Medicinal and Aromatic Plants VII

Biotechnology in Agriculture and Forestry

Book 28
Springer Science & Business Media
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The series of books on the biotechnology of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants provides a survey of the literature, focusing on recent information and the state of the art in tissue culture and the in vitro production of secondary metabolites. This book, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants VII, like the previous six volumes published in 1988, 1989, 1991, 1993 and 1994, is unique in its approach. It comprises 28 chapters dealing with the distribu tion, importance, conventional propagation, micro propagation, tissue culture studies, and the in vitro production of important medicinal and pharmaceutical compounds in various species of Aesculus, Althaea, Baptisia, Berberis, Beta, Bowiea, Camp to theca, Chrysanthellum, Citrus, Claviceps, Coleonema, Dianthus, Dunaliella, Epimedium, Euphorbia, Forsythia, Gomphrena, Larix, Lobelia, Medicago, Papaver, Phytolacca, Pueraria, Santalum, Santolina, Sapium, Tabebuia, and Tripterygium. This book is tailored to the needs of advanced students, teachers, and research scientists in the field of pharmacy, plant tissue culture, phytochemistry, biochemical engineering, and plant biotechnology in general. New Delhi, July 1994 Professor Y.P.S. BAJAJ Series Editor Contents I Aesculus hippocastanum L. (Horse Chestnut): In Vitro Culture and Production of Aescin P. GASTALDO, A.M. CAVIGLIA, and P. PROFUMO (With 7 Figures) 1 General Account ... . 1 ... 2 In Vitro Culture Studies ... 4 3 Summary and Conclusions ... 10 4 Protocol. ... 11 References ... 11 II Althaea officinalis L. (Marshmallow): In Vitro Culture and the Production of Biologically Active Compounds I. IONKovA and A.W. ALFERMANN (With 10 Figures) 1 General Account. ... 13 ... 2 Biotechnological Approaches. ... 21.
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Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Nov 11, 2013
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Pages
475
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ISBN
9783662303696
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Life Sciences / Botany
Science / Life Sciences / Horticulture
Technology & Engineering / Agriculture / Forestry
Technology & Engineering / Agriculture / General
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This content is DRM protected.
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While working in the laboratory of Professor Dr. Jacob Reinert at the Freie Universitat Berlin (1974-1976), I had the opportunity to become deeply involved in studying the intricacies of the fascinating phenomenon of somatic embryogenesis in plant cells and protoplasts. In numerous stimu lating discussions with Professor Reinert on this subject, I was fully convinced that somatic embryogenesis would become one of the most important areas of study, not only regarding basic and fundamental aspects, but also for its application in crop improvement. During the last decade, we have witnessed tremendous interest and achievements in the use of somatic embryos for the production of synthetic seeds, for micro propagation, genetic transformation, cryopreservation, and conservation of germplasm. The en masse production of somatic embryos in the bioreactors has facilitated some of these studies. Somatic embryos have now been induced in more than 300 plant species belonging to a wide range offamilies. It was therefore felt that a compilation ofliterature/state of the art on this subject was necessary. Thus, two volumes on Somatic Embryo genesis and Synthetic Seed have been compiled, which contain 65 chapters contributed by International experts. Somatic Embryogenesis and Synthetic Seed I comprises 31 chapters, arranged in 3 sections: Section I Commitment of the cell to somatic embryogenesis; early events; anatomy; molecular basis; gene expression; role of polyamines; machine vision analysis of somatic embryos. Section II Applications of somatic embryos; technology of synthetic seed; fluid drilling; micropropagation; genetic transfor mation through somatic embryos; cryopreservation.
