
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

1. ENGLISH VERB -- ‘GET’
2. Meanings of Main Verb ‘GET’
3. GET + THIRD FORM OF VERB
3A. Get + Third Form of Verb
3B. Have/Has + Got + Third Form of Verb
3C. Got + Third Form of Verb
3D. Had + Got + Third Form of Verb
3E. Will + Get + Third Form of Verb
3F. Will + Have + Got + Third Form of Verb
3G. Modal Verbs + Get + Third Form of Verb
3H. Getting + Third Form of Verb
3I. Verb + To + Get + Third Form of Verb
4. GET TO + FIRST FORM OF VERB
4A. Get To + First Form of Verb
4B. Got To + First Form of Verb
4C. Will + Get To + First Form of Verb
5. HAVE + GOT TO + FIRST FORM OF VERB
6. ‘GET’ + ADJECTIVE
7. ‘GET’ + USED TO
8. Use of ‘Get’ In Causative Sentences
9. English Idioms With ‘Get’
10. Phrasal Verbs With ‘Get’
11. Other Sentences With ‘Get’
12. Conjugation of Verb ‘Get’
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
Exercises: 3(A) and 3(B)


Sample This:

1. ENGLISH VERB -- ‘GET’

Get is an irregular verb. Its three forms are as follows:

First Form (Base Form) -- GET
Second Form (Past Form) -- GOT
Third Form (Past Participle) -- GOT/GOTTEN

Present Perfect of ‘Get’ – Have/Has Got || Have/Has Gotten
Past Perfect of ‘Get’ -- Had Got || Had Gotten

Gotten (past participle form of ‘get’) is generally used in Spoken American English. Gotten is incorrect in British English.

-ING Form of ‘Get’ -- Getting
Infinitive of ‘Get’ -- To Get

IMPORTANT NOTE:
“Have/has got” is the ‘Present Perfect’ Form of ‘get’. But it is mainly used in the present indefinite (simple) tense. “Have/has got” is generally used with ‘simple present meaning’ to show characteristics, ownership, illnesses, and relationships.
‘Have got’ and ‘has got’ have the same meaning as ‘have’ and ‘has’ respectively. They can be used as present indefinite (simple) tenses.

Affirmative Sentences --
They have got computers. = They have computers.
He has got a computer. = He has a computer.

Negative Sentences --
They have not got computers. = They do not have computers.
He has not got a computer. = He does not have a computer.
Note:- Negative form of ‘have/has got’ is made by adding ‘not’ between ‘have/has’ and ‘got’; whereas, negative form of ‘have/has’ is made by using ‘do/does not’.

Interrogative Sentences --
Have they got computers? = Do they have computers?
Has he got a computer? = Does he have a computer?
Note:- Interrogative pattern of ‘have/has got’ is made by putting auxiliary verb ‘have/has’ before the subject; whereas Interrogative pattern of ‘have/has’ is made by putting auxiliary verb ‘Do/Does’ before the subject.

However, in past events you should prefer using ‘had’ instead of ‘had got’ ’ to show characteristics, ownership, illnesses, and relationships.
More Common -- They had computers. They did not have computers. Did they have computers?
Less Common -- They had got computers. They had not got computers. Had they got computers?

Also Note: Use of ‘have got’ and ‘has got’ in present perfect tenses:
Pattern: Have/has got + past participle of verb
A project has got stuck. || Many projects have got stuck.

And, in past perfect tenses you should use ‘had got’.
A project had got stuck. || Many projects had got stuck.


ALSO NOTE:
GOTTA - Very informal and non-standard way of referring to ‘have got to’ or ‘have got a’ in writing. This form is grammatically incorrect. Avoid using writing this form.

English Verb ‘Get’ can be used in a number of patterns and has lots of different uses and meanings.--
A. “Get” is used as a main verb with many different meanings.
B. “Get” is used in several idioms.
C. “Get” is used in several phrasal verbs.

Meanings of Main Verb ‘GET’

MOST COMMON MEANINGS OF “GET” AS A MAIN VERB ARE AS FOLLOWS:
to receive / to obtain or acquire (to gain, attain, achieve something) / to bring / to receive prison term / to receive broadcasts / to buy something / to earn / to receive marks or grade in an exam / to become affected by (a disease or bodily condition) / to be infected with an illness, etc. / to start doing something / to arrive/come/reach / to move to a particular direction or place / to use transport (to catch) / to answer (receive) the phone call / to capture somebody / to understand / to have / to memorize / to find out by calculation / to deliver / to prepare a meal, etc.

