Dictionary of Old-fashioned Words

English Word Power

Book 8
Manik Joshi
1
Free sample

What are “Old-fashioned Words”?

Definition of ‘Old-fashioned words’:
“Words and expressions that were common in the past but are passing out of ordinary use.”

‘Old-fashioned words’ are also known as ‘archaic words’. Many people use the term ‘old use’ for the words and expressions that were common in the past but have passed out of ordinary use.
These words are mainly used in historical novels. They are also used to amuse people.

Examples:
Old-fashioned word:
dandified [adjective]
(of a man) too careful about his look or clothes

Old-fashioned word:
vamoose [verb]
to leave fast

Old-fashioned idiom
blot your copybook -- to do something bad to spoil your good reputation among people

Old-fashioned phrasal verb
buck up! -- used to tell somebody to make haste


Detailed list of “old-fashioned words”, parts of speech they belong to, and their meanings are as follows:


Old-fashioned Words -- A

abed [adverb]
in bed

abide [verb]
to stay or live in a place
Use in a sentence: Everybody must abide by the law.

abroad [adverb]
outside; outdoors

accidence [noun]
the part of grammar that deals with the change in the form of a word

accursed [adjective]
having a bad magic spell on something
Use in a sentence: They lived in the forest as if accursed. || There is no escaping the sense of anxiety that we humans are accursed with.

adieu [exclamation]
goodbye
Use in a sentence: They bid adieu to him with mixed emotions.

addled [adjective]
confused / (of an egg) not fresh
Use in a sentence: He is not a silly and addled dude.

without further/more ado [idiom]
at once; immediately
Use in a sentence: Once it was sure that the area had been secured, the children were without more ado accompanied to the assembly hall.

adventurer / adventuress [noun]
a person who is very fond of going to unusual places or gaining new experiences
Use in a sentence: She is a hard-core adventuress, a travel journalist, who has traveled around the world.

aerodrome (airdrome) [noun]
a small airport
Use in a sentence: The extension of the runway was aimed at better services for private operators at the aerodrome.

affair [noun]
an strange or inexplicable thing

affright [verb]
to scare; to frighten
Use in a sentence: Let nothing affright you.

ague [noun]
malaria, dengue or other disease that causes fever and shivering

ail [verb]
to make somebody ill/sick

air hostess [noun]
a female flight attendant

alack [exclamation]
a word that is used to show you are sad or sorry
Use in a sentence: Alas and alack, only a few of those stories are all that funny.

alas [exclamation]
a word that is used to show you are sad or sorry
Use in a sentence: His experiments, alas, were flawed and had been mythologized.

be all up (with somebody) [idiom]
to be the end for somebody

almoner [noun]
a person employed by a hospital to handle financial and social problems of patients
Use in a sentence: They wanted a more active almoner, who could find innovative ways to help the poor.

alms [noun]
money, clothes, food, etc. given to beggars or poor people
Use in a sentence: They were injured in a stampede to receive alms being distributed by a charity.

in the altogether [idiom]
without wearing any clothes

Amerindian [noun]
Native American
Use in a sentence: The word 'guava' originates from the language of the Arawaks, an Amerindian people from the Caribbean.

ammo [noun]
ammunition
Use in a sentence: They have tested and run a lot of ammo through their rifles.

amour [noun]
a secret love affair

anon [adverb]
soon; early, immediately; in a moment

apoplexy [noun]
the sudden and complete loss of the ability to sense or move
apoplectic [adjective]
related to apoplexy

apparel [noun]
formal clothes
Use in a sentence: The US apparel industry is highly fragmented with many players.

applesauce [noun]
nonsense
Use in a sentence: All politics is applesauce!

apprehend [verb]
to understand, realize or be aware of something
Use in a sentence: Making language easy to apprehend is intrinsic to making it appealing.

apricity [noun]
the sun’s warmth on a cold winter’s day

aright [adverb]
correctly or properly
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About the author

Manik Joshi was born on Jan 26, 1979 at Ranikhet and is permanent resident of Haldwani, Kumaon zone of India. He is an Internet Marketer by profession. He is interested in domaining (business of buying and selling domain names), web designing (creating websites), and various online jobs (including 'self book publishing'). He is science graduate with ZBC (zoology, botany, and chemistry) subjects. He is also an MBA (with specialization in marketing). He has done three diploma courses in computer too.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Manik Joshi
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Published on
Oct 25, 2014
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Pages
97
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Public Speaking
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What are “Humorous Words”?

What is Humor? [HUMOUR [(British English) | HUMOR (AMERICAN ENGLISH)]
Humor is something that is funny, comical, or amusing

Definition of ‘Humorous Words’
Words that are intended to be amusing, entertaining, funny, or comical are called humorous words.

