English Grammar– Do, Does, Did

English Daily Use

Book 17
Manik Joshi
6
Free sample

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

English Grammar – ‘DO/DOES/DID’

English Grammar – ‘DO’
VERB ‘DO’ -- (A) – Affirmative Sentences
VERB ‘DO’ -- (B) – Negative Sentences
VERB ‘DO’ -- (C) – Interrogative Sentences
VERB ‘DO’ -- (D) – 'Short Answers’ and ‘Question Tags’

English Grammar – ‘DOES’
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (A) – Affirmative Sentences
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (B) – Negative Sentences
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (C) – Interrogative Sentences
VERB ‘DOES’ -- (D) – 'Short Answers’ and ‘Question Tags’

English Grammar – ‘DID’
VERB ‘DID’ -- (A) – Affirmative Sentences
VERB ‘DID’ -- (B) – Negative Sentences
VERB ‘DID’ -- (C) – Interrogative Sentences
VERB ‘DID’ -- (D) – 'Short Answers’ and ‘Question Tags’

Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) to 2(D)


Sample This:

English Grammar – ‘DO/DOES/DID’

Verb 'Do’ is used as an AUXILIARY VERB as well as an MAIN (ORDINARY) VERB.
MAIN VERB: When used as main verb, verb ‘do’ is followed by an object.
AUXILIARY VERB: ‘Auxiliary verb’ is a verb which is used with main verb to show tenses, etc.]

He does not do these kinds of things. [In this sentence, ‘Does’ has been used as an ‘Auxiliary Verb’, while ‘Do’ has been used as a ‘Main Verb’]
They do not do nation-building. [In this sentence, ‘Do’ has been used as both an ‘Auxiliary Verb’ and a “Main Verb’]

NOTE: Verb ‘do’ has the following forms:
(1). Present form – Do or Does
[‘Do’ is used with ‘You, I, We, They’ and all other plural subjects in present tense. ‘Does’ is used with ‘He, She, It’ and all other singular subjects in present tense.]

(2). Past form – Did
[‘Did’ is used with ‘You, I, We, They, He, She, It’ and all other singular and plural subjects in past tense.]

(3). Past Participle form – Done

[Past participles are accompanied by auxiliary verbs ‘HAVE’ or ‘BE’ (in the correct tense)]
You have done your country proud.
This type of job is done in this factory.

Main Verb ‘Do’ may denote the following actions –
to find the answer to something: - Can they do this puzzle?
to perform an activity or a task: - Sometimes you like to do things that are a little scary.
to produce something: - He did a painting last night.
to study something: - I am doing English these days.
to talk about household chores (cleaning, washing, etc.): - They will have to do (wash) dishes.
to work at something as a job: - What do you do for your livelihood?

Main Verb ‘Do’ is also used to show the following actions:
to attend, to cook, to copy somebody’s behavior, to travel, to visit somewhere as a tourist, to cheat, to punish, to steal, etc.

Some more sentences with ‘MAIN VERB’ – DO/DOES/DID/DONE:
She is happy that she will be able to do something for the poor and downtrodden.
We are ready to do whatever it takes to avoid being suspended from competition.
I like to do extensive research before I invest hard-earned money on a new purchase.
It's no secret we do things we know we shouldn't.
It is not uncommon to come across people who do jobs that have nothing to do with their academic degree.
What ultraviolet light does to skin to cause sunburn?
What caffeine does to your brain?
It is not yet clear what exactly this software did.
Work was done according to the rules.
He has done an obligation to me.
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About the author

Manik Joshi was born on Jan 26, 1979 at Ranikhet and is permanent resident of Haldwani, Kumaon zone of India. He is an Internet Marketer by profession. He is interested in domaining (business of buying and selling domain names), web designing (creating websites), and various online jobs (including 'self book publishing'). He is science graduate with ZBC (zoology, botany, and chemistry) subjects. He is also an MBA (with specialization in marketing). He has done three diploma courses in computer too.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Manik Joshi
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Published on
Oct 25, 2014
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Pages
49
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ISBN
9781497597846
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Public Speaking
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This content is DRM protected.
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This Book Covers The Following Topics:

VERB – ‘HAVE’

PART (A). Ordinary Verb -- ‘HAVE’

PART (B). Auxiliary Verb -- ‘HAVE’
1. Have/Has/Had + Third Form of Verb
2. Have/Has/Had + Been + Third Form of Verb
3. Have/Has/Had + Been + -ING Form of Verb
4. Have/Has/Had + Been
5. Have/Has/Had + Had

PART (C). Modal Verb -- ‘HAVE’
1A. [Have/Has + To + First Form of Verb]
1B. [Have/Has + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
2A. [Had + To + First Form of Verb]
2B. [Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
3A. [Have/Has + Had + To + First Form of Verb]
3B. [Have/Has + Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
4A. [Had + Had + To + First Form of Verb]
4B. [Had + Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
5A. [Having + To + First Form of Verb]
5B. [To + Have + To + First Form of Verb]

Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
Exercises: 3(A) to 3(C)

Sample This:


VERB – ‘HAVE’

Verb ‘HAVE’ is used as an AUXILIARY VERB as well as a MAIN (ORDINARY) VERB. It also does function of ‘MODAL VERB’.