1. TO RECEIVE
We get assurance every time, but nothing has materialized.
I got the medal and the money.
I got an appointment letter today.
Flood-affected families got compensation.
We got some high-resolution images.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

A Big Myth
List of Prepositions
Ending a sentence with a preposition – About, Against, At, By, For, From, In, Into, Of, On, Out, To, Upon, With - Example Sentences
When to End a Sentence with a Preposition
Situation – 01 - Interrogative Sentences
Situation – 02 - Passive Voice Sentences
Situation – 03 - Infinitive Structures
Situation – 04 - Relative Clauses
Situation – 05 - Phrasal Verbs
How to Avoid Ending a Sentence with a Preposition
Option – 01 - Restructuring the Sentence
Option – 02 - Using a Different Word
Avoid Unnecessary Use of Prepositions
Additional Examples
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)

Sample This:

A Big Myth

It is said we should avoid ending a sentence with a preposition. A preposition should be placed before a noun or a pronoun. The word preposition expresses “position before” so it is improper to place a preposition at the end! This is, however, not a rule. You can use a preposition to end a sentence with.

Here, you will learn when you can use a preposition at the end of a sentence and how you can avoid using a preposition at the end of a sentence.

As there is no hard and fast rule regarding use of a preposition at the end of a sentence, so whether you use it or not at the end of a sentence, it is your choice. But as most people avoid ‘excessive’ use of prepositions at the end of sentences, you can follow suit, and may use them only when they give strength to your language.

Some words (on, off, over, etc.) may be used as both prepositions and adverbs. However, everyone can’t easily differentiate between preposition and adverb. So, whenever they see these words at the end of sentences, they think that they are prepositions. As most of the people are averse to the idea of using prepositions at the end of sentences, they even don’t use these words as adverbs at the end of sentences.

Actually, it is a myth that you shouldn’t use preposition at the end of a sentence. Using a preposition at the end of a sentence is not grammatically incorrect. You can end your sentences with prepositions. Sometimes, using preposition at the end of a sentence seems better than using it in the middle or beginning of a sentence.



Ending a Sentence with a Preposition - ABOUT
An ad agency's job is to take a brand to consumers and communicate the proposition well to them, so that they understand what the brand is all about.
Could you tell me what he was on about?
For last 5 years, he has been part of the corruption in our country that we are angry about.
Governor said even clerical staff could easily address some of the complaints that students were approaching him about.
He warned her against commenting on things he is not authorized to speak about.
Her success is all everybody in the town is talking about.
How did the company come about?
How did this all come about?
I decided to leave my career, and concentrate my energies in an area which I was passionate about.
I do not know which video you are talking about.
Intimate details of his life have been flung about.
There are many healthcare centers worth talking about.
This is the player I told you about.
This is what the fight is about.
What are all these girls doing about?
What are you getting upset about?
What are you thinking about?
What did you want to read about?
What do they want to talk about?
Modal Auxiliary Verb (or ‘Modal Verb’ or ‘Modal Auxiliary’) is a verb that is used with another verb (not a modal verb) to express ability, intention, necessity, obligation, permission, possibility, probability, etc.

English modal auxiliary verbs - may, might, can, could, will, would, shall, should, must, need, used(to), ought(to), dare | different patterns and examples | may and might are used to express- possibility, compulsion, obligation, probability (in present and future) | can, could are used to express- ability, probability, possibility, suggestion, request, condition | will, would are used to express- action in future, present habit, compulsion, obligation | shall, should are used to express- action in future, suggestion, surprise, importance or purpose | need is used to express necessity | used(to) is used to express- past habit | ought(to) is used to express- probability, recommendation, obligation, advise | dare is used to express– be brave enough to

Sample This:

Modal Auxiliary Verb -- May and Might

‘May’ and ‘Might’ are used to show Possibility and Probability
‘May’ and ‘Might’ are used to ask for Permission
‘May’ is used to give or refuse Permission

Some Important Uses of ‘May’ and ‘Might’

To say what the purpose of something is
We eat that we may live.
Her prayer was that the child might live.
That he might be well fed his mother starved herself.

To admit that something is true before introducing another point, argument, etc.
You may not return to past glory, but don't stop believing.
City may not have the roads to drive sports car, but it has excellent infrastructure.
It may not be wise, but using force may be lawful.
I may not have deserved the house I bought, but I'm glad I own it.
He may not have been loved, but he was respected.
We may have had to go without food, but he is very considerate.

