In this book, a distinguished group of scholars, attorneys, and judges examine the civil jury system and discuss whether certain features should be modified or reformed. The book features papers presented at a conference cosponsored by the Brookings Institution and the Litigation Section of the American Bar Association, together with an introductory chapter by Robert E. Litan. While the authors present competing views of the objectives of the civil jury system, all agree that the jury still has and will continue to have an important role in the American system of civil justice.
The book begins with a brief history of the jury system and explains how juries have become increasingly responsible for decisions of great difficulty. Contributors then provide an overview of the system's objectives and discuss whether, and to what extent, actual practice meets those objectives. They summarize how juries function and what attitudes lawyers, judges, litigants, former jurors, and the public at large hold about the current system.
The second half of the book is devoted to a wide range of recommendations that will both improve citizens' access to jury determinations and help resolve disputes in a more effective and efficient manner. Among their many suggestions, the authors call for changes in trial procedures and techniques that would improve the ability of jurors to understand the lay and evidence, a reduction in administrative costs and delays, and a change in they way juries are chosen. The authors also recommend shorter hours and more pay for jurors, greater flexibility in court schedules, and elimination of alternate jurors. In the final chapter the civil jury is considered in the broader context of how society resolves or manages civil disputes.
More than three years have elapsed since the East Asian financial crisis erupted, threatening economic and financial stability in the region and beyond. Although many of the region's economies have since staged a remarkable turnaround, much additional restructuring and reform is needed. Managing Financial and Corporate Distress: Lessons from Asia, stands out from other works on the East Asian crisis by moving beyond macroeconomic assessments to offer an institutional treatment of the microeconomic aspects of the corporate and bank restructuring. Contributors draw on their practical, hands-on expertise in various aspects of finance to provide complementary perspectives on how best to set in place strong and responsive institutions that might be able to resolve and avoid future crises in other emerging markets.
This volume should be of interest to senior financial sector policymakers from developed and developing countries in securities and exchange commissions, regulators, central banks, ministries of finance, and monetary authorities; private sector executives in stock exchanges, bond markets, venture capital markets, and investment funds; and researchers and academicians with an interest in capital market development in emerging markets. What are the key factors threatening the development and survival of stock exchanges in developing countries? What domestic strategies are needed to protect the future of local markets? Should exchanges consider linkages or alliances? Merging with, or buying up, other exchanges? Demutualization? The volume provides practical guidance on strategies such as nurturing issuers, improving rules and institutions, addressing regulatory challenges, and sequencing reforms. The contributors address a variety of country experiences, and suggest steps that policymakers and practitioners in emerging markets can take to promote an orderly transition toward efficient, well-regulated, and accessible capital markets.
Contributors include Reena Aggarwal (Georgetown University), Alexander S. Berg (World Bank), Alan Cameron (Sydney Futures Exchange), Olivier Fremond (PSACG), Amar Gill (Credit Lyonnais Securities Asia), Gerd Hausler (IMF), Jack Glen (International Finance Corporation), Peter Blair Henry (Stanford University Graduate School of Business), Patricia Jackson (Bank of England), Ruben Lee (Oxford Finance Group), Robert Litan (Brookings Institution), Clemente Luis del Valle (Securities and Exchange Commission of Colombia), Sanket Mohapatra (Columbia University), Alberto Musalem (World Bank), Dilip Kumar Ratha (World Bank), Ajit Singh (University of Cambridge), Philip Suttle (DECPG), V. Sundararajan (IMF), Thierry Tressel (IMF), Philip Turner (Bank for International Settlements), and Piero Ugolini (IMF).
Fast broadband has huge societal benefits, enabling all kinds of applications in telemedicine, entertainment, retailing, education, and energy that would have been unthinkable a few years ago. Those benefits would be even greater if the FCC adopted policies that encouraged more broadband providers, especially wireless providers, to make their services available in the roughly half of the country where consumers currently have no choice in wireline providers offering download speeds that satisfy the FCC's current standards.
The authors' recommendations include allowing broadband providers to charge for premium delivery services; embracing a rule-of-reason approach to all matters involving vertical arrangements; stripping the FCC of its merger review authority because both the Federal Trade Commission and the Justice Department have the authority to stop anticompetitive mergers; eliminating the FCC's ability to condition spectrum purchases on the identity, business plans, or spectrum holdings of a bidder; and freeing telephone companies from outdated regulations that require them to maintain both a legacy copper network and a modem IP network.
These changes and others advanced in this book would greatly enhance consumer welfare with respect to telecommunications services and the applications built around them.