Examples:
beak [noun] – large or pointed nose of somebody
ego-surfing [noun] – the activity of searching your name in different websites on Internet
iron rations [noun] – a small amount of food carried for emergency by soldiers, etc. while climbing or walking
unhand [verb] – to release somebody that you are holding


Besides “Humorous Words”, there are some Idioms and Phrasal Verbs which are used to express humor (amusement or funniness)
Example- (idiom): a big cheese – a very important and influential person in a big organization
Example- (phrasal verb): gird (up) your loins – to get ready to do a difficult task or activity


NOTE: Many ‘Humorous Words’ are also used in ‘formal’, ‘informal’ or other sense
Example:
BEAST
beast [noun] [Humorous] – a person or thing who is unpleasant
beast [noun] [Informal] – a thing of a particular type
beast [noun] [Formal] – a large and dangerous animal


Detailed list of ‘humorous words’, parts of speech they belong to, and their meanings are as follows:

Humorous Words -- A

abaya [noun]
a full-length, sleeveless outer garment worn by Arabs

abdicate [verb]
to give up all hope of ever having a flat stomach

abibliophobia [noun]
the fear of running out of reading material

abomasums [noun]
the fourth stomach of a ruminant, such as a cow or sheep

absquatulate [verb]
to abruptly leave or abscond with something

academe [noun]
the world of studying, teaching, etc. at academic institutions e.g. universities and colleges

accoutrements (accouterments) [noun]
pieces of equipment that are required for an activity; accessories

acerbate [verb]
to embitter somebody

acidulous [adjective]
rather sour or sharp in speech, manner, etc.

adjourn to… [phrasal verb]
to go to another place to calm down

of advanced years | sb's advanced age [idiom]
used to show that somebody is ‘very old’ or aged

agelast [noun]
one who never laughs

aglet [noun]
the plastic tip on the end of a shoelace

alack [exclamation]
used to express sadness or regret

allegator [noun]
someone who alleges

allergic [adjective]
strong dislike towards somebody

amatory [adjective]
relating to physical activity or desire

amphibology [noun]
grammatically ambiguous phrase or sentence (e.g.: he talked to his son and his daughter)

amphisbaena [noun]
a mythical serpent with a head at each end

anencephalous [adjective]
lacking a brain

anfractuous [adjective]
circuitous or winding

anguilliform [adjective]
resembling an eel

anserine [adjective]
goose-like | silly or foolish

antediluvian [adjective]
traditional or out-of-date

anthropophagy [noun]
cannibalism

apolaustic [adjective]
devoted to the seeking of enjoyment

apple-knocker [noun]
ignorant or unsophisticated person

appurtenance [noun]
a smaller part of something larger, superior or more significant

archipelago [noun]
a chain of islands

argle-bargle [noun]
meaningless and abundant talk or writing

argus-eyed [adjective]
vigilant, referring to Argos, a Greek mythological watchman with a hundred eyes

argute [adjective]
shrewd

argy-bargy [noun]
noisy arguing

assignation [noun]
a secret meeting with a lover

autotomy [noun]
the casting off of a limb or other part of the body by an animal under threat, such as a lizard

avuncular [adjective]
uncle-like
What are “Compound Words”?

A compound word consists of two or more base words. Meaning of Compound word is often different from the separate base words.

Compound Words and Parts of Speech
Compound words are mostly nouns, adjectives, and verbs.

Kinds of Compound Words
Compound words are of three types:

(A). Closed Compound Words:
Words are joined together. There is no space or hyphen between the words.
Examples: firefly / softball / redhead / keyboard / makeup / notebook

(B). Hyphenated Compound Words:
Words are joined together by a hyphen.
Examples: daughter-in-law / over-the-counter / six-year-old

(C). Open Compound Words:
Words are not joined together. Words are open or separate. In other words, there is a space between the words.
Examples: post office / real estate / full moon / half sister

Some general rules regarding use of hyphens:-
Compound Adjectives are often hyphenated.
If compound adjective precedes a noun, they are hyphenated
Examples:
low-paying job [low- paying is a compound adjective; job is a noun]
easy-going celebrity [easy-going is a compound adjective; celebrity is a noun]

Adverbs that end in –ly and compounded with another modifier are generally not hyphenated:
Examples:
deeply held beliefs
genetically modified foods
highly placed sources
quietly organized meeting


ALSO NOTE:
1. Some compound words may have more than one form but these forms may belong to different parts of speech.

