The invariant tensors are presented in a somewhat unconventional, but in recent years widely used, "birdtracks" notation inspired by the Feynman diagrams of quantum field theory. Notably, invariant tensor diagrams replace algebraic reasoning in carrying out all group-theoretic computations. The diagrammatic approach is particularly effective in evaluating complicated coefficients and group weights, and revealing symmetries hidden by conventional algebraic or index notations. The book covers most topics needed in applications from this new perspective: permutations, Young projection operators, spinorial representations, Casimir operators, and Dynkin indices. Beyond this well-traveled territory, more exotic vistas open up, such as "negative dimensional" relations between various groups and their representations. The most intriguing result of classifying primitive invariants is the emergence of all exceptional Lie groups in a single family, and the attendant pattern of exceptional and classical Lie groups, the so-called Magic Triangle. Written in a lively and personable style, the book is aimed at researchers and graduate students in theoretical physics and mathematics.
The aim of the ICGTMP is to provide a forum for physicists, mathematicians, and scientists of related disciplines who develop or apply methods in group theory to share their research. The 31st ICGTMP was held in Rio de Janeiro, Brazil, from June 19th to June 25th, 2016. This was the first time that a colloquium of the prestigious and traditional ICGTMP series (which started in 1972 in Marseille, France) took place in South America. (The history of the colloquia can be found at http://icgtmp.blogs.uva.es/)
Indeed, non-Abelian discrete symmetries are considered to be the most attractive choice for the flavor sector: model builders have tried to derive experimental values of quark and lepton masses, and mixing angles by assuming non-Abelian discrete flavor symmetries of quarks and leptons, yet, lepton mixing has already been intensively discussed in this context, as well. The possible origins of the non-Abelian discrete symmetry for flavors is another topic of interest, as they can arise from an underlying theory - e.g. the string theory or compactification via orbifolding – thereby providing a possible bridge between the underlying theory and the corresponding low-energy sector of particle physics.
This text explicitly introduces and studies the group-theoretical aspects of many concrete groups and shows how to derive conjugacy classes, characters, representations, and tensor products for these groups (with a finite number) when algebraic relations are given, thereby enabling readers to apply this to other groups of interest.
Group Theory in a Nutshell for Physicists fills this gap, providing a user-friendly and classroom-tested text that focuses on those aspects of group theory physicists most need to know. From the basic intuitive notion of a group, A. Zee takes readers all the way up to how theories based on gauge groups could unify three of the four fundamental forces. He also includes a concise review of the linear algebra needed for group theory, making the book ideal for self-study.
In addition to its accessible treatment of the basic theory of Lie groups and Lie algebras, the book is also noteworthy for including:a treatment of the Baker–Campbell–Hausdorff formula and its use in place of the Frobenius theorem to establish deeper results about the relationship between Lie groups and Lie algebrasmotivation for the machinery of roots, weights and the Weyl group via a concrete and detailed exposition of the representation theory of sl(3;C)an unconventional definition of semisimplicity that allows for a rapid development of the structure theory of semisimple Lie algebrasa self-contained construction of the representations of compact groups, independent of Lie-algebraic arguments
The second edition of Lie Groups, Lie Algebras, and Representations contains many substantial improvements and additions, among them: an entirely new part devoted to the structure and representation theory of compact Lie groups; a complete derivation of the main properties of root systems; the construction of finite-dimensional representations of semisimple Lie algebras has been elaborated; a treatment of universal enveloping algebras, including a proof of the Poincaré–Birkhoff–Witt theorem and the existence of Verma modules; complete proofs of the Weyl character formula, the Weyl dimension formula and the Kostant multiplicity formula.
Review of the first edition:
This is an excellent book. It deserves to, and undoubtedly will, become the standard text for early graduate courses in Lie group theory ... an important addition to the textbook literature ... it is highly recommended.
— The Mathematical Gazette