What were the historical circumstances that led to the inscription of Oral Torah in medieval Europe? How did this body of ancient rabbinic traditions, replete with legal controversies and nonlegal material, come to be construed as a reference work and prescriptive guide to Jewish life? Connecting insights from geonica, medieval Jewish and Christian history, and orality-textuality studies, Becoming the People of the Talmud reconstructs the process of cultural transformation that occurred once medieval Jews encountered the Babylonian Talmud as a written text. According to Fishman, the ascription of greater authority to written text was accompanied by changes in reading habits, compositional predilections, classroom practices, approaches to adjudication, assessments of the past, and social hierarchies. She contends that certain medieval Jews were aware of these changes: some noted that books had replaced teachers; others protested the elevation of Talmud-centered erudition and casuistic virtuosity into standards of religious excellence, at the expense of spiritual refinement. The book concludes with a consideration of Rhineland Pietism's emergence in this context and suggests that two contemporaneous phenomena—the prominence of custom in medieval Ashkenazi culture and the novel Christian attack on Talmud—were indirectly linked to the new eminence of this written text in Jewish life.
In the religious domain, Halbertal argues, sacrifice is an offering, a gift given in the context of a hierarchical relationship. As such it is vulnerable to rejection, a trauma at the root of both ritual and violence. An offering is also an ambiguous gesture torn between a genuine expression of gratitude and love and an instrument of exchange, a tension that haunts the practice of sacrifice.
In the moral and political domains, sacrifice is tied to the idea of self-transcendence, in which an individual sacrifices his or her self-interest for the sake of higher values and commitments. While self-sacrifice has great potential moral value, it can also be used to justify the most brutal acts. Halbertal attempts to unravel the relationship between self-sacrifice and violence, arguing that misguided self-sacrifice is far more problematic than exaggerated self-love. In his exploration of the positive and negative dimensions of self-sacrifice, Halbertal also addresses the role of past sacrifice in obligating future generations and in creating a bond for political associations, and considers the function of the modern state as a sacrificial community.
Ranging from Amsterdam to Palestine and back again to Europe, the book chronicles Spinoza's posthumous odyssey from marginalized heretic to hero, the exemplar of a whole host of Jewish identities, including cosmopolitan, nationalist, reformist, and rejectionist. Daniel Schwartz shows that in fashioning Spinoza into "the first modern Jew," generations of Jewish intellectuals--German liberals, East European maskilim, secular Zionists, and Yiddishists--have projected their own dilemmas of identity onto him, reshaping the Amsterdam thinker in their own image. The many afterlives of Spinoza are a kind of looking glass into the struggles of Jewish writers over where to draw the boundaries of Jewishness and whether a secular Jewish identity is indeed possible. Cumulatively, these afterlives offer a kaleidoscopic view of modern Jewish cultureand a vivid history of an obsession with Spinoza that continues to this day.
"Perché io?" chiede Yehudah Ekariot, prima a un dio che non può sentirlo, poi all'uomo che ama e che lui stesso ha tradito. "Perché io?" Ma Yeshù Ha-Notsri, come qualsiasi altro cadavere, non può rispondergli.
Con una scrittura nitida e coinvolgente, l'autore di Daimon (Esto miles fidelis) ritorna alla tematica cristiana, riconsegna i personaggi evangelici alla loro cornice originaria e compone un dramma che è il dramma di ogni uomo che chieda ragione della propria sofferenza.
Vi interessa conoscere la verità in campo religioso? In tal caso forse vi siete posti queste domande: (1) Gesù è nato veramente il 25 dicembre? (2) Chi erano i “Re Magi”, ed erano proprio tre? (3) Che tipo di stella li guidò da Gesù? (4) Cosa c’entra Babbo Natale con Gesù e la sua nascita? (5) Come considera Dio la consuetudine di farsi, o per meglio dire scambiarsi, regali a Natale?
Consideriamo ora queste domande alla luce di quanto rivelano la storia e la Bibbia.
E’ indubbiamente un libro, fatto con sapienza di metodo e con la passione che ha il merito di dare un grande contributo non solo alla riscoperta della storia ecclesiastica della Sardegna, ma anche alla storia generale dei rapporti tra Regnum Sardiniae e Corona d’Aragona.
The Talmudic stories make fun of Jesus' birth from a virgin, fervently contest his claim to be the Messiah and Son of God, and maintain that he was rightfully executed as a blasphemer and idolater. They subvert the Christian idea of Jesus' resurrection and insist he got the punishment he deserved in hell--and that a similar fate awaits his followers.
Schäfer contends that these stories betray a remarkable familiarity with the Gospels--especially Matthew and John--and represent a deliberate and sophisticated anti-Christian polemic that parodies the New Testament narratives. He carefully distinguishes between Babylonian and Palestinian sources, arguing that the rabbis' proud and self-confident countermessage to that of the evangelists was possible only in the unique historical setting of Persian Babylonia, in a Jewish community that lived in relative freedom. The same could not be said of Roman and Byzantine Palestine, where the Christians aggressively consolidated their political power and the Jews therefore suffered.
A departure from past scholarship, which has played down the stories as unreliable distortions of the historical Jesus, Jesus in the Talmud posits a much more deliberate agenda behind these narratives.
The author provides a straightforward chronological survey of this important period through analysis and interpretation of the existing sources. With its accessible style and explanation of technical terms, the book provides a useful introduction to students and anybody with an interest in post-biblical Judaism.
wie die des „reinen Gottesbegriffes", der „Transzendenz Gottes" oder der
„Vermeidung von Anthropomorphismen" von außen an die rabbinischen Texte
herangetragen werden und nicht geeignet sind, diese zu erhellen. Denkformen,
unter denen eine bestimmte Vorstellung zu subsumieren und von denen her
sie zu interpretieren ist, können sich nur aus der rabbinischen Literatur selbst
ergeben. Der Ausgangspunkt der Arbeit war daher die Sammlung und Sichtung
sämtlicher Stellen in der rabbinischen Literatur, in denen die Engel erwähnt