A History of Mind and Body in Late Antiquity

Cambridge University Press
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The mind-body relation was at the forefront of philosophy and theology in late antiquity, a time of great intellectual innovation. This volume, the first integrated history of this important topic, explores ideas about mind and body during this period, considering both pagan and Christian thought about issues such as resurrection, incarnation and asceticism. A series of chapters presents cutting-edge research from multiple perspectives, including history, philosophy, classics and theology. Several chapters survey wider themes which provide context for detailed studies of the work of individual philosophers including Numenius, Pseudo-Dionysius, Damascius and Augustine. Wide-ranging and accessible, with translations given for all texts in the original language, this book will be essential for students and scholars of late antique thought, the history of religion and theology, and the philosophy of mind.
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About the author

Anna Marmodoro is an Official Fellow of Corpus Christi College at the University of Oxford. Her recent publications include Aristotle on Perceiving Objects (2014) and Everything in Everything: Anaxagoras's Metaphysics (2017).

Sophie Cartwright is the author of The Theological Anthropology of Eustathius of Antioch (2015). She teaches theology and philosophy, most recently at Oxford Brookes University, and has been conducting postdoctoral research at the University of Oxford.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Cambridge University Press
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Published on
May 31, 2018
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Pages
895
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ISBN
9781316856635
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Language
English
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Genres
Philosophy / History & Surveys / Ancient & Classical
Philosophy / Mind & Body
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This content is DRM protected.
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Aristotle is considered by many to be the founder of 'faculty psychology'—the attempt to explain a variety of psychological phenomena by reference to a few inborn capacities. In The Powers of Aristotle's Soul, Thomas Kjeller Johansen investigates his main work on psychology, the De Anima, from this perspective. He shows how Aristotle conceives of the soul's capacities and how he uses them to account for the souls of living beings. Johansen offers an original account of how Aristotle defines the capacities in relation to their activities and proper objects, and considers the relationship of the body to the definition of the soul's capacities. Against the background of Aristotle's theory of science, Johansen argues that the capacities of the soul serve as causal principles in the explanation of the various life forms. He develops detailed readings of Aristotle's treatment of nutrition, perception, and intellect, which show the soul's various roles as formal, final and efficient causes, and argues that the so-called 'agent' intellect falls outside the scope of Aristotle's natural scientific approach to the soul. Other psychological activities, various kinds of perception (including 'perceiving that we perceive'), memory, imagination, are accounted for in their explanatory dependency on the basic capacities. The ability to move spatially is similarly explained as derivative from the perceptual or intellectual capacities. Johansen claims that these capacities together with the nutritive may be understood as 'parts' of the soul, as they are basic to the definition and explanation of the various kinds of soul. Finally, he considers how the account of the capacities in the De Anima is adopted and adapted in Aristotle's biological and minor psychological works.
Nearly two thousand years after it was written, Meditations remains profoundly relevant for anyone seeking to lead a meaningful life.

Few ancient works have been as influential as the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius, philosopher and emperor of Rome (A.D. 161–180). A series of spiritual exercises filled with wisdom, practical guidance, and profound understanding of human behavior, it remains one of the greatest works of spiritual and ethical reflection ever written. Marcus’s insights and advice—on everything from living in the world to coping with adversity and interacting with others—have made the Meditations required reading for statesmen and philosophers alike, while generations of ordinary readers have responded to the straightforward intimacy of his style. For anyone who struggles to reconcile the demands of leadership with a concern for personal integrity and spiritual well-being, the Meditations remains as relevant now as it was two thousand years ago.

In Gregory Hays’s new translation—the first in thirty-five years—Marcus’s thoughts speak with a new immediacy. In fresh and unencumbered English, Hays vividly conveys the spareness and compression of the original Greek text. Never before have Marcus’s insights been so directly and powerfully presented.

With an Introduction that outlines Marcus’s life and career, the essentials of Stoic doctrine, the style and construction of the Meditations, and the work’s ongoing influence, this edition makes it possible to fully rediscover the thoughts of one of the most enlightened and intelligent leaders of any era.
This authoritative study explores Eustathius of Antioch's theological anthropology, offering insight into one of the most important thinkers of the early Arian controversy. Sophie Cartwright situates Eustathius' thought in relation to the early 'Arian' controversy, the Constaninian Revolution, the theological legacies of Irenaeus and Origen, and the philosophical commentary tradition. She also locates Eustathius within his historical context and provides a detailed overview of the sources for his complex and fragmented corpus. Eustathius' anthropology is indebted to a tradition shaped by the theology of Irenaeus, that had already come into conversation with Origen. Dr Cartwright suggests that Origen's own thought was indebted to Irenaeus but that he had a radically different cosmology; this shaped subsequent engagement with both thinkers. Eustathius' theology of embodiment draws on Irenaeus, in opposition to what he perceives as the Origenist and Platonist anthropology which, in his anti-Arian works, he associates with Eusebius of Caesarea. However, he is deeply indebted to Origen for his doctrine of Christ's human soul and, consequently, his wider psychology. He places humanity at a great distance from God and seeks to give humanity autonomous value, especially in his discourse on God's image. This represents one logical negotiation of the rejection of Origen's eternal intelligible world. Eustathius' divisive Christology offers a picture of Christ as the perfect human being that echoes Irenaeus' Adam-Christ typology, fleshed out by an Origenian discourse on Christ's human soul and infused with a keen awareness of the chasm between God and humankind. He proffers a doctrine of inherited sinfulness as an alternative to Origen's doctrine of the fall and looks to a corporeal eschatological kingdom ruled over by the human Christ; this eschatology probably reflects discomfiture with Constantine's role in the church.
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