Theory of Nucleus

Fundamental Theories of Physics

Book 84
Springer Science & Business Media
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Modern nuclear physics is a well developed branch of physical science, with wide-ranging applications of its results in engineering and industry. At the same time, the development of a consistent theory of nuclei and nuclear processes presents certain problems. It is well known that the most important aim of nuclear physics is the study of nuclear structure and the explanation of properties on the basis of the interaction between nucleons which constitute nuclei. Difficulties of a modern theory of the nucleus are caused by both an insufficient knowledge of nuclear interactions and the multi particle character of nuclear systems. Experimental data on nuclear interactions do not contradict the hypothesis of the pair character of nuclear forces. However, the absence of rigorous meth ods of calculations of many particle nuclear systems with strong interaction makes it necessary to use macroscopic nuclear models to describe particular nuclear properties. Nuclear models have been developed in different ways, and the models themselves have been modified and complicated. In spite of the visible discrepancy, different models of the nucleus significantly supple ment one another. The development of nuclear models has led to considerable progress in the understanding of atomic nuclei. The current results of theo retical nuclear physics are reported in numerous scientific papers. The most important and relevant experimental and theoretical results can be found in many monographs, the best of which are written by well-known experts in the field.
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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business Media
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Published on
Dec 6, 2012
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Pages
615
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ISBN
9789401157728
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Language
English
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Genres
Science / Physics / Atomic & Molecular
Science / Physics / General
Science / Physics / Nuclear
Science / Physics / Quantum Theory
Technology & Engineering / Power Resources / Nuclear
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This content is DRM protected.
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It is apparent from the history of science, that few-body problems have an interdis ciplinary character. Newton, after solving the two-body problem so brilliantly, tried his hand at the Sun-Earth-Moon system. Here he failed in two respects: neither was he able to compute the motion of the moon accurately, nor did he understand the reason for that. It took a long time to understand the fundamental importance of Newton's failure, and only Poincare realised what was the fundamental difficulty in Newtons programme. Nowadays, the term deterministic chaos is associated with this problem. The deep insights of Poincare were neglected by the founding fathers of Quantum Physics. Thus history was repeated by Bohr and his students. After quantising the hydrogen atom, they soon found that the textbook case of a three-body problem in atomic physics, the 3He-atom, did not yield to the Bohr-Sommerfeld quantisation methods. Only these days do people realise what precisely were the difficulties connected to this semi classical way of treating quantum systems. Our field, as we know it today, began in principle in the early 1950's, when Watson sketched the outlines of three-body scattering theory. Mathematical rigour was achieved by Faddeev and thereafter, at the beginning of the 1960's, the quantum three-body prob lem, at least as far as short-range forces were concerned, w&s tamed. In the years that followed, through the work of others, who first applied Faddeev's methods, but later added new techniques, the three-and four-body problems became fully housebroken.
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