‘May’ is used to express wishes and hopes
May you live prosperous life!

‘May’ is used to give or refuse Permission [In Informal and Polite Way]
You may contact us for queries regarding donations.
When you have finished your work you may go home.
Note: Never use ‘might’ to give permission. [Always use ‘may’]
Never use ‘might not’ to refuse permission. [Always use ‘may not’]

Difference between ‘May’ and ‘Might’
Note: ‘Might’ is the past equivalent of ‘may’ in indirect speech.
But it is used in the same way as ‘may’ to talk about the present or future.

‘May’ denotes more possibility/probability
‘Might’ denotes less possibility/probability
It may rain tomorrow (Perhaps a 75% chance) - More possible
It might rain tomorrow (Perhaps a 50% chance) - Less possible

‘Might’ also denotes ‘would perhaps’
You might attract President’s attention later. (= Perhaps you would attract.)
He might have to go (Perhaps he had to go.)

‘Might’ is frequently used In conditional sentences
If I pursued studies further, I might learn more.
If I had pursued studies further, I might have learned more.

‘Might’ has limitations while ‘asking permission’
‘Might’ is very polite and formal. It is not common. It is mostly used in indirect questions.
I wonder if I might work on your computer.

Note: ‘Maybe’ is an adverb. [‘Maybe’ means ‘perhaps’]
Maybe he came to know something secret and was removed from the post.

ALSO NOTE:
Difference Between ‘May’ and ‘Can’
‘May’ is more formal than ‘Can’
‘May’ is mostly used in ‘formal’ English.
‘Can’ is mostly used in ‘informal’ (or spoken) English
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

How to Start a Sentence
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AFTER’ and ‘BEFORE’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘BY’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘FOR/FROM
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IF’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘OF/ON/OUT’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘TO’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IN’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘WITH’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘QUESTION WORDS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘ING’ FORM of VERBS
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PAST PARTICIPLES’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘-LY Words’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PRONOUNS’
Start a Sentence – Miscellaneous
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)

Sample This:

There are different ways to start a sentence in English. Using pronoun (I, we, you, they, he, she, it) is the most popular way to begin a sentence. But there are many other words which are widely used to start a sentence. They might be question words (what, where, etc.). They might be words formed from verbs, ending in –ing, -ed, -en, etc. Besides, words such as ‘to’ ‘in’ ‘with’, ‘if’, ‘after’ are also used to begin a sentence.
Here, you will learn various words and phrases to start a sentence with.

Important Note:
Starting a sentence with ‘and’ or ‘but’ is correct or not!

Using ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence is generally considered grammatically Incorrect. But there is no hard and fast rule in this regard. So, you can use ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence. But avoid excessive use of these words to begin a sentence. Use these words in the beginning of a sentence only when they really give strength to your language.

Note: It is said that a sentence should not be begun with a conjunction of any kind, especially one of the FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). But this is not hard and fast rule. Particularly in spoken English, starting a sentence with ‘And’ or ‘But’ is common.


How to start a sentence -- Using ‘AS’

As a matter of fact no notice was given to anyone.
As a policeman myself, I am aware of all the laws.
As against last time four days, the fair will last for five days this year.
As always, he won the match.
As an interim arrangement, we directed the authorities not to return the land.
As fate would have it, he crossed the international border.
As for David, he is doing fine.
As he got busy, she picked up his son.
As he grew older, he developed his communications skills.
As if the bad power situation in the city wasn’t enough, the hike in power tariff has come as the last straw for residents.
As in the past, party president distanced herself from the government’s unpopular decision.
As long as here is violence by unruly mobs, use of police force is inevitable.
As often happened, he forgot to send me reply.
As part of the deal, they will hand-over control of five west bank towns.
As penance, he vowed to never scold any kid ever again.
As per his version, nobody had got injured in the incident.
As per rules, the same bill should be passed by the two Houses of the Parliament before it is sent to the President for his signature and promulgation for implementation.
As sanitary workers are absent on most of the days, sweeping of that road is also irregular resulting in trash along the road.
As the bus was nearing, / As the bus neared him, he moved aside.
As the day progressed, over a hundred men protestors gathered at the office.
As the electric cables are hanging loosely, it may anytime lead to major accident if any passer-by comes into contact.
As the mercury levels are dropping each day, difficulties for the poor are constantly rising.
As the war widened, they had to leave the city.
As we progresses, it is going to become more and more difficult.
As you know, I have sent him a letter.
This Book Covers the Following Topics:

Transitional Expressions -- Definition
Transitional Expressions – Punctuation Rules
01. Transitional Expressions -- Addition
02. Transitional Expressions -- Cause and Effect
03. Transitional Expressions -- Concession
04. Transitional Expressions -- Condition
05. Transitional Expressions -- Consequence
06. Transitional Expressions -- Contrast
07. Transitional Expressions -- Dismissal
08. Transitional Expressions -- Illustration
09. Transitional Expressions -- Emphasis
10. Transitional Expressions -- Exception
11. Transitional Expressions -- Explanation
12. Transitional Expressions -- Generalization
13. Transitional Expressions -- Location
14. Transitional Expressions -- Purpose
15. Transitional Expressions -- Quantifier
16. Transitional Expressions -- Reference
17. Transitional Expressions -- Sequence
18. Transitional Expressions – Similarity
19. Transitional Expressions -- Summary
20. Transitional Expressions -- Time
Exercise: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercise: 2(A) to 2(C)


SAMPLE THIS:

Transitional Expressions -- Definition

Meaning of ‘Transition’ -- to go from one point to another
“Transitional Expressions” = “Transitional Words” + “Transitional Phrases”
“Transitional (or Transition) Words” are also known as “connecting words”, “linking words” or “signal words“
“Transitional (or Transition) Phrases” are also known as “connecting phrases”, “linking phrases” or “signal phrases“

“Transitional Expressions” (also “Transitions”) could be defined as follows:
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ are words or phrases that provide bridges between sentences, parts of sentences, paragraphs and sections.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ connect and relate sentences and paragraphs.
•    ‘Transitions expressions’ signal the relationship between sentences and paragraphs.
•    ‘Transitions expressions’ state the connections between ideas.
•    ‘Transitions expressions’ help carry over a thought from one part of a sentence to another, from one sentence to another, from one paragraph to another, from one section to another, or from one idea to another.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ connect ideas from sentence to sentence and paragraph to paragraph.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ are placed in the beginning, middle, or end of the sentences/paragraphs to explain connections between two or more ideas.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ help carry over a thought from one idea to another.
•    ‘Transitional expressions’ produce clearer expression, by eliminating the excessive use of such words as ‘and’, ‘but’, ‘for’ ‘nor’, ‘or’ ‘so’ ‘yet’, etc.

Choosing Transitional Expression --
Some transitional words and transitional phrases belong to more than one category. A transitional expression can change the whole meaning of a sentence. Therefore, you should choose the transition that best conveys your meaning. You should also avoid repetition and use different transition words or phrases in the same category if necessary.

Placing transitional words:
There are three options for placing transitional words:
• The beginning of a sentence [Most common]
• The middle of a sentence
• The end of a sentence [Least Common]

Example:
Their products come with an insurance pack that covers accidental damage, theft, and breakage for a year. Furthermore, customers can also avail for an additional year of warranty. [Use of transitional word ‘furthermore’ at the beginning of a sentence]

Their products come with an insurance pack that covers accidental damage, theft, and breakage for a year. Customers, furthermore, can also avail for an additional year of warranty. [Use of transitional word ‘furthermore’ in the middle of a sentence]

Their products come with an insurance pack that covers accidental damage, theft, and breakage for a year. Customers can also avail for an additional year of warranty, furthermore. [Use of transitional word ‘furthermore’ in the end of a sentence]
THIS BOOK CONTAINS MEANINGS OF MORE THAN 1400 ADVANCED ENGLISH WORDS (including phrasal verbs and idioms).

English Words And Meanings, Advance English Words And Their Meanings, Learn English Words For Improving Your English, English Words And Meanings From Letter A To Letter Z

Sample This:

("sb" implies somebody, "sth" implies something)

abase yourself to accept sb's power over you
knuckle under to sb/sth to accept sb/sth else's authority
submissive too willing to accept sb else's authority
subservient to sth submissive, less important than sth else

abashed ashamed and embarrassed
bashful shy and easily embarrassed
put sb on the spot to make sb feel embarrassed by asking difficult question

about turn / volte face complete change of opinion, etc.
turn about sudden and complete change in sth

abstemious not allowing yourself to have much food or alcohol or enjoyable activities
austere without any decorations; (of a person) strict and serious; abstemious

ad-lib to give a speech or a performance without preparation or practice
improvise to make or do sth using whatever is available, to ad-lib