MAIN VERB: When used as main verb, verb ‘have’ is followed by an object.
AUXILIARY VERB: When used as an auxiliary verb, it forms the perfect and perfect continuous tenses. [Note: ‘Auxiliary verb’ is a verb which is used with main verb to show tenses, etc.]
MODAL VERB: ‘Modal verb’ is a verb that is used with main verb to express intention, permission, possibility, probability, obligation, etc. Following patterns are possible: “have to, has to, had to, have had to, has had to, had had to, having to”

FORMS OF VERB ‘HAVE’:
Present form – Have or Has
Past form – Had
Past Participle form – Had

IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT VERB ‘HAVE’
‘Have’ Is Used With Subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural Subjects
‘Has’ Is Used With Subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects
‘Had’ Is Used With All Subjects (Singular or Plural)

USE OF ‘HAVE GOT’
In some senses, you can also use ‘have got’.
‘have got’ is especially used in ‘British English’.
She has got a loose temper. (= She has a loose temper.)
I have got a backache. (= I have a backache.)
He has got a management degree (= He has a management degree.)

PART (A). Ordinary Verb -- ‘HAVE’

As a Main Verb, ‘Have’ is used to express different kinds of thoughts: Some of them are as follows: to possess, to own, to show a quality, to show a feature, to suffer from illness, to perform a particular action, to produce a particular effect, to trick, to cheat, to hold, to experience, to receive, to allow, to put in a position, etc.
When used as main verb, ‘have’ is followed by an object.

I have an American passport.
He has an American passport.
She had an American passport.

Negative Forms Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Do not have (Don’t have)
Has – Does not have (Doesn’t have)
Had – Did not have (Didn’t have)
I don’t have an American passport.
He doesn’t have an American passport.
She didn’t have an American passport.

NOTE– Instead of using do/does/did, you can also use modal verbs (may, can, must, should, etc.) in negative sentences to show possibility, intention, obligation, etc.
I may not have an American passport.
He may not have an American passport.
She may not have an American passport.

You can also use ‘Never have/Never has/Never had’ to emphasize negative statements.
I never have my breakfast at 7 am.
This park never has any trace of greenery.
We never had the guts to question him.


Interrogative Patterns Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Do + Subject + Have
Has – Does + Subject + Have
Had – Did + Subject + Have
Do I have an American passport?
Does he have an American passport?
Did she have an American passport?

NOTE– Instead of using do/does/did, you can also use modal verbs (may, can, must, should, etc.) in interrogative sentences to show possibility, intention, obligation, etc.
Can I have an American passport?
Can he have an American passport?
Can she have an American passport?

Interrogative-Negative Patterns Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Don’t + Subject + Have
Has – Doesn’t + Subject + Have
Had – Didn’t + Subject + Have
Don’t I have an American passport?
Doesn’t he have an American passport?
Didn’t she have an American passport?
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

Pattern (01) -- To + Be
Pattern (02) -- To + Be + -ING Form of Verb
Pattern (03) -- To + First Form of Verb
Pattern (04) -- To + Be + Third Form of Verb
Pattern (05) -- To + Have
Pattern (06) -- To + Have + Been
Pattern (07) -- To + Have + Been + -ING Form of Verb
Pattern (08) -- To + Have + Third Form of Verb
Pattern (09) -- To + Have + Been + Third Form of Verb
Pattern (10) -- Being (Present) And Having Been (Past)
Pattern (11) -- ‘Verb + -ING’ and ‘Having + Past Participle’
Pattern (12) -- Being, Having Been And Past Participle
Pattern (13) – “Be” + To
EXERCISE


Sample This:

Pattern (01) -- To + Be

[PAST EVENTS]
EXAMPLE 1:-
He thought that he was safe there.
First Part - He thought. [Main Verb In Past]
Second Part - He was safe there. [Verb ‘Be’ – Was]
Using – ‘To + Be’
He thought that he was safe there.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Remove ‘that’
B. Replace Subject pronoun (he) with Reflexive pronoun (himself)
C. Replace Verb ‘Was’ With To Be
He thought himself to be safe there [Main Verb In Past + To + Be]

EXAMPLE 2:
I believed that he was a rival.
First Part - I believed. [Main Verb In Past]
Second Part - He was a rival. [Verb ‘Be’ – Was]
Using – ‘To + Be’
I believed that he was a rival.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Remove ‘that’
B. Replace Subject pronoun (he) with Object pronoun (him)
C. Replace Verb ‘Was’ With ‘To Be’
I believed him to be a rival. [Main Verb In Past + To + Be]