While working in the laboratory of Professor Dr. Jacob Reinert at the Freie Universitat Berlin (1974-1976), I had the opportunity to become deeply involved in studying the intricacies of the fascinating phenomenon of somatic embryogenesis in plant cells and protoplasts. In numerous stimu lating discussions with Professor Reinert on this subject, I was fully convinced that somatic embryogenesis would become one of the most important areas of study, not only regarding basic and fundamental aspects, but also for its application in crop improvement. During the last decade, we have witnessed tremendous interest and achievements in the use of somatic embryos for the production of synthetic seeds, for micro prop a gation, genetic transformation, cryopreservation, and conservation of germplasm. The en masse production of somatic embryos in the bioreactors has facilitated some of these studies. Somatic embryos have now been induced in more than 300 plant species belonging to a wide range offamilies. It was therefore felt that a compilation ofliterature/state of the art on this subject was necessary. Thus, two volumes on Somatic Embryo genesis and Synthetic Seed have been compiled, which contain 65 chapters contributed by International experts. Somatic Embryogenesis and Synthetic Seed I comprises 31 chapters, arranged in 3 sections: Section I Commitment of the cell to somatic embryogenesis; early events; anatomy; molecular basis; gene expression; role of polyamines; machine vision analysis of somatic embryos. Section II Applications of somatic embryos; technology of synthetic seed; fluid drilling; micropropagation; genetic transfor mation through somatic embryos; cryopreservation.
The germ plasm of numerous plant species, especially those of forest trees, some agricultural crops, and medicinal plants, is endangered and threatened with extinction. This depletion of germplasm pools and the shrinkage of naturally occurring genetic resources have caused international concern. Conventionally, the germplasm of plants is conserved through seeds, tubers, roots, corms, rhizomes, bulbs, cuttings, etc. However, the germ plasm of a number of trees and plantation crops (such as coconut, cocao, coffee, oil palm, rubber, mango, horse chestnut, etc. ) cannot be preserved since their seed are short-lived (recalcitrant). Likewise, germplasm of vegetatively propagated crops (such as potato and cassava) cannot be stored on a long term basis and has to be grown and multiplied periodically in nurseries and fields. The plants are thus exposed to unpredictable weather conditions and diseases, with the result that instances are known where entire genetic stocks are lost. Therefore, unconventional methods are being developed for the storage and international exchange of germplasm. For this purpose in vitro cultures have been employed, but they can only enable short-to medium term preservation; moreover, cell cultures upon repeated subculture undergo genetic erosion. In view of the recent developments in the in vitro induction of genetic variability through somaclonal variation, somatic hybridization, recombinant DNA technology, etc. , new methods need to be employed for the storage of desirable cultures. In this regard freeze preservation of cells in liquid nitrogen (-196 0q, like that of semen, enables long-term storage, theoretically, for an indefinite period of time.
Biotechnology has come to a stage where, by replacing some of the age old practices of breeding, it can produce novel and improved plants and animals that can better serve human beings and their purposes. The techniques of cellular and subcellular engineering, such as gene splicing and recombinant DNA, cloning, hybridomas and monoclonal anti bodies, production of human insulin, protein engineering, industrial fermentation, artificial insemination, cryopreservation and ovum trans fer, plant tissue culture and somatic hybridization, nitrogen fixation, phytomass production for biofuels etc have advanced greatly in the past decade, due to the availability of better equipment and the consolida tion of knowledge. Product orientation has removed biotechnology from the area of pure academic interest to one of utility where the final product is a spur to action. Businesses have started pouring money into projects, which has aided greatly in improving equipment, information exchange, and arousing the interest and imagination of the public. The common goal of science, industry and the public opens wide vistas and great hopes for biotechnology. The business of biotechnology addresses itself to issues of factory farming, technology transfer, joint ventures, international cooperation and to specific topics as well as the produc tion of diagnostic kits. Industry is particularly concerned with the phar maceutical field and microbial biotechnology from which profitable return§ can accrue. Commercial interests have led to better management practices and systematisation.
The book that helped make Michael Pollan, the New York Times bestselling author of Cooked and The Omnivore’s Dilemma, one of the most trusted food experts in America

In 1637, one Dutchman paid as much for a single tulip bulb as the going price of a town house in Amsterdam. Three and a half centuries later, Amsterdam is once again the mecca for people who care passionately about one particular plant—though this time the obsessions revolves around the intoxicating effects of marijuana rather than the visual beauty of the tulip. How could flowers, of all things, become such objects of desire that they can drive men to financial ruin?

