When you visit the doctor, information about you may be recorded in an office computer. Your tests may be sent to a laboratory or consulting physician. Relevant information may be transmitted to your health insurer or pharmacy. Your data may be collected by the state government or by an organization that accredits health care or studies medical costs. By making information more readily available to those who need it, greater use of computerized health information can help improve the quality of health care and reduce its costs. Yet health care organizations must find ways to ensure that electronic health information is not improperly divulged. Patient privacy has been an issue since the oath of Hippocrates first called on physicians to "keep silence" on patient matters, and with highly sensitive data--genetic information, HIV test results, psychiatric records--entering patient records, concerns over privacy and security are growing.
For the Record responds to the health care industry's need for greater guidance in protecting health information that increasingly flows through the national information infrastructure--from patient to provider, payer, analyst, employer, government agency, medical product manufacturer, and beyond. This book makes practical detailed recommendations for technical and organizational solutions and national-level initiatives.
For the Record describes two major types of privacy and security concerns that stem from the availability of health information in electronic form: the increased potential for inappropriate release of information held by individual organizations (whether by those with access to computerized records or those who break into them) and systemic concerns derived from open and widespread sharing of data among various parties.
The committee reports on the technological and organizational aspects of security management, including basic principles of security; the effectiveness of technologies for user authentication, access control, and encryption; obstacles and incentives in the adoption of new technologies; and mechanisms for training, monitoring, and enforcement.
For the Record reviews the growing interest in electronic medical records; the increasing value of health information to providers, payers, researchers, and administrators; and the current legal and regulatory environment for protecting health data. This information is of immediate interest to policymakers, health policy researchers, patient advocates, professionals in health data management, and other stakeholders.
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Additional Information

Publisher
National Academies Press
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Published on
Jun 23, 1997
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Pages
247
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ISBN
9780309524254
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Language
English
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Genres
Medical / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM free.
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Available on Android devices
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Advances in health information technology (health IT) have the potential to improve the quality of healthcare, to increase the availability of health information for treatment, and to implement safeguards that cannot be applied easily or cost-effectively to paper-based health records. However, the digitization of health information is also raising new privacy

risks and concerns. Sensitive health information in digital form is more easily aggregated, used, and shared. In addition, the rising cost of healthcare and the search for efficiency may create incentives to use the information in new ways.

Research has consistently shown that while the public sees the potential value of health information exchange and technological advancements, it remains gravely concerned about the privacy of their sensitive health information. As a result, it is becoming increasingly clear that ensuring public trust will be critical to the successful implementation of nationwide health information exchange.

The purpose of this second edition is two-fold: 1) to educate readers about privacy concepts and 2) highlight key privacy issues facing the nation and the healthcare community as it moves towards electronic health records and health information exchange. The first three chapters are descriptive in nature, defining privacy and distinguishing it from security, defining the complex legal landscape for health information privacy, and setting the stage for the following chapters by describing the current landscape of the evolving healthcare environment. The following chapters discuss specific privacy issues and challenges in detail. The book concludes with a chapter providing a view to the future of healthcare and the association privacy implications. This is an updated version of one of HIMSS’ best-selling books on information privacy.

The adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) in healthcare is driven by the need to contain costs while maximizing quality and efficiency. However, ICT adoption for healthcare information management has brought far-reaching effects and implications on the spirit of the Hippocratic Oath, patient privacy and confidentiality. A wave of security breaches have led to pressing calls for opt-in and opt-out provisions where patients are free to choose to or not have their healthcare information collected and recorded within healthcare information systems. Such provisions have negative impact on cost, efficiency and quality of patient care. Thus determined efforts to gain patient trust is increasingly under consideration for enforcement through legislation, standards, national policy frameworks and implementation systems geared towards closing gaps in ICT security frameworks. The ever-increasing healthcare expenditure and pressing demand for improved quality and efficiency in patient care services are driving innovation in healthcare information management. Key among the main innovations is the introduction of new healthcare practice concepts such as shared care, evidence-based medicine, clinical practice guidelines and protocols, the cradle-to-grave health record and clinical workflow or careflow. Central to these organizational re-engineering innovations is the widespread adoption of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT) at national and regional levels, which has ushered in computer-based healthcare information management that is centred on the electronic healthcare record (EHR).
Whether or not you use a computer, you probably use a telephone, electric power, and a bank. Although you may not be aware of their presence, networked computer systems are increasingly becoming an integral part of your daily life. Yet, if such systems perform poorly or don't work at all, then they can put life, liberty, and property at tremendous risk. Is the trust that we--as individuals and as a society--are placing in networked computer systems justified? And if it isn't, what can we do to make such systems more trustworthy?

This book provides an assessment of the current state of the art procedures for building trustworthy networked information systems. It proposes directions for research in computer and network security, software technology, and system architecture. In addition, the book assesses current technical and market trends in order to better inform public policy as to where progress is likely and where incentives could help. Trust in Cyberspace offers insights into:

--The strengths and vulnerabilities of the telephone network and Internet, the two likely building blocks of any networked information system.
--The interplay between various dimensions of trustworthiness: environmental disruption, operator error, "buggy" software, and hostile attack.
--The implications for trustworthiness of anticipated developments in hardware and software technology, including the consequences of mobile code.
--The shifts in security technology and research resulting from replacing centralized mainframes with networks of computers.
--The heightened concern for integrity and availability where once only secrecy mattered.
--The way in which federal research funding levels and practices have affected the evolution and current state of the science and technology base in this area.

You will want to read this book if your life is touched in any way by computers or telecommunications. But then, whose life isn't?
We depend on information and information technology (IT) to make many of our day-to-day tasks easier and more convenient. Computers play key roles in transportation, health care, banking, and energy. Businesses use IT for payroll and accounting, inventory and sales, and research and development. Modern military forces use weapons that are increasingly coordinated through computer-based networks. Cybersecurity is vital to protecting all of these functions. Cyberspace is vulnerable to a broad spectrum of hackers, criminals, terrorists, and state actors. Working in cyberspace, these malevolent actors can steal money, intellectual property, or classified information; impersonate law-abiding parties for their own purposes; damage important data; or deny the availability of normally accessible services. Cybersecurity issues arise because of three factors taken together - the presence of malevolent actors in cyberspace, societal reliance on IT for many important functions, and the presence of vulnerabilities in IT systems. What steps can policy makers take to protect our government, businesses, and the public from those would take advantage of system vulnerabilities?

At the Nexus of Cybersecurity and Public Policy offers a wealth of information on practical measures, technical and nontechnical challenges, and potential policy responses. According to this report, cybersecurity is a never-ending battle; threats will evolve as adversaries adopt new tools and techniques to compromise security. Cybersecurity is therefore an ongoing process that needs to evolve as new threats are identified. At the Nexus of Cybersecurity and Public Policy is a call for action to make cybersecurity a public safety priority. For a number of years, the cybersecurity issue has received increasing public attention; however, most policy focus has been on the short-term costs of improving systems. In its explanation of the fundamentals of cybersecurity and the discussion of potential policy responses, this book will be a resource for policy makers, cybersecurity and IT professionals, and anyone who wants to understand threats to cyberspace.

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