EXAMPLE 3:
It was said that he was in China.
First Part - It was said [Main Verb in Past]
Second Part - He was in China [Verb ‘Be’ – Was]
Using – ‘To + Be’
It was said that he was in China.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Use Subject of Second Part as the Main Subject
B. Remove ‘that’
C. Replace Verb ‘Was’ (Second Part) With ‘To Be’
He was said to be in China. [Main Verb In Past + To + Be]

MORE EXAMPLES:
He appeared to be mentally disturbed.
He appeared to be in the age group of 23-25 years.
The family claimed it to be a case of medical negligence.
Others seemed to be fast asleep.
Speeding seemed to be the reason behind the accident.
We never expected him to be part of scandal.
More than a dozen children were believed to be among the passengers on the plane.
Samples of the body said to be of 23-year body did not match despite investigation agency having thrice sent the sample to a laboratory.
He grew up to be a brave man.
A closer look showed it to be the head of a boy neck-deep in the quicksand.
Wait turned out to be long and futile.
Kidnapper turned out to be none other than his own relative.
They found four passengers who turned out to be thieves.
Everyone wanted to be first to be out from hotel.


[PRESENT EVENTS]
EXAMPLE 1:
We know that he is alive.
First Part - We know. [Main Verb In Present]
Second Part - He is alive. [Verb ‘Be’ – Is]
Using – ‘To + Be’
We know that he is alive.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Remove ‘that’
B. Replace Subject pronoun (he) with Object pronoun (him)
C. Replace Verb ‘Is’ With To Be
We know him to be alive. [Main Verb In Present + To + Be]

EXAMPLE 2:
It is said that his condition is critical.
First Part – It is said. [Main Verb In Present]
Second Part - His condition is critical. [Verb ‘Be’ – Is]
Using – ‘To + Be’
It is said that his condition is critical.
Make changes in this sentence as follows:
A. Use Subject of Second Part as the Main Subject
B. Remove ‘that’
C. Replace Verb ‘Is’ (Second Part) With ‘To Be’
His condition is said to be critical. [Main Verb In Present + To + Be]

MORE EXAMPLES:
It appears to be a replay of 1997 hit and run case.
The ball appears to be in the finance ministry’s court.
Friends are known to be sympathetic during tough times.
They cease to be MPs.
Today happens to be your birthday.
They are reported to be safe.
He wants it to be a low-key affair.
I want this to be more of an inspirational story.
The incident seems to be fallout of property dispute.
The shelter is expected to be ready by next week.
He is considered to be close to president.
Time management is said to be the key of success.
He is believed to be in a serious but stable condition.
The Nile is said to be longer the all other rivers.
He has been found to be a millionaire.
Modal Auxiliary Verb (or ‘Modal Verb’ or ‘Modal Auxiliary’) is a verb that is used with another verb (not a modal verb) to express ability, intention, necessity, obligation, permission, possibility, probability, etc.

English modal auxiliary verbs - may, might, can, could, will, would, shall, should, must, need, used(to), ought(to), dare | different patterns and examples | may and might are used to express- possibility, compulsion, obligation, probability (in present and future) | can, could are used to express- ability, probability, possibility, suggestion, request, condition | will, would are used to express- action in future, present habit, compulsion, obligation | shall, should are used to express- action in future, suggestion, surprise, importance or purpose | need is used to express necessity | used(to) is used to express- past habit | ought(to) is used to express- probability, recommendation, obligation, advise | dare is used to express– be brave enough to

Sample This:

Modal Auxiliary Verb -- May and Might

‘May’ and ‘Might’ are used to show Possibility and Probability
‘May’ and ‘Might’ are used to ask for Permission
‘May’ is used to give or refuse Permission

Some Important Uses of ‘May’ and ‘Might’

To say what the purpose of something is
We eat that we may live.
Her prayer was that the child might live.
That he might be well fed his mother starved herself.

To admit that something is true before introducing another point, argument, etc.
You may not return to past glory, but don't stop believing.
City may not have the roads to drive sports car, but it has excellent infrastructure.
It may not be wise, but using force may be lawful.
I may not have deserved the house I bought, but I'm glad I own it.
He may not have been loved, but he was respected.
We may have had to go without food, but he is very considerate.

‘May’ is used to express wishes and hopes
May you live prosperous life!

‘May’ is used to give or refuse Permission [In Informal and Polite Way]
You may contact us for queries regarding donations.
When you have finished your work you may go home.
Note: Never use ‘might’ to give permission. [Always use ‘may’]
Never use ‘might not’ to refuse permission. [Always use ‘may not’]

Difference between ‘May’ and ‘Might’
Note: ‘Might’ is the past equivalent of ‘may’ in indirect speech.
But it is used in the same way as ‘may’ to talk about the present or future.