Examples:
bread and butter [open form] [noun]
bread-and-butter [closed form] [adjective]

charge sheet [open form][noun]
chargesheet [closed form] [verb]

fast track [open form] [noun]
fast-track [hyphenated form] [adjective, verb]

first degree [open form] [noun]
first-degree [hyphenated form] [adjective]

full time [open form] [noun]
full-time [hyphenated form] [adjective, adverb]

gift wrap [open form] [noun]
gift-wrap [hyphenated form] [verb]

hard core [open form] [noun]
hard-core [hyphenated form] [adjective]

hard line [open form] [noun]
hard-line [hyphenated form] [adjective]

road test [open form] [noun]
road-test [hyphenated form] [verb]

second hand [open form] [noun]
second-home [hyphenated form] [adjective]


2. Some compound words which are hyphenated in American English are not hyphenated in British English.
Example: cash-back [American English]; cashback [British English]


3. Compound words are mainly formed in the following ways:
(a). adjective + adjective [example: bittersweet]
(b). adjective + noun [example: blackboard]
(c). adjective + verb [example: broadcast]
(d). adjective + past participle [example: cold-blooded]
(e). adjective + present participle [example: free-standing]
(f). adverb (or preposition) + adjective [example: ingrown]
(g). adverb (or preposition) + noun [example: afterlife]
(h). adverb (or preposition) + verb [example: cutback]
(i). adverb + past participle [example: brightly lit]
(j). adverb + present participle [example: long-lasting]
(k). noun + adjective [example: blood red]
(l). noun + adverb (or preposition) [example: hanger-on]
(m). noun + noun [example: airman]
(n). noun + verb [example: air-condition]
(o). noun + past participle [example: sun-dried]
(p). verb + adverb (or preposition) [example: breakdown]
(q). verb + noun [example: bathroom]
(r). gerund + noun [example: bleaching powder]
(s). noun + gerund [example: air-conditioning]

Detailed list of Compound words in Alphabetical Order. [All compound words have been grouped according to the parts of speech they belong to.)
Informal Words are connected with normal communication to your colleagues, acquaintances, family members, etc. | Informal words are more common in speech than in writing. | Informal words are used in ‘unofficial’ language. These words are not used in ‘official’ or formal writing | This book covers around 1400 Informal words (including name of parts of speech they belong to) and their meanings | IMPORTANT NOTE: Many informal words are used in both American and British English in the same way. However, some informal words are particularly used in American English only. Similarly, some informal words are particularly used in British English only. | INFORMAL WORDS – A -- A1 [adjective] -- very good | abs [noun] -- the muscles of the abdomen | ace [adjective | noun] -- very good | number one | achy [adjective] -- affected by an uninterrupted pain that is small in degree | ack-ack [noun] -- the non-stop firing of guns at aircraft | ad [noun] -- advertisement | adman [noun] -- a person who works in advertising or promotion | adore [verb] -- to be very fond of something | aggravate [verb] -- to intentionally irritate somebody | a gogo [adjective] -- in large quantities | airhead [noun] -- an unintelligent or stupid person | all [adverb] -- enormously | allergic [adjective] -- having an aversion of somebody/something | all right [adverb] -- used to emphasize something | almighty [adjective] -- enormous or severe | alphabet soup [noun] -- extremely difficult language with abbreviations or symbols | ammo [noun] -- ammunition [supply of bullets, etc; very important information for argument] | amp [noun] -- amplifier [a type of electrical device] | appalling [adjective] -- extremely bad or poor | arm candy [noun] -- a beautiful woman accompanied by a man in a public event | arm-twisting [noun] -- the use of physical power or great pressure to convince somebody to do something | artsy (arty) [adjective] -- enormously interested in the arts | artsy-fartsy (arty-farty) [adjective] -- connected with the arts | Aussie [noun] -- a person or native from Australia | awful [adjective] -- very bad | used to emphasize a large quantity or sum of something | axe (ax) [verb] -- to kill somebody with an axe | to get rid of a scheme, service, system, etc. | to dismiss somebody from their job | **** |  INFORMAL WORDS -- Particularly Used In AMERICAN ENGLISH: | ace [verb] -- to be successful | all-nighter [noun] -- a time when somebody stay awake all night, mainly for studying | ambulance chaser [noun] -- a lawyer connected with cases of accident claims | amped [adjective] -- excited | antsy [adjective] -- unable to keep still | any [adverb] -- ‘at all’ [used at the end of negative sentences] | A-OK [adjective] -- in satisfactory or perfect condition, manner or style. | attaboy / attagirl [exclamation] -- used to admire or encourage a boy or man / girl or woman | awesome [adjective] -- first-rate, excellent or pleasurable | awful [adverb] -- extremely or enormously | INFORMAL WORDS -- Particularly Used In BRITISH ENGLISH: | admin [noun] -- Administration [activities connected with organizing something] | afters [noun] -- a sweet dish that is eaten after meal | ages -- [noun] a very long time | aggro [noun] -- cruel, hostile and aggressive behavior | airy-fairy [adjective] -- impractical, unreasonable, unclear | all right [exclamation] -- used to say hello | all-singing, all-dancing [adjective] -- (of a machine) having a advanced features | anorak [noun] -- a boring person who is very fond of learning facts or collecting things | appro [noun] -- on approval [connected with shopping activities] | argy-bargy [noun] -- noisy argument or difference of opinions |
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