Trillion Dollar Economists explores the prize-winning ideas that have shaped business decisions, business models, and government policies, expanding the popular idea of the economist's role from one of forecaster to one of innovator. Written by the former Director of Economic Research at Bloomberg Government, the Kauffman Foundation and the Brookings Institution, this book describes the ways in which economists have helped shape the world – in some cases, dramatically enough to be recognized with a Nobel Prize or Clark Medal. Detailed discussion of how economists think about the world and the pace of future innovation leads to an examination of the role, importance, and limits of the market, and economists' contributions to business and policy in the past, present, and future.
Few economists actually forecast the economy's performance. Instead, the bulk of the profession is concerned with how markets work, and how they can be made more efficient and productive to generate the things people want to buy for a better life. Full of interviews with leading economists and industry leaders, Trillion Dollar Economists showcases the innovations that have built modern business and policy. Readers will:Review the basics of economics and the innovation of economists, including market failures and the macro-micro distinction Discover the true power of economic ideas when used directly in business, as exemplified by Priceline and Google Learn how economists contributed to policy platforms in transportation, energy, telecommunication, and more Explore the future of economics in business applications, and the policy ideas, challenges, and implications
Economists have helped firms launch new businesses, established new ways of making money, and shaped government policy to create new opportunities and a new landscape on which businesses compete. Trillion Dollar Economists provides a comprehensive exploration of these contributions, and a detailed look at innovation to come.
Better Capitalism extends and significantly expands on the insights of the authors' widely praised previous book, Good Capitalism, Bad Capitalism, co-written with William Baumol. In Better Capitalism, Robert E. Litan and Carl J. Schramm focus on the huge--but often unrecognized--importance of entrepreneurship to overall economic growth. They explain how changes in seemingly unrelated policy arenas--immigration, education, finance, and federal support of university research--can accelerate America's recovery from recession and spur the nation's rate of growth in output while raising living standards. The authors also outline an innovative energy strategy and discuss the potential benefits of government belt-tightening steps. Sounding an optimistic note when gloomy predictions are the norm, Litan and Schramm show that, with wise and informed policymaking, the American entrepreneurial engine can rally and the true potential of the U.S. economy can be unlocked.
Corporate financial reporting scandals in the United States and elsewhere in recent years, however, have called into question the sufficiency of the legal framework governing these gatekeepers. Policymakers have since responded by imposing a series of new obligations, restrictions, and punishments—all with the purpose of strengthening investor confidence in these important actors. F inancial Gatekeepers provides an in-depth look at these new frameworks, especially in the United States and Japan. How have they worked? Are further refinements appropriate? These are among the questions addressed in this timely and important volume. Contributors include Leslie Boni (University of New Mexico), Barry Bosworth (Brookings Institution), Tomoo Inoue (Seikei University), Zoe-Vonna Palmrose (University of Southern California), Frank Partnoy (University of San Diego School of Law), George Perry (Brookings Institution), Justin Pettit (UBS), Paul Stevens (Investment Company Institute), Peter Wallison (American Enterprise Institute)
The General Agreement on Tariffs and Trade (GATT) outlines a variety of rules designed to ensure fairness. The United States, like other GATT signatories, has enacted statutes designed, for the most part, to be consistent with the GATT requirements.
In this book, Richard Boltuck and Robert E. Litan, joined by a team of attorneys and economists with direct experience in "unfair trade" practice investigations, provide the first study of how one of the U.S. governmental agencies charged with implementing the U.S. laws governing unfair trade—the Department of Commerce—has actually discharged its statutory mission. In particular, the book focuses on the antidumping and countervailing duty statutes, provisions allowing the United States to impose offsetting duties on imports that are sold here at prices below those charged by the producers in their home countries that benefit from subsidies provided by foreign governments to encourage exports. Although these provisions may have once been obscure parts of the U.S. trade laws, they have figured importantly in many recent celebrated trade disputes, including those involving the import of foreign-made semiconductors, steel, lumber, screen displays for laptop computers, word processors, and minivan vehicles.
All but one of the authors in the volume are highly critical of the procedures used by the Department of Commerce to calculate margins of dumping and export subsidization. Specifically, they find that at many points in the investigations, both through substantive and procedural requirements, there is a bias toward higher margins, and therefore higher import duties, than is warranted by economic theory; and in some cases by the GATT antidumping and subsidy codes themselves. Significantly, these authors contend that most of the biases can be removed without legislative change, but rather through changes in administrative practice.