Life Cycle Assessment: Theory and Practice

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This book is a uniquely pedagogical while still comprehensive state-of-the-art description of LCA-methodology and its broad range of applications. The five parts of the book conveniently provide: I) the history and context of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) with its central role as quantitative and scientifically-based tool supporting society’s transitioning towards a sustainable economy; II) all there is to know about LCA methodology illustrated by a red-thread example which evolves as the reader advances; III) a wealth of information on a broad range of LCA applications with dedicated chapters on policy development, prospective LCA, life cycle management, waste, energy, construction and building, nanotechnology, agrifood, transport, and LCA-related concepts such as footprinting, ecolabelling,design for environment, and cradle to cradle. IV) A cookbook giving the reader recipes for all the concrete actions needed to perform an LCA. V) An appendix with an LCA report template, a full example LCA report serving as inspiration for students who write their first LCA report, and a more detailed overview of existing LCIA methods and their similarities and differences.
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About the author

Dr. Michael Hauschild is professor in Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) of Environment and Resource Dimensions within Products and Systems. He is Head of the Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment at Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering. Michael Hauschild has 20 years of experience in environmental life cycle assessment of products and systems. He is co-receiver of the Nordic Council’s Great Nature and Environment Award 12 November 1997, co-receiver of the Danish part of the European Better Environment Awards for Industry, EBEAFI ‘97, and in 2014 recipient of the Aase and Ejnar Danielsen Foundation's environmental award of quarter of a million DKK. His pioneering work in LCA has helped to define the research area at Technical University of Denmark, which today is one of the international powerhouses for quantifying sustainability. According to the bibliometric investigation (Chen et al.: A bibliometric investigation of life cycle assessment research in the web of science databases. International Journal of LCA, DOI 10.1007/s11367-014-0777-3), Technical University of Denmark is the most cited university within the LCA discipline over the last 16 years.

Since 2014 Ralph K. Rosenbaum is the Director of the Industrial Chair for Environmental and Social Sustainability Assessment “ELSA-PACT” hosted by the French National Research Institute of Science and Technology for Environment and Agriculture (IRSTEA) in Montpellier, France. Passionate about quantitative environmental sustainability assessment including Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) since 1997, Ralph Rosenbaum is an expert in environmental modelling, LCA methodology development, and teaching related to sustainability and environmental assessment. He is co-author of the consensus model for the evaluation of comparative toxicity USEtox and the LCIA methods IMPACT 2002+ and Impact World+. He is subject editor of the International Journal of Life Cycle Assessment on the theme of impacts of chemicals on human health as well as vice-president and founding member of the International Life Cycle Academy based in Barcelona. Born in Germany, Ralph Rosenbaum finished his Environmental Engineering degree at the Technical University Berlin, Germany in 2003 and defended his Ph.D. thesis at the Swiss Federal Institute of Technology Lausanne (EPFL) in Switzerland in 2006. In early 2007 he joined the team of CIRAIG at the École Polytechnique de Montreal, Canada as researcher and lecturer and was then appointed Associate Professor at the Technical University of Denmark (DTU) in Copenhagen in 2010.

Dr. Stig Irving Olsen is Associate Professor in sustainable production at Division for Quantitative Sustainability Assessment at Technical University of Denmark, Department of Management Engineering. He has been working with environmental research for more than 25 years and became involved with Life Cycle Assessment (LCA) research in 1993. His research interests and achievements varies from methodology development in LCA, particularly in the life cycle impact assessment of human health impact, to the application of LCA for decision support regarding sustainable production in industry as well as the combination of risk assessment and LCA. The use of LCA for technology assessment in emerging technologies, especially nanotechnology has been a major research field. As an educational scholar he is also concerned with education of engineering students in sustainability.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer
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Published on
Sep 1, 2017
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Pages
1216
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ISBN
9783319564753
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Language
English
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Genres
Business & Economics / Development / Sustainable Development
Business & Economics / Green Business
Science / Energy
Science / Environmental Science
Technology & Engineering / Manufacturing
Technology & Engineering / Power Resources / Alternative & Renewable
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Encompassing a thorough survey of the lighting techniques applied to internal illumination characterized by high efficiency, optimized color and architectural integration, a consolidated summary of the latest scientific, technical and architectural research is presented in order to give the reader an overview of the different themes with their interactions and mutual effects.

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Introducing photometric and radiometric quantities and laws, the book first discusses tests and measurements assessing lighting and color characteristics before examining in detail artificial light sources with particular attention paid to measures to reduce consumption and optimize efficiency.

Key sources are illustrated with producers and suppliers with technical details and use specifications included.

Serving to maximize reader insights into the use of sunlight – considering light transfer, application to indoor illumination and in particular to museum lighting – in the color rendering properties of light sources and the architectural aspects for natural indoor lighting, the final part of this boo collects other related but important elements including architectural issues, environmental integration and the possibility of changing the light color by introducing suitable coatings. The physiological effects of internal illumination quality on user comfort is discussed and several possibilities for energy saving using domotics are outlined.

