Examples of English Correlatives

English Daily Use

Book 11
Manik Joshi
4
Free sample

This Book Covers The Following Topics:

1. AS---AS
1A. AS EARLY AS
1B. AS FAR AS
1C. AS LONG AS
1D. AS MANY AS
1E. AS MUCH AS
1F. AS SOON AS
1G. AS WELL AS
2. EITHER---OR
3. NEITHER---NOR
4. WHETHER---OR
5. BARELY/HARDLY/SCARCELY---WHEN
6. NO SOONER---THAN
7. RATHER---THAN
8. NOT ONLY---BUT ALSO
9. ALTHOUGH---YET
10. TOO---TO
11. BETWEEN---AND
12. BOTH---AND
13. SO THAT
14. UNLESS
15. UNTIL
16. OTHERS
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)
Exercises: 3(A) and 3(B)


Sample This:

1. AS---AS

Correlative Words connect words, phrases, and clauses. They are generally used in the form of pair of words.

As -- As
This Pattern Is Used When You Are Comparing or Linking Two People Or Things, Or Two Situations

EXAMPLES:
AS EARLY AS
AS FAR AS
AS LONG AS
AS MANY AS
AS MUCH AS
AS SOON AS
AS WELL AS


1A. AS EARLY AS
‘As Early As’ Is Used To Show --
Done Before the Expected, Usual or Planned Time

Elections will be held as early as possible.
As early as 7:30 a.m. on Sunday, he was surprised to see the policemen.
Companies could announce the agreement as early as Tuesday.
Given their importance, it makes sense to nurture good values in children as early as possible.
I woke up as early as 4 a.m.
International sanctions on it could start to be lifted as early as spring next year.
We demand that the government acts firmly and culprits are booked as early as possible.
Latest refund mechanism facility will help its customers get refunds as early as within 24 hours of returning the product.
Our company is looking to invest in Australia as early as next year.
Reserve Bank will cut interest rates again, possibly as early as this month.
Scores of people visit the beaches of East Coast Road as early as 5 a.m. for their daily exercises.
Company is in process to complete the audit as early as possible and will submit the audited financial results in due course of time.
Government planned to overhaul the corporate debt market by pushing all issuance onto an electronic platform as early as November.
She could return to China as early as this month, the media reported on Tuesday.
She had as early as 1815 directed that the state should settle the entire cost of education of its people.
A special report is scheduled to be released as early as this month.
First signs of global warming felt as early as 1940s.
Forecasters predicted national capital could experience sub-zero temperatures as early as next month.
Street clearance in the areas surrounding the art museum is scheduled to begin as early as Sunday at 6:00 p.m.
This year's flu outbreak can happen as early as October and can last as late as May.
Tropical Storm Erika was expected to hit the Southeast as early as Sunday.
Government should make sure that construction of the college starts as early as possible.
Police commissioner is all set to complete the probe into the case as early as possible.
The Centre today asked the states to take steps in making special courts functional as early as possible.
School principal wanted all files as early as possible.
About 100 people lined up outside security barricades as early as 3 a.m.
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About the author

Manik Joshi was born on Jan 26, 1979 at Ranikhet and is permanent resident of Haldwani, Kumaon zone of India. He is an Internet Marketer by profession. He is interested in domaining (business of buying and selling domain names), web designing (creating websites), and various online jobs (including 'self-publishing'). He is science graduate with ZBC (zoology, botany, and chemistry) subjects. He is also an MBA (with specialization in marketing). He has done three diploma courses in computer too. ManikJoshi.com is the personal website of the author.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Manik Joshi
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Published on
Oct 25, 2014
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Pages
53
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ISBN
9781492742234
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Language
English
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Genres
Language Arts & Disciplines / Public Speaking
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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This Book Covers The Following Topics:

Active and Passive Voice
Interchange of Active and Passive Voice
1. First or Second Form of Verb
2. Auxiliary Verb ‘Be’ + -ING Form of Verb
3. Have/Has/Had + Past Participle
4. Present/Future Modals + Verb Word
5. Past Modals + Past Participle
6. Verb + Preposition
7. Main Verb + Object + Complement
8. Main Verb + Object + Object
9. Have/Has/Had + Infinitive (To + Verb)
10. Auxiliary Verb ‘Be’ + Infinitive (To + Verb)
11. Verb + Object + Infinitive (Without ‘To’)
12. There + Verb ‘Be’ + Noun + Infinitive
13. Interrogative Sentences
14. Imperative Sentences
15. Principal Clause + That + Noun Clause (Object)
16. Verb followed by --ING form or an Infinitive
17. Use of Prepositions
18. The Passive With Get
19. Middle Voice
Exercise -- 01
Exercise -- 02
Exercise -- 03

Sample This:

VOICE - Definition
Voice refers to the form of a verb that shows whether the subject of a sentence performs the action or is affected by it.

