The Reflective Practitioner: How Professionals Think In Action

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A leading M.I.T. social scientist and consultant examines five professions—engineering, architecture, management, psychotherapy, and town planning—to show how professionals really go about solving problems.The best professionals, Donald Schön maintains, know more than they can put into words. To meet the challenges of their work, they rely less on formulas learned in graduate school than on the kind of improvisation learned in practice. This unarticulated, largely unexamined process is the subject of Schön's provocatively original book, an effort to show precisely how ”reflection-in-action” works and how this vital creativity might be fostered in future professionals.
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About the author

Donald A. Schön is Ford Professor of Urban Studies and Education at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Basic Books
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Published on
Aug 6, 2008
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Pages
352
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ISBN
9780786725366
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Features
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Language
English
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Genres
Psychology / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Read Aloud
Available on Android devices
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Eligible for Family Library

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This innovative text is designed to improve thinking skills through the application of 30 critical thinking principles—Metathoughts. These specialized tools and techniques are useful for approaching all forms of study, inquiry, and problem solving. Levy applies Metathoughts to a diverse array of issues in contemporary clinical, social, and cross-cultural psychology: identifying strengths and weaknesses in various schools of thought, defining and explaining psychological phenomena, evaluating the accuracy and usefulness of research studies, reducing logical flaws and personal biases, and improving the search for creative solutions. The Metathoughts are brought to life with practical examples, clinical vignettes, illustrations, anecdotes, thought-provoking exercises, useful antidotes, and contemporary social problems and issues.

Tools of Critical Thinking, 2/E is primarily suited as a core textbook for courses in critical thinking/problem solving, or makes an ideal supplement in a wide variety of undergraduate and graduate psychology courses, including introductory psychology, abnormal psychology (psychopathology), cross-cultural psychology, theories and methods of psychotherapy, research methods and design, theories of personality, clinical practicum, and contemporary problems and issues in psychology.

Second Edition features:
The application of critical thinking skills to cross-cultural psychology and issues of cultural diversity
More than 60 new and updated reference citations related to a wide range of contemporary topics
140 multiple-choice test bank items and 20 short-answer/essay questions
Comprehensive PowerPoint CD package as a pedagogical aid to augment lecture presentations
Improved glossary of key terms, containing over 300 fully cross-referenced definitions
The expanded use of humor, including parodies, cartoon illustrations, and clever satires

 

Based on twenty years of research on the social regulation of academic performances, this book offers theoretical and empirical arguments in favour of the inclusion of the social dimension of human beings as essential for their cognitive activities.
We all engage in social interactions, compare ourselves with other people, belong to social groups, and are the object of a myriad of categorisations. Not only do such social experiences affect cognition, but they actually determine its form and its content. Several experiments indeed reveal that cognitive performance depends on the relationship between the individual and the social context in which cognition takes place. And this relationship is not forged directly by features of the situation, but rather by personal construals of these features (most notably social comparison). This fact alone justifies granting the individual's social experiences a psychological status and it further strengthens the key idea of this book, namely that the social context only exists through the intervention of cognitive processes of contextualization (producing a "cognitive context of the self") such as those involved in autobiographical memory. A "social psychology of cognition" is suggested, in which the fashionable distinction between cognition and social cognition makes no sense.
From this innovative perspective it is indeed more the social nature of the individual rather than that of the object to be processed that defines the social nature of cognition. Well-known phenomena such as social facilitation and social loafing as well as established educational practices are also re-examined from this perspective.
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