The Origins of Infinitesimal Calculus

Elsevier
Free sample

The Origins of Infinitesimal Calculus focuses on the evolution, development, and applications of infinitesimal calculus.

The publication first ponders on Greek mathematics, transition to Western Europe, and some center of gravity determinations in the later 16th century. Discussions focus on the growth of kinematics in the West, latitude of forms, influence of Aristotle, axiomatization of Greek mathematics, theory of proportion and means, method of exhaustion, discovery method of Archimedes, and curves, normals, tangents, and curvature. The manuscript then examines infinitesimals and indivisibles in the early 17th century and further advances in France and Italy. Topics include the link between differential and integral processes, concept of tangent, first investigations of the cycloid, and arithmetization of integration methods. The book reviews the infinitesimal methods in England and Low Countries and rectification of arcs.

The publication is a vital source of information for historians, mathematicians, and researchers interested in infinitesimal calculus.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Elsevier
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Published on
May 9, 2014
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Pages
312
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ISBN
9781483280929
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Best For
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Language
English
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Genres
Mathematics / Calculus
Mathematics / Mathematical Analysis
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Eligible for Family Library

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Calculus Essentials For Dummies (9781119591207) was previously published as Calculus Essentials For Dummies (9780470618356). While this version features a new Dummies cover and design, the content is the same as the prior release and should not be considered a new or updated product.

Many colleges and universities require students to take at least one math course, and Calculus I is often the chosen option. Calculus Essentials For Dummies provides explanations of key concepts for students who may have taken calculus in high school and want to review the most important concepts as they gear up for a faster-paced college course. Free of review and ramp-up material, Calculus Essentials For Dummies sticks to the point with content focused on key topics only. It provides discrete explanations of critical concepts taught in a typical two-semester high school calculus class or a college level Calculus I course, from limits and differentiation to integration and infinite series. This guide is also a perfect reference for parents who need to review critical calculus concepts as they help high school students with homework assignments, as well as for adult learners headed back into the classroom who just need a refresher of the core concepts.

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This text, designed for a second year calculus course, can follow any standard first year course in one-variable calculus. Its purpose is to cover the material most useful at this level, to maintain a balance between theory and practice, and to develop techniques and problem solving skills. The topics fall into several categories: Infinite series and integrals Chapter 1 covers convergence and divergence of series and integrals. It ?ontains proofs of basic convergence tests, relations between series and Integrals, and manipulation with geometric, exponential, and related series. Chapter 2 covers approximation of functions by Taylor polynomials, with emphasis on numerical approximations and estimates of remainders. Chapt~r 3 deals with power series, including intervals of convergence, expanSIOns of functions, and uniform convergence. It features calculations with s~ries by algebraic operations, substitution, and term-by-term differentiation and integration. Vector methods Vector algebra is introduced in Chapter 4 and applied to solid analytic geometry. The calculus of one-variable vector functions and its applications to space curves and particle mechanics comprise Chapter 5. Linear algebra Chapter 7 contains a practical introduction to linear algebra in two and three dimensions. We do not attempt a complete treatment of foundations, but rather limit ourselves to thoRe topics that have immediate application to calculus. The main topics are linear transformations in R2 and R3, their matrix representations, manipulation with matrices, linear systems, quadratic forms, and quadric surfaces. Differential calculus of several variables Chapter 6 contains preliminary material on sets in the plane and space, and the definition and basic properties of continuous functions. This is followed by partial derivatives with applications to maxima and minima. Chapter 8 continues with a careful treatment of differentiability and applications to tangent planes, gradients, directional derivatives, and differentials. Here ideas from linear algebra are used judiciously. Chapter 9 covers higher xii Preface order partial derivatives, Taylor polynomials, and second derivative tests for extrema. Multiple integrals In Chapters 10 and 11 we treat double and triple integrals intuitively, with emphasis on iteration, geometric and physical applications, and coordinate changes. In Chapter 12 we develop the theory of the Riemann integral starting with step functions. We continue with Jacobians and the change of variable formula, surface area, and Green's Theorem. Differential equations Chapter 13 contains an elementary treatment of first order equations, with emphasis on linear equations, approximate solutions, and applications. Chapter 14 covers second order linear equations and first order linear systems, including matrix series solutions. These chapters can be taken up any time after Chapter 7. Complex analysis The final chapter moves quickly through basic complex algebra to complex power series, shortcuts using' the complex exponential function, and applications to integration and differential equations. Features The key points of one-variable calculus are reviewed briefly as needed. Optional topics are scattered throughout, for example Stirling's Formula, characteristic roots and vectors, Lagrange multipliers, and Simpson's Rule for double integrals. Numerous worked examples teach practical skills and demonstrate the utility of the theory. We emphaRize Rimple line drawingR that a student can learn to do himself.
Calculus For Dummies, 2nd Edition (9781119293491) was previously published as Calculus For Dummies, 2nd Edition (9781118791295). While this version features a new Dummies cover and design, the content is the same as the prior release and should not be considered a new or updated product.


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Calculus is a required course for many college majors, and for students without a strong math foundation, it can be a real barrier to graduation. Breaking that barrier down means recognizing calculus for what it is—simply a tool for studying the ways in which variables interact. It's the logical extension of the algebra, geometry, and trigonometry you've already taken, and Calculus For Dummies, 2nd Edition proves that if you can master those classes, you can tackle calculus and win.

Includes foundations in algebra, trigonometry, and pre-calculus concepts Explores sequences, series, and graphing common functions Instructs you how to approximate area with integration Features things to remember, things to forget, and things you can't get away with

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NEW YORK TIMES BESTSELLER
“Marvelous . . . an array of witty and astonishing stories . . . to illuminate how calculus has helped bring into being our contemporary world.”—The Washington Post

From preeminent math personality and author of The Joy of x, a brilliant and endlessly appealing explanation of calculus – how it works and why it makes our lives immeasurably better. 
 
Without calculus, we wouldn’t have cell phones, TV, GPS, or ultrasound. We wouldn’t have unraveled DNA or discovered Neptune or figured out how to put 5,000 songs in your pocket. 
 
Though many of us were scared away from this essential, engrossing subject in high school and college, Steven Strogatz’s brilliantly creative, down‐to‐earth history shows that calculus is not about complexity; it’s about simplicity. It harnesses an unreal number—infinity—to tackle real‐world problems, breaking them down into easier ones and then reassembling the answers into solutions that feel miraculous. 
 
Infinite Powers recounts how calculus tantalized and thrilled its inventors, starting with its first glimmers in ancient Greece and bringing us right up to the discovery of gravitational waves (a phenomenon predicted by calculus). Strogatz reveals how this form of math rose to the challenges of each age: how to determine the area of a circle with only sand and a stick; how to explain why Mars goes “backwards” sometimes; how to make electricity with magnets; how to ensure your rocket doesn’t miss the moon; how to turn the tide in the fight against AIDS. 
 
As Strogatz proves, calculus is truly the language of the universe. By unveiling the principles of that language, Infinite Powers makes us marvel at the world anew. 
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