ACTIVE VOICE - Definition
The form of a verb in which subject is the person or thing that performs the action.
Example:
They finished the work.
[subject -- “they”, verb -- “finished”, object -- “work”]
In this sentence, the subject (they) acts on the object (work).

Other Examples:
The teacher praises him.
She posted the letter.
I buy new books.
We will celebrate his birthday.

PASSIVE VOICE - Definition
The form of a verb in which subject is affected by the action of the verb.
Important Note -- The object of the active voice becomes the subject in the passive voice.
Example:
The work was finished by them.
[subject -- “work”, passive verb -- “was finished”, object -- “them”]
In this example, the subject (work) is not the doer; it is being acted upon by the doer ‘them’)

Other Examples:
He is praised by the teacher.
The letter was posted by her
New books are bought by me.
His birthday will be celebrated by us.


WHEN TO USE PASSIVE VOICE
(1). You should use passive voice when you do not know the active subject.
(2). When you want to make the active object more important.
(3). When active subject is obvious.
(4). When you want to emphasize the action of the sentence rather than the doer of the action.
(5). Passive voice is frequently used to describe scientific or mechanical processes
(6). Passive voice is often used in news reports:
(7). When active voice does not sound good.
(8). When you want to make more polite or formal statements.
(9). You can use passive voice to avoid responsibility.
(10). You can also use passive voice for sentence variety in your writing.
(11). You can also use passive voice when you want to avoid extra-long subjects.

Changing Active Voice Into Passive Voice
Rule 1:
Move the object of the active voice into the position of subject (front of the sentence) in the passive voice. And move the subject of the active voice into the position of object in the passive voice.

Rule 2:
Passive voice needs a helping verb to express the action. Put the helping verb in the same tense as the original active sentence. The main verb of the active voice is always changed into past participle (third form of verb) in different ways.

Rule 3:
Place the active sentence's subject into a phrase beginning with the preposition ‘by’.

Rule 4:
If the object in an active voice sentence is a pronoun (me, us, you, him, her, they, it), it changes in passive voice sentence as follows:
me -- I; us -- we; you -- you; him -- he; her -- she; them -- they; it – it

Rule 5:
Subject- Verb Agreement
Make the first verb agree with the new subject in passive voice.

Rule 6:
When there are two objects (direct object and indirect object), only one object is interchanged. The second object remains unchanged.

Following Tenses Cannot Be Changed Into Passive Voice:
1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
2. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
3. Future Continuous Tense
4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

What is “Repetition of Words”?
Structure (1) ---- Word + and + Word
Structure (2) ---- Comparative + and + Comparative
Structure (3) ---- Word + after + Word
Structure (4) ---- Word + by + Word
Structure (5) ---- Word + to + Word
Structure (6) ---- Word + on/upon + Word
Structure (7) ---- Word + against/of/for/in/with + Word
Structure (8) ---- The more, less, etc…, the more, less, etc…
Structure (9) ---- Combination of the Same Words
Structure (10) ---- Repetition of Various Words
Structure (11) ---- Repetition of Words More than Once
Structure (12) ---- Repetition of ‘Group of Words’
Structure (13) ---- Repetition of ‘Two Different Words’
Structure (14) ---- Miscellaneous Patterns
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)

What is “Repetition of Words”?

Repetition in English Language is the repeating of a word, within a sentence in order to PROVIDE EMPHASIS. ‘Repetition of words’ could be classified into many groups based on the placement of the words in a sentence. Different terms have been devised to denote different kinds of repetitions. Some of these terms are as follows: Adnominatio, Conduplicatio, Diacope, Epistrophe, Mesodiplosis, Palilogia, Polyptoton, Symploce, etc.

Not going into the details of these ‘hard-to-pronounce’ terms, I have covered only most popular patterns of ‘Repetition of words’ in this book.

Structure (1) ---- Word + and + Word

This pattern is generally used to show ‘continuation or repetition of an activity’, or ‘presence of many things or people of the same kind’.

1. -- She asked and asked about the money.
2a. -- Stars, planets, and galaxies emerged and evolved billions and billions of years ago.
2b. -- They have got billions and billions of dollars lying around in vaults.
3. -- There has been campaign and campaign against us for a very long time.
4. -- Wastage of water must be discouraged and discouraged.
5. -- Workers dug and dug the road.
6. -- We have eras and eras coming.
7. -- He called after her, “Where are you going?” She went further and further.
8a. -- His confidence grew and grew.
8b. -- Once he started telling family about his challenge, the support just grew and grew.
9a. -- ‘How long did the match last?’ ‘Oh, hours and hours’
9b. -- Oats are a complex carbohydrate which means they will fuel your body for hours and hours.
10. -- Merit and merit alone can be criterion.
11. -- The road went on for miles and miles.
12. -- My travel plan was mired and mired in utter confusion.
13. -- He has nurtured and nurtured his reputation as a master tactician.
14. -- They played and played cards all night.

NOTE:
(A). ‘Again and again’
[meaning -- many times]
She was wiping her tears again and again.
Many people do not repeat their mistakes again and again.