01. Category Words -- Sounds
02. Category Words -- Ways of Thinking
03. Category Words -- Ways of Walking
04. Category Words -- Ways of Movement
05. Category Words -- Ways of Changing
06. Category Words -- Ways of Laughing and Smiling
07. Category Words -- Ways of Seeing
08. Category Words -- Ways of Saying Something
09. Category Words -- Ways of Writing and Marking
10. Category Words -- Ways of Continuing
11. Category Words -- Feelings
12. Category Words -- Cooking
13. Category Words -- Disturbance
14. Category Words -- Situation of Confusion
15(A). Category Words -- Smells
15(B). Category Words -- Tastes
16. Category Words -- Cries of Creatures
17. Category Words -- Colors
18. Category Words -- Remarks
19. Category Words -- Body Marks
20. Category Words -- Body and Body Shape
21. Category Words -- ‘Old’
22. Category Words -- Time and Numbers
23. Category Words -- Zodiac Sign and Birthstones
24. Category Words -- Fabrics
25. Category Words -- Shapes
26. Category Words -- Religion
27(A). Category Words -- Nature
27(B). Category Words -- Biomes
28. Category Words -- People and Family
29. Category Words -- Currencies
30. Category Words -- Measurement Units
31. Category Words -- Government
32. Category Words -- Miscellaneous

Sample This:

01. Category Words -- Sounds

01. Babble -- the sound of many people speaking all together
Example: Babble of Voices

02. Bang -- sudden loud noise
Example: Bang of a Gun

03. Beat -- sound made by a series of regular blows to something
Examples: Beating of Drums | Beating of Wings

04. Blast -- the sound of an explosion | sound made by blowing of musical instruments
Examples: Blast of a Bomb | Blast of a siren

05. Blow -- to produce a sound by forcing your breath out when your lips are closed
Examples: Blowing of Bungles | Blowing of Trumpet | Blowing of Whistle

06. Boom -- loud deep sound
Example: Booming of Guns

07. Chatter -- a series of short high sounds
Examples: Chattering of Birds | Chattering of Monkeys | Chattering of Teeth

08. Chink -- light ringing sound
Example: Chinking of Glass

09. Clang -- loud ringing sound of metals
Examples: Clanging of Arms | Clanging of Bells

10. Clank -- loud sound of metal objects hitting together
Example: Clanking of Chains

11. Clap -- the sound of hitting something by hand | sudden loud noise
Examples: Clapping of Hands | Clapping of Thunder

12. Clatter -- loud noise made by knocking of hard objects
Examples: Clattering of Hoofs | Clattering of Knife

13. Crackle -- a series of light sharp sounds
Examples: Crackling of Fire-Wood | Crackling of Gunfire | Crackling of Flames

14. Creak -- a series of sharp sounds
Examples: Creaking of a Whip | Creaking of Shoes

15. Din -- loud, unpleasant sound that lasts for a long time
Example: Din of a Crowd

16. Ding -- sound made by a bell
Example: Ding of a Bell

17. Explode -- to make loud, violent sound
Examples: Exploding of Guns | Exploding of Bombs | Exploding of Rocket

18. Flap -- quick noisy movement
Examples: Flapping of Wings | Flapping of Newspaper | Flapping of Steam

19. Jingle -- a sound like small bells ringing
Example: Jingling of Coins

20. Knock -- the sound of somebody hitting a door, gate, window, etc.
Examples: Knocking of a Door | Knocking of a Window
One-Word Substitutes: A Word that is used in place of a complete sentence

This book covers the following topics:
(01). Related Words
(02). Scientific Studies
(03). That Which Cannot Be…
(04). Types of Behavior
(05). Types of Doctors
(06). Different Instruments
(07). A Particular Type of Place
(08). A Particular Type of Person
(09). Phobia and Mania
(10). Connected With…
(11). Country-Government
(12). Types of States
(13). Types of Statements
(14). Money-Related
(15). Other Topics
(A). Professions
(B). A Collection of Things
(C). Act of Killing
(D). Physical Appearance of A Person
(16). Various One-word Substitutes

Sample This:

(01). Related Words

01a. A person who looks at the bright side of things -- Optimist
01b. A person who looks at the dark side of things -- Pessimist