Governments are setting challenging targets to increase the production of energy and transport fuel from sustainable sources. The emphasis is increasingly on renewable sources including wind, solar, geothermal, biomass based biofuel, photovoltaics or energy recovery from waste. What are the environmental consequences of adopting these other sources? How do these various sources compare to each other?

Life Cycle Assessment of Renewable Energy Sources tries to answer these questions based on the universally adopted method of Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). This book introduces the concept and importance of LCA in the framework of renewable energy sources and discusses the key issues in conducting their LCA. This is followed by an in-depth discussion of LCA for some of the most common bioenergy sources such as agricultural production systems for biogas and bioethanol, biogas from grass, biodiesel from palm oil, biodiesel from used cooking oil and animal fat, Jatropha biodiesel, lignocellulosic bioethanol, ethanol from cassava and sugarcane molasses, residential photovoltaic systems, wind energy, microalgal biodiesel, biohydrogen and biomethane. Through real examples, the versatility of LCA is well emphasized.

Written by experts all over the globe, the book is a cornucopia of information on LCA of bioenergy systems and provides a platform for stimulation of new ideas and thoughts. The book is targeted at practitioners of LCA and will become a useful tool for researchers working on different aspects of bioenergy.

This book offers a detailed presentation of the principles and practice of life cycle impact assessment. As a volume of the LCA compendium, the book is structured according to the LCIA framework developed by the International Organisation for Standardisation (ISO)passing through the phases of definition or selection of impact categories, category indicators and characterisation models (Classification): calculation of category indicator results (Characterisation); calculating the magnitude of category indicator results relative to reference information (Normalisation); and converting indicator results of different impact categories by using numerical factors based on value-choices (Weighting).

Chapter one offers a historical overview of the development of life cycle impact assessment and presents the boundary conditions and the general principles and constraints of characterisation modelling in LCA. The second chapter outlines the considerations underlying the selection of impact categories and the classification or assignment of inventory flows into these categories. Chapters three through thirteen exploreall the impact categories that are commonly included in LCIA, discussing the characteristics of each followed by a review of midpoint and endpoint characterisation methods, metrics, uncertainties and new developments, and a discussion of research needs. Chapter-length treatment is accorded to Climate Change; Stratospheric Ozone Depletion; Human Toxicity; Particulate Matter Formation; Photochemical Ozone Formation; Ecotoxicity; Acidification; Eutrophication; Land Use; Water Use; and Abiotic Resource Use. The final two chapters map out the optional LCIA steps of Normalisation and Weighting.

Until recently, Elizabeth Cline was a typical American consumer. She’d grown accustomed to shopping at outlet malls, discount stores like T.J. Maxx, and cheap but trendy retailers like Forever 21, Target, and H&M. She was buying a new item of clothing almost every week (the national average is sixty-four per year) but all she had to show for it was a closet and countless storage bins packed full of low-quality fads she barely wore—including the same sailor-stripe tops and fleece hoodies as a million other shoppers. When she found herself lugging home seven pairs of identical canvas flats from Kmart (a steal at $7 per pair, marked down from $15!), she realized that something was deeply wrong.


Cheap fashion has fundamentally changed the way most Americans dress. Stores ranging from discounters like Target to traditional chains like JCPenney now offer the newest trends at unprecedentedly low prices. Retailers are pro­ducing clothes at enormous volumes in order to drive prices down and profits up, and they’ve turned clothing into a disposable good. After all, we have little reason to keep wearing and repairing the clothes we already own when styles change so fast and it’s cheaper to just buy more.


But what are we doing with all these cheap clothes? And more important, what are they doing to us, our society, our environment, and our economic well-being?


In Overdressed, Cline sets out to uncover the true nature of the cheap fashion juggernaut, tracing the rise of budget clothing chains, the death of middle-market and independent retail­ers, and the roots of our obsession with deals and steals. She travels to cheap-chic factories in China, follows the fashion industry as it chases even lower costs into Bangladesh, and looks at the impact (both here and abroad) of America’s drastic increase in imports. She even explores how cheap fashion harms the charity thrift shops and textile recyclers where our masses of cloth­ing castoffs end up.


Sewing, once a life skill for American women and a pathway from poverty to the middle class for workers, is now a dead-end sweatshop job. The pressures of cheap have forced retailers to drastically reduce detail and craftsmanship, making the clothes we wear more and more uniform, basic, and low quality. Creative inde­pendent designers struggle to produce good and sustainable clothes at affordable prices.


Cline shows how consumers can break the buy-and-toss cycle by supporting innovative and stylish sustainable designers and retailers, refash­ioning clothes throughout their lifetimes, and mending and even making clothes themselves.


Overdressed will inspire you to vote with your dollars and find a path back to being well dressed and feeling good about what you wear.

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