Dr. Hugh Smyth is Assistant Professor of Pharmaceutics at the University of Texas, Austin. He is a recipient of the Young Investigator in Pharmaceutics and Pharmaceutical Technology Award of the American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists and has edited a volume on pulmonary drug delivery. Drs. Hickey and Smyth share a research interest in the delivery of drugs to the lungs for the treatment and prevention of a number of diseases.
Dr. Anthony Hickey is Professor of Molecular Pharmaceutics and Biomedical Engineering at the University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill. He is a fellow of the Institute of Biology, American Association of Pharmaceutical Scientists and the American Association for the Advancement of Science. He has published several edited and authored volumes in the fields of pharmaceutical aerosols, process engineering and particulate science.
Topics covered in Long Acting Injections and Implants include the historical development of the field, drugs, diseases and clinical applications for long acting injections and implants, anatomy and physiology for these systems, specific injectable technologies (including lipophilic solutions, aqueous suspensions, microspheres, liposomes, in situ forming depots and self-assembling lipid formulations), specific implantable technologies (including osmotic implants, drug eluting stents and microfabricated systems), peptide, protein and vaccine delivery, sterilization, drug release testing and regulatory aspects of long acting injections and implants.
This volume provides essential information for experienced development professionals but was also written to be useful for scientists just beginning work in the field and for others who need an understanding of long acting injections and implants. This book will also be ideal as a graduate textbook.
The pharmaceutical scientist is faced with many challenges when innovating new products in this demanding field of controlled release. This book provides the reader with a comprehensive guide on the theories, applications, and challenges associated with the design and development of long acting veterinary formulations. The authoritative chapters of the book are written by some of the leading experts in the field. The book covers a wide scope of areas including the market influences, preformulation, biopharmaceutics, in vitro drug release testing and specification setting to name but a few. It also provides a detailed overview of the major technological advances made in this area. As a result this book covers everything a formulation scientist in industry or academia, or a student needs to know about this unique drug delivery field to advance health, production and reproduction treatment options and benefits for animals worldwide.
However, non-linear phenomena have been identified in many fields and interpreted as periodic, catastrophic, chaotic or complex involving a variety of mathematical tools for analysis. Benoit Mandelbrot’s now classic book on the fractal geometry of nature and the many subsequent texts, most recently Wolfram’s magnum opus "A New Kind of Science" have raised questions about the nature of reality and the interpretation of observed phenomena. It seems clear that the complexity of dynamic events (on any scale) can rarely be explained by linear interpretations. The rare exceptions are likely to represent a convergence of multiple phenomena giving the appearance of a linear relationship between variables.
In fields related to pharmaceutical sciences some texts have been written by pioneers such as Brian Kaye. His eminently readable "A random walk through fractal dimensions" and "Chaos and complexity" were seminal volumes for the editors. Tracing the mathematics of complexity back to the nineteenth century and beyond gives a validity to the search for more accurate interpretations of experimental observations that should impact on the pharmaceutical sciences as significantly as other fields of endeavor.
The chemistry and physics literature is replete with papers on complexity from such notables as Ilya Prigogine and Murray Gell-Mann. A broad range of biological phenomena, the most complex imaginable from molecular biology to ecology, are now the subject of complexity analysis. Pharmaceutical sciences encompass the biology, chemistry, physics and mathematics associated with drug discovery, delivery, disposition and action. This text describes a range of topics of importance in the pharmaceutical sciences that indicate a need for a non-linear interpretation if they are to be characterized accurately, understood fully and potentially controlled or modulated in the service of improved therapeutic strategies.
It is likely that the future will involve increasingly complex interpretations of data related to drug design and delivery, particularly as our knowledge of the human genome leads inexorably to the potential for individualized therapy. We hope that this text will promote discussion of the varied phenomena leading to pharmacological effect and the complex interactions ultimately resulting in improved disease control and health maintenance.