‘May’ denotes more possibility/probability
‘Might’ denotes less possibility/probability
It may rain tomorrow (Perhaps a 75% chance) - More possible
It might rain tomorrow (Perhaps a 50% chance) - Less possible

‘Might’ also denotes ‘would perhaps’
You might attract President’s attention later. (= Perhaps you would attract.)
He might have to go (Perhaps he had to go.)

‘Might’ is frequently used In conditional sentences
If I pursued studies further, I might learn more.
If I had pursued studies further, I might have learned more.

‘Might’ has limitations while ‘asking permission’
‘Might’ is very polite and formal. It is not common. It is mostly used in indirect questions.
I wonder if I might work on your computer.

Note: ‘Maybe’ is an adverb. [‘Maybe’ means ‘perhaps’]
Maybe he came to know something secret and was removed from the post.

ALSO NOTE:
Difference Between ‘May’ and ‘Can’
‘May’ is more formal than ‘Can’
‘May’ is mostly used in ‘formal’ English.
‘Can’ is mostly used in ‘informal’ (or spoken) English
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

01. Direct and Indirect Speech
02. Expression of Time
03. Important Reporting Verbs
04. Pronoun Change
05. Tenses in Direct and Indirect Speech
06. Reporting Verb with Object
07. Changing Modal Verbs
08. ‘Questions’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
09. ‘Exclamations’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
10. ‘Imperatives’ in Direct and Indirect Speech
11. Direct and Indirect Speech: Mixed Types
12. Where to Put Reporting Verb in Direct Speech
13. Punctuation Rules
14. Other Useful Notes
Exercise -- 01
Exercise -- 02
Exercise -- 03

Sample This:

01. Direct and Indirect Speech

There are two ways to express what someone else has said. On this basis, sentences are of two types: sentences with Direct Speech, and sentences with Indirect Speech

DIRECT SPEECH
Direct Speech is also called Quoted Speech or Direct Narration.
Direct Speech refers exactly what someone has said.
Direct Speech appears within quotation marks (“..”). A comma is used before starting the exact quote within the quotation marks.
Direct Speech should be word for word.
The first letter of the quotation begins with a capital letter.
Example: The president said, “I will not bear corruption in the country at any cost.”

INDIRECT SPEECH
Indirect speech is also called Reported Speech or Indirect Narration.
Indirect Speech does not refer exactly what someone has said.
Indirect Speech doesn't appear within quotation marks but the word “that” may be used as a conjunction between the reporting verb and reported speech.
Indirect Speech shouldn’t be word for word.
Pronoun in Indirect Speech is changed according to speaker and hearer.
Example: The president declared that he would not bear corruption in the country at any cost.

Important rules for changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech are as follows:


02. Expression of Time

You need to change expression of time when changing direct speech (DS) into indirect speech (IDS) to match the moment of speaking. Important expressions of time in direct and indirect speech are as follows:

‘a month ago’ is changed into ‘a month before’
‘a year ago’ is changed into ‘the previous year’ or ‘a year before’
‘last night’ is changed into ‘the night before’
‘last Saturday’ is changed into ‘the Saturday before’
‘last weekend’ is changed into ‘the weekend before’
‘next year’ is changed into ‘the following year’ or ‘the year after’
‘now’ is changed into ‘then’
‘the day after tomorrow’ is changed into ‘in two day’s time’
‘the day before yesterday’ is changed into ‘two days before’
‘these (days)’ is changed into ‘those (days)’
‘this (morning/noon/evening)’ is changed into ‘that (morning/noon/evening)’
‘today’ is changed into ‘that day’
‘tomorrow’ is changed into ‘the next/following day’ or ‘the day after’
‘tonight’ is changed into ‘that night’
‘yesterday’ is changed into ‘the previous day’ or ‘the day before’

Besides expressions of time, there are many other expressions that need to be changed if you are changing Direct Speech into Indirect Speech.
‘come’ is changed into ‘go’
‘bring’ is changed into ‘take’
‘thus’ is changed into ‘so’
‘hence’ is changed into ‘thence’
‘hither’ is changed into ‘thither’
‘here’ is changed into ‘there’
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

1. ENGLISH VERB -- ‘GET’
2. Meanings of Main Verb ‘GET’
3. GET + THIRD FORM OF VERB
3A. Get + Third Form of Verb
3B. Have/Has + Got + Third Form of Verb
3C. Got + Third Form of Verb
3D. Had + Got + Third Form of Verb
3E. Will + Get + Third Form of Verb
3F. Will + Have + Got + Third Form of Verb
3G. Modal Verbs + Get + Third Form of Verb
3H. Getting + Third Form of Verb
3I. Verb + To + Get + Third Form of Verb
4. GET TO + FIRST FORM OF VERB
4A. Get To + First Form of Verb
4B. Got To + First Form of Verb
4C. Will + Get To + First Form of Verb
5. HAVE + GOT TO + FIRST FORM OF VERB
6. ‘GET’ + ADJECTIVE
7. ‘GET’ + USED TO
8. Use of ‘Get’ In Causative Sentences
9. English Idioms With ‘Get’
10. Phrasal Verbs With ‘Get’
11. Other Sentences With ‘Get’
12. Conjugation of Verb ‘Get’
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
Exercises: 3(A) and 3(B)