In The Botany of Desire, Michael Pollan argues that the answer lies at the heart of the intimately reciprocal relationship between people and plants. In telling the stories of four familiar plant species that are deeply woven into the fabric of our lives, Pollan illustrates how they evolved to satisfy humankinds’s most basic yearnings—and by doing so made themselves indispensable. For, just as we’ve benefited from these plants, the plants, in the grand co-evolutionary scheme that Pollan evokes so brilliantly, have done well by us. The sweetness of apples, for example, induced the early Americans to spread the species, giving the tree a whole new continent in which to blossom. So who is really domesticating whom?

Weaving fascinating anecdotes and accessible science into gorgeous prose, Pollan takes us on an absorbing journey that will change the way we think about our place in nature.
While working in the laboratory of Professor Dr. Jacob Reinert at the Freie Universitat Berlin (1974-1976), I had the opportunity to become deeply involved in studying the intricacies of the fascinating phenomenon of somatic embryogenesis in plant cells and protoplasts. In numerous stimu lating discussions with Professor Reinert on this subject, I was fully convinced that somatic embryogenesis would become one of the most important areas of study, not only regarding basic and fundamental aspects, but also for its application in crop improvement. During the last decade, we have witnessed tremendous interest and achievements in the use of somatic embryos for the production of synthetic seeds, for micro propagation, genetic transformation, cryopreservation, and conservation of germplasm. The en masse production of somatic embryos in the bioreactors has facilitated some of these studies. Somatic embryos have now been induced in more than 300 plant species belonging to a wide range offamilies. It was therefore felt that a compilation ofliterature/state of the art on this subject was necessary. Thus, two volumes on Somatic Embryo genesis and Synthetic Seed have been compiled, which contain 65 chapters contributed by International experts. Somatic Embryogenesis and Synthetic Seed I comprises 31 chapters, arranged in 3 sections: Section I Commitment of the cell to somatic embryogenesis; early events; anatomy; molecular basis; gene expression; role of polyamines; machine vision analysis of somatic embryos. Section II Applications of somatic embryos; technology of synthetic seed; fluid drilling; micropropagation; genetic transfor mation through somatic embryos; cryopreservation.
While working in the laboratory of Professor Dr. Jacob Reinert at the Freie Universitat Berlin (1974-1976), I had the opportunity to become deeply involved in studying the intricacies of the fascinating phenomenon of somatic embryogenesis in plant cells and protoplasts. In numerous stimu lating discussions with Professor Reinert on this subject, I was fully convinced that somatic embryogenesis would become one of the most important areas of study, not only regarding basic and fundamental aspects, but also for its application in crop improvement. During the last decade, we have witnessed tremendous interest and achievements in the use of somatic embryos for the production of synthetic seeds, for micro prop a gation, genetic transformation, cryopreservation, and conservation of germplasm. The en masse production of somatic embryos in the bioreactors has facilitated some of these studies. Somatic embryos have now been induced in more than 300 plant species belonging to a wide range offamilies. It was therefore felt that a compilation ofliterature/state of the art on this subject was necessary. Thus, two volumes on Somatic Embryo genesis and Synthetic Seed have been compiled, which contain 65 chapters contributed by International experts. Somatic Embryogenesis and Synthetic Seed I comprises 31 chapters, arranged in 3 sections: Section I Commitment of the cell to somatic embryogenesis; early events; anatomy; molecular basis; gene expression; role of polyamines; machine vision analysis of somatic embryos. Section II Applications of somatic embryos; technology of synthetic seed; fluid drilling; micropropagation; genetic transfor mation through somatic embryos; cryopreservation.
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