02a. All the animals living in a particular area -- Fauna
02b. Plants and vegetation in a particular area -- Flora

03a. A government tax on goods brought into the country -- Customs
03b. A government tax on goods made within a country -- Excise

04a. A person who is more interested in others -- Extrovert
04b. A person who keeps himself to himself -- Introvert

05a. That which cannot be harmful or dangerous -- Innocuous
05b. Causing serious harm in gradual or unnoticeable way -- Insidious

06a. A person who is taking examination -- Examinee
06b. A person who examine the copies of examinees -- Examiner

07a. A person who talks too much -- Garrulous/Loquacious
07b. A person who eats too much -- Glutton

08a. To suddenly change direction -- Deflect
08b. To keep on changing direction during movement -- Meander

09a. Ability to know something on the basis of feelings rather than reasoning -- Intuition
09b. Ability to speak without moving your lips -- Ventriloquism

10a. To change a law in order to improve it -- Amend
10b. To correct the mistakes in manuscript, etc. -- Emend

11a. A person between 70 and 79 years old -- Septuagenarian
11b. A person between 80 and 89 years old -- Octogenarian

12a. Animals having spinal column -- Vertebrate
12b. An animal with thick skin -- Pachyderm

13a. Obeying rules and requests -- Compliance
13b. Open refusal to obey -- Defiance

14a. The state of being married -- Matrimony
14b. The state of being unmarried -- Bachelorhood

15a. A woman whose husband has died -- Widow
15b. A man whose wife has died -- Widower

16a. Things of different nature -- Heterogeneous
16b. Things of same nature -- Homogeneous

17a. A religious song -- Hymn
17b. A pleasant song used for causing children to sleep -- Lullaby

18a. To rise in value -- Appreciate
18b. To go down in value -- Depreciate

19a. A disorder in which person eats too less because of abnormal fear of being fat -- Anorexia
19b. A disorder in which person repeatedly eats too much -- Bulimia

20a. To increase the intensity of a disease -- Aggravate
20b. To go from bad to worse – Deteriorate

21a. A school for small children -- Kindergarten
21b. A student who has left school or class without permission -- Truant

22a. To free somebody from all blame -- Exonerate
22b. To free a person from a charge by verdict -- Acquit

23a. A co-worker in the same institution -- Colleague
23b. Equal in rank -- Peer

24a. An office with high salary but no work -- Sinecure
24b. A position in an organization without salary -- Honorary

25a. An assembly of hearers at a lecture or concert -- Audience
25b. An assembly of worshippers -- Congregation
What are “Humorous Words”?

What is Humor? [HUMOUR [(British English) | HUMOR (AMERICAN ENGLISH)]
Humor is something that is funny, comical, or amusing

Definition of ‘Humorous Words’
Words that are intended to be amusing, entertaining, funny, or comical are called humorous words.

Examples:
beak [noun] – large or pointed nose of somebody
ego-surfing [noun] – the activity of searching your name in different websites on Internet
iron rations [noun] – a small amount of food carried for emergency by soldiers, etc. while climbing or walking
unhand [verb] – to release somebody that you are holding


Besides “Humorous Words”, there are some Idioms and Phrasal Verbs which are used to express humor (amusement or funniness)
Example- (idiom): a big cheese – a very important and influential person in a big organization
Example- (phrasal verb): gird (up) your loins – to get ready to do a difficult task or activity


NOTE: Many ‘Humorous Words’ are also used in ‘formal’, ‘informal’ or other sense
Example:
BEAST
beast [noun] [Humorous] – a person or thing who is unpleasant
beast [noun] [Informal] – a thing of a particular type
beast [noun] [Formal] – a large and dangerous animal


Detailed list of ‘humorous words’, parts of speech they belong to, and their meanings are as follows:

Humorous Words -- A

abaya [noun]
a full-length, sleeveless outer garment worn by Arabs

abdicate [verb]
to give up all hope of ever having a flat stomach

abibliophobia [noun]
the fear of running out of reading material

abomasums [noun]
the fourth stomach of a ruminant, such as a cow or sheep

absquatulate [verb]
to abruptly leave or abscond with something

academe [noun]
the world of studying, teaching, etc. at academic institutions e.g. universities and colleges

accoutrements (accouterments) [noun]
pieces of equipment that are required for an activity; accessories

acerbate [verb]
to embitter somebody

acidulous [adjective]
rather sour or sharp in speech, manner, etc.