abuse unfair or cruel treatment of sb/sth
oppress to treat sb cruelly, to weigh down
persecute to treat sb cruelly

acclaim to praise sb publicly, praise and approval
commendation / plaudits praise and approval

accolade praise or award of honour
laurels honour and praise given to sb because of sth they have achieved

acrid bitter smell or taste
acrimony bitter feelings or words

adolescent young person who is developing from a child into an adult
teens years of a person's life when they are between 13 and 19 years old

affected pretended
disaffected unsatisfied

affront to insult or offend sb
take umbrage at sth to feel offended or upset by sth

aft in the stern of the ship or aircraft
abaft in the stern of a ship
stern the back end of a boat or ship

agglomeration group of things put together in no particular order
conglomeration mixture of different things found all together

a la carte food which is selected from the list of dishes and prices
table d' hot plate of food with fixed price

agnosia inability to recognize people and things
analgesia loss of the ability to feel pain while still conscious
apoplexy inability to feel, move because of injury in the brain
asphyxia difficulty in breathing which may cause death or unconsciousness
dyslexia difficulty in reading and spelling but no effect in intelligence

agoraphobia fear of being in the crowd
claustrophobia fear of being in a small confined place

alimony money, which is given to former husband or wife after the end of the marriage
palimony money which is given to former partner after the end of a relationship

altercation noisy argument or disagreement
argy-bargy noisy disagreement

alumna former woman student
alumnus former male student

amble / saunter / stroll to walk in a slow relaxed way
ramble to walk for pleasure
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

01. Direct and Indirect Speech
02. Expression of Time
03. Important Reporting Verbs
04. Pronoun Change
05. Tenses in Direct and Indirect Speech
06. Reporting Verb with Object
07. Changing Modal Verbs
08. ‘Questions’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
09. ‘Exclamations’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
10. ‘Imperatives’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
11. Direct and Indirect Speech: Mixed Types
12. Where to Put Reporting Verb in Direct Speech
13. Punctuation Rules
14. Other Useful Notes
Exercise -- 01
Exercise -- 02
Exercise -- 03

Sample This:

01. Direct and Indirect Speech

There are two ways to express what someone else has said. On this basis, sentences are of two types: sentences with Direct Speech, and sentences with Indirect Speech

DIRECT SPEECH
Direct Speech is also called Quoted Speech or Direct Narration.
Direct Speech refers exactly what someone has said.
Direct Speech appears within quotation marks (“..”). A comma is used before starting the exact quote within the quotation marks.
Direct Speech should be word for word.
The first letter of the quotation begins with a capital letter.
Example: The president said, “I will not bear corruption in the country at any cost.”

INDIRECT SPEECH
Indirect speech is also called Reported Speech or Indirect Narration.
Indirect Speech does not refer exactly what someone has said.
Indirect Speech doesn't appear within quotation marks but the word “that” may be used as a conjunction between the reporting verb and reported speech.
Indirect Speech shouldn’t be word for word.
Pronoun in Indirect Speech is changed according to speaker and hearer.
Example: The president declared that he would not bear corruption in the country at any cost.

Important rules for changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech are as follows:


02. Expression of Time

You need to change expression of time when changing direct speech (DS) into indirect speech (IDS) to match the moment of speaking. Important expressions of time in direct and indirect speech are as follows:

‘a month ago’ is changed into ‘a month before’
‘a year ago’ is changed into ‘the previous year’ or ‘a year before’
‘last night’ is changed into ‘the night before’
‘last Saturday’ is changed into ‘the Saturday before’
‘last weekend’ is changed into ‘the weekend before’
‘next year’ is changed into ‘the following year’ or ‘the year after’
‘now’ is changed into ‘then’
‘the day after tomorrow’ is changed into ‘in two day’s time’
‘the day before yesterday’ is changed into ‘two days before’
‘these (days)’ is changed into ‘those (days)’
‘this (morning/noon/evening)’ is changed into ‘that (morning/noon/evening)’
‘today’ is changed into ‘that day’
‘tomorrow’ is changed into ‘the next/following day’ or ‘the day after’
‘tonight’ is changed into ‘that night’
‘yesterday’ is changed into ‘the previous day’ or ‘the day before’

Besides expressions of time, there are many other expressions that need to be changed if you are changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech.
‘come’ is changed into ‘go’
‘bring’ is changed into ‘take’
‘thus’ is changed into ‘so’
‘hence’ is changed into ‘thence’
‘hither’ is changed into ‘thither’
‘here’ is changed into ‘there’
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