Sample This:

1. ENGLISH VERB -- ‘GET’

Get is an irregular verb. Its three forms are as follows:

First Form (Base Form) -- GET
Second Form (Past Form) -- GOT
Third Form (Past Participle) -- GOT/GOTTEN

Present Perfect of ‘Get’ – Have/Has Got || Have/Has Gotten
Past Perfect of ‘Get’ -- Had Got || Had Gotten

Gotten (past participle form of ‘get’) is generally used in Spoken American English. Gotten is incorrect in British English.

-ING Form of ‘Get’ -- Getting
Infinitive of ‘Get’ -- To Get

IMPORTANT NOTE:
“Have/has got” is the ‘Present Perfect’ Form of ‘get’. But it is mainly used in the present indefinite (simple) tense. “Have/has got” is generally used with ‘simple present meaning’ to show characteristics, ownership, illnesses, and relationships.
‘Have got’ and ‘has got’ have the same meaning as ‘have’ and ‘has’ respectively. They can be used as present indefinite (simple) tenses.

Affirmative Sentences --
They have got computers. = They have computers.
He has got a computer. = He has a computer.

Negative Sentences --
They have not got computers. = They do not have computers.
He has not got a computer. = He does not have a computer.
Note:- Negative form of ‘have/has got’ is made by adding ‘not’ between ‘have/has’ and ‘got’; whereas, negative form of ‘have/has’ is made by using ‘do/does not’.

Interrogative Sentences --
Have they got computers? = Do they have computers?
Has he got a computer? = Does he have a computer?
Note:- Interrogative pattern of ‘have/has got’ is made by putting auxiliary verb ‘have/has’ before the subject; whereas Interrogative pattern of ‘have/has’ is made by putting auxiliary verb ‘Do/Does’ before the subject.

However, in past events you should prefer using ‘had’ instead of ‘had got’ ’ to show characteristics, ownership, illnesses, and relationships.
More Common -- They had computers. They did not have computers. Did they have computers?
Less Common -- They had got computers. They had not got computers. Had they got computers?

Also Note: Use of ‘have got’ and ‘has got’ in present perfect tenses:
Pattern: Have/has got + past participle of verb
A project has got stuck. || Many projects have got stuck.

And, in past perfect tenses you should use ‘had got’.
A project had got stuck. || Many projects had got stuck.


ALSO NOTE:
GOTTA - Very informal and non-standard way of referring to ‘have got to’ or ‘have got a’ in writing. This form is grammatically incorrect. Avoid using writing this form.

English Verb ‘Get’ can be used in a number of patterns and has lots of different uses and meanings.--
A. “Get” is used as a main verb with many different meanings.
B. “Get” is used in several idioms.
C. “Get” is used in several phrasal verbs.

Meanings of Main Verb ‘GET’

MOST COMMON MEANINGS OF “GET” AS A MAIN VERB ARE AS FOLLOWS:
to receive / to obtain or acquire (to gain, attain, achieve something) / to bring / to receive prison term / to receive broadcasts / to buy something / to earn / to receive marks or grade in an exam / to become affected by (a disease or bodily condition) / to be infected with an illness, etc. / to start doing something / to arrive/come/reach / to move to a particular direction or place / to use transport (to catch) / to answer (receive) the phone call / to capture somebody / to understand / to have / to memorize / to find out by calculation / to deliver / to prepare a meal, etc.

1. TO RECEIVE
We get assurance every time, but nothing has materialized.
I got the medal and the money.
I got an appointment letter today.
Flood-affected families got compensation.
We got some high-resolution images.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

VERB – ‘HAVE’

PART (A). Ordinary Verb -- ‘HAVE’

PART (B). Auxiliary Verb -- ‘HAVE’
1. Have/Has/Had + Third Form of Verb
2. Have/Has/Had + Been + Third Form of Verb
3. Have/Has/Had + Been + -ING Form of Verb
4. Have/Has/Had + Been
5. Have/Has/Had + Had

PART (C). Modal Verb -- ‘HAVE’
1A. [Have/Has + To + First Form of Verb]
1B. [Have/Has + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
2A. [Had + To + First Form of Verb]
2B. [Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
3A. [Have/Has + Had + To + First Form of Verb]
3B. [Have/Has + Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
4A. [Had + Had + To + First Form of Verb]
4B. [Had + Had + To + Be + Third Form of Verb]
5A. [Having + To + First Form of Verb]
5B. [To + Have + To + First Form of Verb]

Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
Exercises: 3(A) to 3(C)

Sample This:


VERB – ‘HAVE’

Verb ‘HAVE’ is used as an AUXILIARY VERB as well as a MAIN (ORDINARY) VERB. It also does function of ‘MODAL VERB’.