adjourn to… [phrasal verb]
to go to another place to calm down

of advanced years | sb's advanced age [idiom]
used to show that somebody is ‘very old’ or aged

agelast [noun]
one who never laughs

aglet [noun]
the plastic tip on the end of a shoelace

alack [exclamation]
used to express sadness or regret

allegator [noun]
someone who alleges

allergic [adjective]
strong dislike towards somebody

amatory [adjective]
relating to physical activity or desire

amphibology [noun]
grammatically ambiguous phrase or sentence (e.g.: he talked to his son and his daughter)

amphisbaena [noun]
a mythical serpent with a head at each end

anencephalous [adjective]
lacking a brain

anfractuous [adjective]
circuitous or winding

anguilliform [adjective]
resembling an eel

anserine [adjective]
goose-like | silly or foolish

antediluvian [adjective]
traditional or out-of-date

anthropophagy [noun]
cannibalism

apolaustic [adjective]
devoted to the seeking of enjoyment

apple-knocker [noun]
ignorant or unsophisticated person

appurtenance [noun]
a smaller part of something larger, superior or more significant

archipelago [noun]
a chain of islands

argle-bargle [noun]
meaningless and abundant talk or writing

argus-eyed [adjective]
vigilant, referring to Argos, a Greek mythological watchman with a hundred eyes

argute [adjective]
shrewd

argy-bargy [noun]
noisy arguing

assignation [noun]
a secret meeting with a lover

autotomy [noun]
the casting off of a limb or other part of the body by an animal under threat, such as a lizard

avuncular [adjective]
uncle-like
500 Words and Their Synonyms

Synonym is a word that has the same or nearly the same meaning as another word.

Sample This:

English Synonyms – A

001. ABET -- (meaning) to encourage somebody to do something illegal
Synonyms for ‘Abet’ --
incite / instigate / provoke

******

002. ABEYANCE -- (meaning) being stopped for a period of time
Synonyms for ‘Abeyance’ --
dormancy / intermission / suspension

******

003. ABILITY -- (meaning) the fact that somebody is able to do something
Synonyms for ‘Ability’ --
aptitude / capability / competence / knack / potential / proficiency / skill / talent

******

004. ABLAZE -- (meaning) burning; on fire
Synonyms for ‘Ablaze’ --
aflame / afire / alight

******

005. ABRASIVE -- (meaning) not smooth
Synonyms for ‘Abrasive’ --
coarse / harsh / rough

******

006. ABSENCE -- (meaning) not available, present, etc.
Synonyms for ‘Absence’ --
nonexistence / nonappearance / nonattendance

******

007. ABSTRUSE -- (meaning) difficult to understand
Synonyms for ‘Abstruse’ --
arcane / complicated / convoluted / esoteric / garbled / inarticulate / incoherent / incomprehensible / indecipherable / inexplicable / intricate / obscure / rarefied / recondite / unfathomable / unintelligible / unplumbed

******

008. ABUSE -- (meaning) unfair or cruel treatment
Synonyms for ‘Abuse’ --
brutality / cruelty / exploitation / ill-treatment / maltreatment / mistreatment / misuse / spitefulness / viciousness

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009. ABYSS -- (meaning) a very deep crack in the ground
Synonyms for ‘Abyss’ --
chasm / gulf

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010. ACCEDE -- (meaning) to agree to a demand, request, proposal, etc.
Synonyms for ‘Accede’ --
acquiesce / approve / assent / commend / comply / endorse / grant / permission / ratify / sanction

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011. ACCENTUATE -- (meaning) to make something more noticeable
Synonyms for ‘Accentuate’ --
emphasize / highlight / underline / underscore

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012. ACCLIMATIZE -- (meaning) to get used to new situation
Synonyms for ‘Acclimatize’ --
adapt / adjust

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013. ACCOMPLISH -- (meaning) to succeed in getting something
Synonyms for ‘Accomplish’ --
attain / conquer / manage

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014. ACCOST -- (meaning) to come near to somebody/something
Synonyms for ‘Accost’ --
advance / approach / confront

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015. ACCREDITED -- (meaning) officially recognized
Synonyms for ‘Accredited’ --
certified / endorsed / licensed

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016. ACCRUAL -- (meaning) increase in something over a period of time
Synonyms for ‘Accrual’ --
accretion / addition / amassing / buildup / gathering

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017. ACCUSE -- (meaning) to say somebody is guilty of something
Synonyms for ‘Accuse’ --
arraign / blame / charge / impeach / indict / prosecute

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018. ACQUIT -- (meaning) to say officially that somebody is not guilty for a crime
Synonyms for ‘Acquit’ --
absolve / exculpate / exonerate

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019. ADMIRATION -- (meaning) praise or approval
Synonyms for ‘Admiration’ --
acclaim / accolade / applause / approbation / commendation / ovation

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020. ADMIRING -- (meaning) behavior that shows that you respect somebody/something
Synonyms for ‘Admiring’ --
chivalrous / considerate / courteous / deferential / gracious / respectful / reverent / reverential

