The Plant Endoplasmic Reticulum

Plant Cell Monographs

Book 4
Springer Science & Business Media
1
Free sample

The endoplasmic reticulum (ER), called "the mother of all membranes," is spotlighted in this timely new book. The work presented here is especially exciting since GFP-technology has provided new ways of looking at the dynamics of the ER and its relationship to other organelles, particularly the Golgi apparatus and peroxisomes. This book provides in-depth knowledge of the ER and the diverse roles it plays.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Aug 15, 2006
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Pages
338
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ISBN
9783540325321
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Life Sciences / Botany
Science / Life Sciences / Cell Biology
Science / Life Sciences / Microbiology
Science / Life Sciences / Molecular Biology
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Mitochondria in plants, as in other eukaryotes, play an essential role in the cell as the major producers of ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. However, mitochondria also play crucial roles in many other aspects of plant development and performance, and possess an array of unique properties which allow them to interact with the specialized features of plant cell metabolism. The two main themes running through the book are the interconnection between gene regulation and protein function, and the integration of mitochondria with other components of plant cells.

The book begins with an overview of the dynamics of mitochondrial structure, morphology and inheritance. It then discusses the biogenesis of mitochondria, the regulation of gene expression, the mitochondrial genome and its interaction with the nucleus, and the targeting of proteins to the organelle. This is followed by a discussion of the contributions that mutations, involving mitochondrial proteins, have made to our understanding of the way the organelle interacts with the rest of the plant cell, and the new field of proteomics and the discovery of new functions. Also covered are the pathways of electron transport, with special attention to the non-phosphorylating bypasses, metabolite transport, and specialized mitochondrial metabolism.

In the end, the impact of oxidative stress on mitochondria and the defense mechanisms, that are employed to allow survival, are discussed. This book is for the use of advanced undergraduates, graduates, postgraduates, and beginning researchers in the areas of molecular and cellular biology, integrative biology, biochemistry, bioenergetics, proteomics and plant and agricultural sciences.

Actin is an extremely abundant protein that comprises a dynamic polymeric network present in all eukaryotic cells, known as the actin cytoskeleton. The structure and function of the actin cytoskeleton, which is modulated by a plethora of actin-binding proteins, performs a diverse range of cellular roles. Well-documented functions for actin include: providing the molecular tracks for cytoplasmic streaming and organelle movements; formation of tethers that guide the cell plate to the division site during cytokinesis; creation of honeycomb-like arrays that enmesh and immobilize plastids in unique subcellular patterns; supporting the vesicle traffic and cytoplasmic organization essential for the directional secretory mechanism that underpins tip growth of certain cells; and coordinating the elaborate cytoplasmic responses to extra- and intracellular signals. The previous two decades have witnessed an immense accumulation of data relating to the cellular, biochemical, and molecular aspects of all these fundamental cellular processes. This prompted the editors to put together a diverse collection of topics, contributed by established international experts, related to the plant actin cytoskeleton. Because the actin cytoskeleton impinges on a multitude of processes critical for plant growth and development, as well as for responses to the environment, the book will be invaluable to any researcher, from the advanced undergraduate to the senior investigator, who is interested in these areas of plant cell biology.
In 1939, when the electron optics laboratory of Siemens & Halske Inc. began to manufacture the first electron microscopes, the biological and medical profes sions had an unexpected instrument at their disposal which exceeded the reso lution of the light microscope by more than a hundredfold. The immediate and broad application of this new tool was complicated by the overwhelming prob lems inherent in specimen preparation for the investigation of cellular struc tures. The microtechniques applied in light microscopy were no longer appli cable, since even the thinnest paraffin layers could not be penetrated by electrons. Many competent biological and medical research workers expressed their anxiety that objects in high vacuum would be modified due to complete dehydration and the absorbed electron energy would eventually cause degrada tion to rudimentary carbon backbones. It also seemed questionable as to whether it would be possible to prepare thin sections of approximately 0. 5 11m from heterogeneous biological specimens. Thus one was suddenly in posses sion of a completely unique instrument which, when compared with the light microscope, allowed a 10-100-fold higher resolution, yet a suitable preparation methodology was lacking. This sceptical attitude towards the application of electron microscopy in bi ology and medicine was supported simultaneously by the general opinion of colloid chemists, who postulated that in the submicroscopic region of living structures no stable building blocks existed which could be revealed with this apparatus.
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