MAIN VERB: When used as main verb, verb ‘have’ is followed by an object.
AUXILIARY VERB: When used as an auxiliary verb, it forms the perfect and perfect continuous tenses. [Note: ‘Auxiliary verb’ is a verb which is used with main verb to show tenses, etc.]
MODAL VERB: ‘Modal verb’ is a verb that is used with main verb to express intention, permission, possibility, probability, obligation, etc. Following patterns are possible: “have to, has to, had to, have had to, has had to, had had to, having to”

FORMS OF VERB ‘HAVE’:
Present form – Have or Has
Past form – Had
Past Participle form – Had

IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT VERB ‘HAVE’
‘Have’ Is Used With Subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural Subjects
‘Has’ Is Used With Subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects
‘Had’ Is Used With All Subjects (Singular or Plural)

USE OF ‘HAVE GOT’
In some senses, you can also use ‘have got’.
‘have got’ is especially used in ‘British English’.
She has got a loose temper. (= She has a loose temper.)
I have got a backache. (= I have a backache.)
He has got a management degree (= He has a management degree.)

PART (A). Ordinary Verb -- ‘HAVE’

As a Main Verb, ‘Have’ is used to express different kinds of thoughts: Some of them are as follows: to possess, to own, to show a quality, to show a feature, to suffer from illness, to perform a particular action, to produce a particular effect, to trick, to cheat, to hold, to experience, to receive, to allow, to put in a position, etc.
When used as main verb, ‘have’ is followed by an object.

I have an American passport.
He has an American passport.
She had an American passport.

Negative Forms Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Do not have (Don’t have)
Has – Does not have (Doesn’t have)
Had – Did not have (Didn’t have)
I don’t have an American passport.
He doesn’t have an American passport.
She didn’t have an American passport.

NOTE– Instead of using do/does/did, you can also use modal verbs (may, can, must, should, etc.) in negative sentences to show possibility, intention, obligation, etc.
I may not have an American passport.
He may not have an American passport.
She may not have an American passport.

You can also use ‘Never have/Never has/Never had’ to emphasize negative statements.
I never have my breakfast at 7 am.
This park never has any trace of greenery.
We never had the guts to question him.


Interrogative Patterns Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Do + Subject + Have
Has – Does + Subject + Have
Had – Did + Subject + Have
Do I have an American passport?
Does he have an American passport?
Did she have an American passport?

NOTE– Instead of using do/does/did, you can also use modal verbs (may, can, must, should, etc.) in interrogative sentences to show possibility, intention, obligation, etc.
Can I have an American passport?
Can he have an American passport?
Can she have an American passport?

Interrogative-Negative Patterns Of Main Verb ‘Have’:
Have – Don’t + Subject + Have
Has – Doesn’t + Subject + Have
Had – Didn’t + Subject + Have
Don’t I have an American passport?
Doesn’t he have an American passport?
Didn’t she have an American passport?
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

How to Start a Sentence
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AFTER’ and ‘BEFORE’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘BY’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘FOR/FROM
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IF’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘OF/ON/OUT’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘TO’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IN’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘WITH’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘QUESTION WORDS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘ING’ FORM of VERBS
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PAST PARTICIPLES’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘-LY Words’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PRONOUNS’
Start a Sentence – Miscellaneous
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)

Sample This:

There are different ways to start a sentence in English. Using pronoun (I, we, you, they, he, she, it) is the most popular way to begin a sentence. But there are many other words which are widely used to start a sentence. They might be question words (what, where, etc.). They might be words formed from verbs, ending in –ing, -ed, -en, etc. Besides, words such as ‘to’ ‘in’ ‘with’, ‘if’, ‘after’ are also used to begin a sentence.
Here, you will learn various words and phrases to start a sentence with.

Important Note:
Starting a sentence with ‘and’ or ‘but’ is correct or not!

Using ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence is generally considered grammatically Incorrect. But there is no hard and fast rule in this regard. So, you can use ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence. But avoid excessive use of these words to begin a sentence. Use these words in the beginning of a sentence only when they really give strength to your language.

Note: It is said that a sentence should not be begun with a conjunction of any kind, especially one of the FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). But this is not hard and fast rule. Particularly in spoken English, starting a sentence with ‘And’ or ‘But’ is common.