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021. ADROIT -- (meaning) skillful and accurate
Synonyms for ‘Adroit’ --
agile / deft / dexterous / natty / nifty / nimble / swift

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022. ALARMING -- (meaning) causing feeling of fear and worry
Synonyms for ‘Alarming’ --
baffling / bewildering / confounding / disconcerting / disquieting / distressing / perplexing / puzzling / tormenting / upsetting / worrying

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This Book Covers The Following Topics:

1. Agreeing Or Disagreeing In English
A. Agreeing In English
B. Disagreeing In English

2. Agreements and Disagreements With Statements
A1. Affirmative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - I
A2. Affirmative Addition to Affirmative Remarks – II
(Agreement with Affirmative Remarks)

B1. Negative Addition to Negative Remarks - I
B2. Negative Addition to Negative Remarks - II
(Agreement with Negative Remarks)

C1. Negative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - I
C2. Negative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - II
(Disagreement with Affirmative Remarks)

D1. Affirmative Addition to Negative Remarks - I
D2. Affirmative Addition to Negative Remarks - II
(Disagreement with Negative Remarks)

Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)


Sample This:

1. Agreeing Or Disagreeing In English

A. Agreeing In English

Expressions to show agreement:

Absolutely!
Exactly!
I agree entirely.
I agree to some extent.
I agree with you entirely.
I agree with you in part/principle.
I agree with you up to a point.
I am of the same opinion.
I assume so.
I believe so.
I completely agree (with you).
I couldn't agree more. [used to show total agreement]
I see exactly what you mean!
I simply must agree with that.
I think so.
I totally agree!
I was just going to say that.
It is absolutely clear.
Me too!
No doubt about it.
That seems obvious.
That’s exactly what I think.
That’s right!
That’s true.
That's for sure.
That's quite true.
That's so true.
There is no doubt about it that.
True enough.
Yes, I agree!
Yes, OK.
You are absolutely right.
You are right. That's a good point.
You could be right.
You have a point there.


A1. Affirmative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - I

(Agreement with Affirmative Remarks - I)

PATTERN – 1

USING ‘SAME SUBJECT’ IN AFFIRMATIVE ADDITION

STRUCTURE: Yes/So/Of course, etc. + Subject + Verb- ‘Be/Do/Have/Modal’
NOTE: You can also use phrase “That’s true!”

Example 1:
Affirmative Remark – She is originally from Britain.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Yes, she is. [yes + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 2:
Affirmative Remark – Authorities are gathering evidences.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
So, they (= authorities) are. [so + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 3:
Affirmative Remark – People across the world are taking to yoga and meditation.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Yes, they (= people) are. [yes + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 4:
Affirmative Remark – She was the most studious student of the batch.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Of course, she was. [of course + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 5:
Affirmative Remark – The police were seeking an arrest warrant for a suspect.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Yes, they (the police) were. [yes + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!
THIS BOOK CONTAINS MEANINGS OF MORE THAN 3400 ADVANCED ENGLISH WORDS (including phrasal verbs and idioms).

Learn Difficult English Words & Their Meanings

Sample This:

("sb" implies somebody, "sth" implies something)

abate to become, or make sth less strong
abed in bed
aberrant not socially acceptable
abet to help, or encourage sb to do sth wrong
in abeyance not being used for a period of time
ablutions act of washing yourself
aboard on a ship, plane, bus etc.
abode where sb lives
abolition ending of sth
abominate to feel hatred, or disgust
abomination extremely unpleasant, disgusting
abortive unsuccessful
above board legal and honest; in a legal and honest way
abridge to make book, etc. shorter
absent minded forgetful
abstainer who chooses not to vote, who never drinks alcohol
abstruse difficult to understand
abundant plentiful
abysmal extremely bad
abyss deep wide space, or hole that seems to have no bottom
accede to agree, to become king, or queen
accommodating willing to help, obliging
accomplish to achieve sth
in accord with sb/sth in agreement with
accord with sth to agree with sth
accountable responsible
accoutrements pieces of equipment for a particular activity
accredited officially recognized
accrue to increase over a period of time
accursed suffering from a curse, or black magic
ace person who is very good at doing sth
Achilles heel weak point in sb's character attacked by other people
acme peak
acquaintance with sb slight friendship
make sb's acquaintance to meet sb first time
acquiesce to accept sth, even if you do not agree
acrimonious bitter
acrobat rope dancer
acronym a word formed using initial letters of other words
act up to behave badly
acumen ability to understand and decide things quickly
ad hominem against person's character
ad nauseam again and again in boring and annoying way
Adam's apple lump at the front of the throat
adamantine very strong and impossible to break
add up to seem reasonable
add-on a thing that is added to sth else
adieu goodbye
ad-infinitum for ever
adjourn to postpone
adjudicate to make official decision
adjure to order sb to do sth
Adonis extremely attractive young man
adorable attractive
adoration great love, or worship
adore to love very much, to like very much
adrenalin hormone produced in the body due to excitement, fear, or anger
adulation excessive praise
the advent of sb/sth coming of invention, etc.
adventitious happening by accident; not planned
advisable sensible
advise sb of sth to inform
advisory official warning
aeon thousands of years
aerodrome small airport
aesthete who love art and beautiful things
affaire love affair
affectation behaviour, action to impress other people
affectionate loving
affections person's feelings of love
affective connected with emotions, attitudes
affliction pain and suffering, or sth that causes it
afforestation process of planting areas of land with trees
aficionado who likes a particular subject, etc. very much and knows a lot about it
afloat floating on water
afoot being planned
afore mentioned mentioned earlier
aftermath situation existing after a war, an accident, etc.
her mouth was agape wide open, because of surprise or shock
come of age to become mature
age of consent legal age to have sex
aggrandizement increase in the power, or importance of a person, or country
aggravate to worsen
agonize over sth to spend a long time thinking and worrying about sth
agreeable pleasant and easy to like
aggrieved feeling that you have been treated unfairly
aghast horrified
ahead of earlier than
agog excited
What are “Compound Words”?

