Biomechanics and Neural Control of Posture and Movement

Springer Science & Business Media
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Most routine motor tasks are complex, involving load transmission through out the body, intricate balance, and eye-head-shoulder-hand-torso-leg coor dination. The quest toward understanding how we perform such tasks with skill and grace, often in the presence of unpredictable perturbations, has a long history. This book arose from the Ninth Engineering Foundation Con ference on Biomechanics and Neural Control of Movement, held in Deer Creek, Ohio, in June 1996. This unique conference, which has met every 2 to 4 years since the late 1960s, is well known for its informal format that promotes high-level, up-to-date discussions on the key issues in the field. The intent is to capture the high quality ofthe knowledge and discourse that is an integral part of this conference series. The book is organized into ten sections. Section I provides a brief intro duction to the terminology and conceptual foundations of the field of move ment science; it is intended primarily for students. All but two of the re maining nine sections share a common format: (l) a designated section editor; (2) an introductory didactic chapter, solicited from recognized lead ers; and (3) three to six state-of-the-art perspective chapters. Some per spective chapters are followed by commentaries by selected experts that provide balance and insight. Section VI is the largest section, and it con sists of nine perspective chapters without commentaries.
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Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Dec 6, 2012
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Pages
683
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ISBN
9781461221043
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Life Sciences / Biochemistry
Science / Life Sciences / Biophysics
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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These two volumes, entitled "Purine Metabolism in Man IV" con tain the papers presented at the Fourth International Symposium on Human Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism", held in Maastricht (The Netherlands), June 1982. The proceedings of the three previous meet ings in Tel Aviv (Israel, 1973), Baden (Austria, 1976) and Madrid (Spain, 1979) were also published by Plenum Press. In the past few years interest in purine and pyrimidine metabo lism under normal and pathological conditions has been growing rapid ly. Apart from the more or less classical topics such as hyperuricae mia, clinical gout and urolithiasis, an increasing number of papers relating to other fields have been presented at successive meetings. Knowledge derived from the study of purine metabolism in relation to lymphocyte function, for instance, has opened up new possibilities for immunomodulation and leukaemia chemotherapy, with eventual conse quences for other types of cancer. At previous meetings there have been pointers implicating purine metabolism in relation to normal cardiac and skeletal muscle function. During the present meeting mych new data on both issues have been re ported which indicate clear differences in the pathways of ATP metabo lism. The widening of the field of interest is also illustrated by the recent work on infectious disease: exploitation of the differences in purine metabolic pathways in certain parasites compared with those in human cells has resulted in new rationales for therapy being devel oped.
These two volumes contain articles presented at the Vlth International Symposium on Human Purine and Pyrimidine Metabolism held in Hakone, Japan ,July 17 trough 21, 1988. The first meeting of this series of symposia convened in Tel Aviv, Israel, and since then meetings have taken place every three years in various parts of the world. The second meeting was held in Baden, Austria, the third in Madrid, Spain, the fourth in Maastricht, the Netherlands, and fifth in San Diego, California. The Vlth meeting in Hakone marked the first such symposium held in Asia. On occasion of publishing these books, I would like to describe how research in this field has evolved in Japan. Early in the 1950s, I was engaged in clinical practice treating various rheumatic diseases as an orthopedicist, and found that a substantial percentage of our patients had symptoms apparently compatible with gout. During the 1960s, the number of these gouty patients increased, and in the 1970s, research on the pathogenesis of gout was performed on the basis of approximately 2,000 cases of this disease, together with precise epidemiological studies concerning gouty and hyperuricemic individuals. Data derived from the two kinds of study had greatly changed the notion that gout was a rare disease among Japanese. My clinical studies have been succeeded by research at the molecular level on various purine metabolic abnormalities, including not only gout but also other diseases with various symptoms of wide clinical spectra.
The picture on the front cover of this book depicts a young man pulling a fishnet, a task of practical relevance for many centuries. It is a complex task, involving load transmission throughout the body, intricate balance, and eye head-hand coordination. The quest toward understanding how we perform such tasks with skill and grace, often in the presence of unpredictable pertur bations, has a long history. However, despite a history of magnificent sculptures and drawings of the human body which vividly depict muscle ac tivity and interaction, until more recent times our state of knowledge of human movement was rather primitive. During the past century this has changed; we now have developed a considerable database regarding the com position and basic properties of muscle and nerve tissue and the basic causal relations between neural function and biomechanical movement. Over the last few decades we have also seen an increased appreciation of the impor tance of musculoskeletal biomechanics: the neuromotor system must control movement within a world governed by mechanical laws. We have now col lected quantitative data for a wealth of human movements. Our capacity to understand the data we collect has been enhanced by our continually evolving modeling capabilities and by the availability of computational power. What have we learned? This book is designed to help synthesize our current knowledge regarding the role of muscles in human movement. The study of human movement is not a mature discipline.
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