How to start a sentence -- Using ‘AS’

As a matter of fact no notice was given to anyone.
As a policeman myself, I am aware of all the laws.
As against last time four days, the fair will last for five days this year.
As always, he won the match.
As an interim arrangement, we directed the authorities not to return the land.
As fate would have it, he crossed the international border.
As for David, he is doing fine.
As he got busy, she picked up his son.
As he grew older, he developed his communications skills.
As if the bad power situation in the city wasn’t enough, the hike in power tariff has come as the last straw for residents.
As in the past, party president distanced herself from the government’s unpopular decision.
As long as here is violence by unruly mobs, use of police force is inevitable.
As often happened, he forgot to send me reply.
As part of the deal, they will hand-over control of five west bank towns.
As penance, he vowed to never scold any kid ever again.
As per his version, nobody had got injured in the incident.
As per rules, the same bill should be passed by the two Houses of the Parliament before it is sent to the President for his signature and promulgation for implementation.
As sanitary workers are absent on most of the days, sweeping of that road is also irregular resulting in trash along the road.
As the bus was nearing, / As the bus neared him, he moved aside.
As the day progressed, over a hundred men protestors gathered at the office.
As the electric cables are hanging loosely, it may anytime lead to major accident if any passer-by comes into contact.
As the mercury levels are dropping each day, difficulties for the poor are constantly rising.
As the war widened, they had to leave the city.
As we progresses, it is going to become more and more difficult.
As you know, I have sent him a letter.
One-Word Substitutes: A Word that is used in place of a complete sentence

This book covers the following topics:
(01). Related Words
(02). Scientific Studies
(03). That Which Cannot Be…
(04). Types of Behavior
(05). Types of Doctors
(06). Different Instruments
(07). A Particular Type of Place
(08). A Particular Type of Person
(09). Phobia and Mania
(10). Connected With…
(11). Country-Government
(12). Types of States
(13). Types of Statements
(14). Money-Related
(15). Other Topics
(A). Professions
(B). A Collection of Things
(C). Act of Killing
(D). Physical Appearance of A Person
(16). Various One-word Substitutes

Sample This:

(01). Related Words

01a. A person who looks at the bright side of things -- Optimist
01b. A person who looks at the dark side of things -- Pessimist

02a. All the animals living in a particular area -- Fauna
02b. Plants and vegetation in a particular area -- Flora

03a. A government tax on goods brought into the country -- Customs
03b. A government tax on goods made within a country -- Excise

04a. A person who is more interested in others -- Extrovert
04b. A person who keeps himself to himself -- Introvert

05a. That which cannot be harmful or dangerous -- Innocuous
05b. Causing serious harm in gradual or unnoticeable way -- Insidious

06a. A person who is taking examination -- Examinee
06b. A person who examine the copies of examinees -- Examiner

07a. A person who talks too much -- Garrulous/Loquacious
07b. A person who eats too much -- Glutton

08a. To suddenly change direction -- Deflect
08b. To keep on changing direction during movement -- Meander

09a. Ability to know something on the basis of feelings rather than reasoning -- Intuition
09b. Ability to speak without moving your lips -- Ventriloquism

10a. To change a law in order to improve it -- Amend
10b. To correct the mistakes in manuscript, etc. -- Emend

11a. A person between 70 and 79 years old -- Septuagenarian
11b. A person between 80 and 89 years old -- Octogenarian

12a. Animals having spinal column -- Vertebrate
12b. An animal with thick skin -- Pachyderm

13a. Obeying rules and requests -- Compliance
13b. Open refusal to obey -- Defiance

14a. The state of being married -- Matrimony
14b. The state of being unmarried -- Bachelorhood

15a. A woman whose husband has died -- Widow
15b. A man whose wife has died -- Widower

16a. Things of different nature -- Heterogeneous
16b. Things of same nature -- Homogeneous

17a. A religious song -- Hymn
17b. A pleasant song used for causing children to sleep -- Lullaby

18a. To rise in value -- Appreciate
18b. To go down in value -- Depreciate

19a. A disorder in which person eats too less because of abnormal fear of being fat -- Anorexia
19b. A disorder in which person repeatedly eats too much -- Bulimia

20a. To increase the intensity of a disease -- Aggravate
20b. To go from bad to worse – Deteriorate

21a. A school for small children -- Kindergarten
21b. A student who has left school or class without permission -- Truant

22a. To free somebody from all blame -- Exonerate
22b. To free a person from a charge by verdict -- Acquit

23a. A co-worker in the same institution -- Colleague
23b. Equal in rank -- Peer

24a. An office with high salary but no work -- Sinecure
24b. A position in an organization without salary -- Honorary

25a. An assembly of hearers at a lecture or concert -- Audience
25b. An assembly of worshippers -- Congregation
The Art of Public Speaking is a fantastic introduction to public speaking by the master of the art, Dale Carnegie. Public speaking is the process of speaking to a group of people in a structured, deliberate manner intended to inform, influence, or entertain the listeners. It is closely allied to "presenting", although the latter has more of a commercial connotation.

In public speaking, as in any form of communication, there are five basic elements, often expressed as "who is saying what to whom using what medium with what effects?" The purpose of public speaking can range from simply transmitting information, to motivating people to act, to simply telling a story. Good orators should be able to change the emotions of their listeners, not just inform them. Public speaking can also be considered a discourse community. Interpersonal communication and public speaking have several components that embrace such things as motivational speaking, leadership/personal development, business, customer service, large group communication, and mass communication. Public speaking can be a powerful tool to use for purposes such as motivation, influence, persuasion, informing, translation, or simply entertaining. A confident speaker is more likely to use this as excitement and create effective speech thus increasing their overall ethos.