A compound word consists of two or more base words. Meaning of Compound word is often different from the separate base words.

Compound Words and Parts of Speech
Compound words are mostly nouns, adjectives, and verbs.

Kinds of Compound Words
Compound words are of three types:

(A). Closed Compound Words:
Words are joined together. There is no space or hyphen between the words.
Examples: firefly / softball / redhead / keyboard / makeup / notebook

(B). Hyphenated Compound Words:
Words are joined together by a hyphen.
Examples: daughter-in-law / over-the-counter / six-year-old

(C). Open Compound Words:
Words are not joined together. Words are open or separate. In other words, there is a space between the words.
Examples: post office / real estate / full moon / half sister

Some general rules regarding use of hyphens:-
Compound Adjectives are often hyphenated.
If compound adjective precedes a noun, they are hyphenated
Examples:
low-paying job [low- paying is a compound adjective; job is a noun]
easy-going celebrity [easy-going is a compound adjective; celebrity is a noun]

Adverbs that end in –ly and compounded with another modifier are generally not hyphenated:
Examples:
deeply held beliefs
genetically modified foods
highly placed sources
quietly organized meeting


ALSO NOTE:
1. Some compound words may have more than one form but these forms may belong to different parts of speech.

Examples:
bread and butter [open form] [noun]
bread-and-butter [closed form] [adjective]

charge sheet [open form][noun]
chargesheet [closed form] [verb]

fast track [open form] [noun]
fast-track [hyphenated form] [adjective, verb]

first degree [open form] [noun]
first-degree [hyphenated form] [adjective]

full time [open form] [noun]
full-time [hyphenated form] [adjective, adverb]

gift wrap [open form] [noun]
gift-wrap [hyphenated form] [verb]

hard core [open form] [noun]
hard-core [hyphenated form] [adjective]

hard line [open form] [noun]
hard-line [hyphenated form] [adjective]

road test [open form] [noun]
road-test [hyphenated form] [verb]

second hand [open form] [noun]
second-home [hyphenated form] [adjective]


2. Some compound words which are hyphenated in American English are not hyphenated in British English.
Example: cash-back [American English]; cashback [British English]


3. Compound words are mainly formed in the following ways:
(a). adjective + adjective [example: bittersweet]
(b). adjective + noun [example: blackboard]
(c). adjective + verb [example: broadcast]
(d). adjective + past participle [example: cold-blooded]
(e). adjective + present participle [example: free-standing]
(f). adverb (or preposition) + adjective [example: ingrown]
(g). adverb (or preposition) + noun [example: afterlife]
(h). adverb (or preposition) + verb [example: cutback]
(i). adverb + past participle [example: brightly lit]
(j). adverb + present participle [example: long-lasting]
(k). noun + adjective [example: blood red]
(l). noun + adverb (or preposition) [example: hanger-on]
(m). noun + noun [example: airman]
(n). noun + verb [example: air-condition]
(o). noun + past participle [example: sun-dried]
(p). verb + adverb (or preposition) [example: breakdown]
(q). verb + noun [example: bathroom]
(r). gerund + noun [example: bleaching powder]
(s). noun + gerund [example: air-conditioning]

Detailed list of Compound words in Alphabetical Order. [All compound words have been grouped according to the parts of speech they belong to.)
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