Dale Breckenridge Carnegie (originally Carnagey until 1922 and possibly somewhat later) (November 24, 1888 – November 1, 1955) was an American writer, lecturer, and the developer of famous courses in self-improvement, salesmanship, corporate training, public speaking, and interpersonal skills. Born in poverty on a farm in Missouri, he was the author of How to Win Friends and Influence People (1936), a massive bestseller that remains popular today. He also wrote How to Stop Worrying and Start Living (1948), Lincoln the Unknown (1932), and several other books.

Perhaps one of Carnegie’s most successful marketing moves was to change the spelling of his last name from “Carnagey” to Carnegie, at a time when Andrew Carnegie (unrelated) was a widely revered and recognized name. By 1916, Dale was able to rent Carnegie Hall itself for a lecture to a packed house. Carnegie's first collection of his writings was Public Speaking: a Practical Course for Business Men (1926), later entitled Public Speaking and Influencing Men in Business (1932). His crowning achievement, however, was when Simon & Schuster published How to Win Friends and Influence People. The book was a bestseller from its debut in 1936, in its 17th printing within a few months. By the time of Carnegie's death, the book had sold five million copies in 31 languages, and there had been 450,000 graduates of his Dale Carnegie Institute. It has been stated in the book that he had critiqued over 150,000 speeches in his participation in the adult education movement of the time. During World War I he served in the U.S. Army.

One of the core ideas in his books is that it is possible to change other people's behavior by changing one's reaction to them.
Modal Auxiliary Verb (or ‘Modal Verb’ or ‘Modal Auxiliary’) is a verb that is used with another verb (not a modal verb) to express ability, intention, necessity, obligation, permission, possibility, probability, etc.

English modal auxiliary verbs - may, might, can, could, will, would, shall, should, must, need, used(to), ought(to), dare | different patterns and examples | may and might are used to express- possibility, compulsion, obligation, probability (in present and future) | can, could are used to express- ability, probability, possibility, suggestion, request, condition | will, would are used to express- action in future, present habit, compulsion, obligation | shall, should are used to express- action in future, suggestion, surprise, importance or purpose | need is used to express necessity | used(to) is used to express- past habit | ought(to) is used to express- probability, recommendation, obligation, advise | dare is used to express– be brave enough to

Sample This:

Modal Auxiliary Verb -- May and Might

‘May’ and ‘Might’ are used to show Possibility and Probability
‘May’ and ‘Might’ are used to ask for Permission
‘May’ is used to give or refuse Permission

Some Important Uses of ‘May’ and ‘Might’

To say what the purpose of something is
We eat that we may live.
Her prayer was that the child might live.
That he might be well fed his mother starved herself.

To admit that something is true before introducing another point, argument, etc.
You may not return to past glory, but don't stop believing.
City may not have the roads to drive sports car, but it has excellent infrastructure.
It may not be wise, but using force may be lawful.
I may not have deserved the house I bought, but I'm glad I own it.
He may not have been loved, but he was respected.
We may have had to go without food, but he is very considerate.

‘May’ is used to express wishes and hopes
May you live prosperous life!

‘May’ is used to give or refuse Permission [In Informal and Polite Way]
You may contact us for queries regarding donations.
When you have finished your work you may go home.
Note: Never use ‘might’ to give permission. [Always use ‘may’]
Never use ‘might not’ to refuse permission. [Always use ‘may not’]

Difference between ‘May’ and ‘Might’
Note: ‘Might’ is the past equivalent of ‘may’ in indirect speech.
But it is used in the same way as ‘may’ to talk about the present or future.

‘May’ denotes more possibility/probability
‘Might’ denotes less possibility/probability
It may rain tomorrow (Perhaps a 75% chance) - More possible
It might rain tomorrow (Perhaps a 50% chance) - Less possible

‘Might’ also denotes ‘would perhaps’
You might attract President’s attention later. (= Perhaps you would attract.)
He might have to go (Perhaps he had to go.)

‘Might’ is frequently used In conditional sentences
If I pursued studies further, I might learn more.
If I had pursued studies further, I might have learned more.

‘Might’ has limitations while ‘asking permission’
‘Might’ is very polite and formal. It is not common. It is mostly used in indirect questions.
I wonder if I might work on your computer.

Note: ‘Maybe’ is an adverb. [‘Maybe’ means ‘perhaps’]
Maybe he came to know something secret and was removed from the post.

ALSO NOTE:
Difference Between ‘May’ and ‘Can’
‘May’ is more formal than ‘Can’
‘May’ is mostly used in ‘formal’ English.
‘Can’ is mostly used in ‘informal’ (or spoken) English
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