(B). ‘By and by’
[meaning -- after a short period; before long; soon | eventually]
By and by you will make your deficiency.
The hours just kept on going by and by.

(C). ‘Half and half’
[meaning -- in equal parts]
We are lucky that it is an affordable rent, and sharing half and half helps

(D). ‘Less and less’
[meaning -- continuing to become smaller]
We are having less and less snow each year.
Old people seem to sleep less and less actually.

(E). ‘More and more’
[meaning -- continuing to become larger in amount or number]
You always ask for more and more.
More and more girls are giving priority to their career.

(F). ‘Neck and neck’
[meaning -- level with somebody in competition]
Democrats and Republicans were neck and neck on 50 seats.
These two candidates are neck and neck in recent polls.

NOTE: Great Stress—
Word + And + Word + And + Word
1a. -- He just smacked him with a ruler again and again and again.
1b. -- If at first you don't succeed, try again and again and again.
2. -- Their pain and the anger grew and grew and grew,
3. -- They are paying him millions and millions, and more millions.
4. -- There is a huge problem in this town and it has been going on and on and on.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

1. Agreeing Or Disagreeing In English
A. Agreeing In English
B. Disagreeing In English

2. Agreements and Disagreements With Statements
A1. Affirmative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - I
A2. Affirmative Addition to Affirmative Remarks – II
(Agreement with Affirmative Remarks)

B1. Negative Addition to Negative Remarks - I
B2. Negative Addition to Negative Remarks - II
(Agreement with Negative Remarks)

C1. Negative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - I
C2. Negative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - II
(Disagreement with Affirmative Remarks)

D1. Affirmative Addition to Negative Remarks - I
D2. Affirmative Addition to Negative Remarks - II
(Disagreement with Negative Remarks)

Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)


Sample This:

1. Agreeing Or Disagreeing In English

A. Agreeing In English

Expressions to show agreement:

Absolutely!
Exactly!
I agree entirely.
I agree to some extent.
I agree with you entirely.
I agree with you in part/principle.
I agree with you up to a point.
I am of the same opinion.
I assume so.
I believe so.
I completely agree (with you).
I couldn't agree more. [used to show total agreement]
I see exactly what you mean!
I simply must agree with that.
I think so.
I totally agree!
I was just going to say that.
It is absolutely clear.
Me too!
No doubt about it.
That seems obvious.
That’s exactly what I think.
That’s right!
That’s true.
That's for sure.
That's quite true.
That's so true.
There is no doubt about it that.
True enough.
Yes, I agree!
Yes, OK.
You are absolutely right.
You are right. That's a good point.
You could be right.
You have a point there.


A1. Affirmative Addition to Affirmative Remarks - I

(Agreement with Affirmative Remarks - I)

PATTERN – 1

USING ‘SAME SUBJECT’ IN AFFIRMATIVE ADDITION

STRUCTURE: Yes/So/Of course, etc. + Subject + Verb- ‘Be/Do/Have/Modal’
NOTE: You can also use phrase “That’s true!”

Example 1:
Affirmative Remark – She is originally from Britain.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Yes, she is. [yes + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 2:
Affirmative Remark – Authorities are gathering evidences.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
So, they (= authorities) are. [so + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 3:
Affirmative Remark – People across the world are taking to yoga and meditation.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Yes, they (= people) are. [yes + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 4:
Affirmative Remark – She was the most studious student of the batch.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Of course, she was. [of course + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!

Example 5:
Affirmative Remark – The police were seeking an arrest warrant for a suspect.
Agreement (Affirmative Addition) –
Yes, they (the police) were. [yes + subject + verb- ‘be’]
OR
That’s true!
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

What are “Tenses”?
AGREEMENT between SUBJECT and VERB
TWENTY-FOUR Auxiliary Verbs
REGULAR AND IRREGULAR VERBS
PRESENT TENSE
Present Indefinite Tense
Present Continuous/Progressive Tense
Present Perfect Tense
Present Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
PAST TENSE
Past Indefinite Tense
Past Continuous/Progressive Tense
Past Perfect Tense
Past Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
FUTURE TENSE
Future Indefinite Tense
Future Continuous/Progressive Tense
Future Perfect Tense
Future Perfect Continuous/Progressive Tense
Useful Notes
Exercises

Sample This:

Tenses could be defined as “any of the form of a verb that may be used to show the time of the action or an event or state expressed by the verb”.

THERE ARE THREE KINDS OF TENSES:

The Past Tense – The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that happened in the past
[Action happened before present]

The Present Tense – The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that happens at this time
[Action happens in present]

The Future Tense – The form of a verb that usually expresses an action that will happen in future
[Action will happen after present]


EACH OF THESE THREE KINDS OF SENTENCES HAS FOUR TYPES OF FORMS:
Indefinite or Simple Form
Continuous or Progressive Form
Perfect Form
Perfect Continuous or Perfect Progressive Form


EACH OF THESE FOUR TYPES OF FORMS HAS FOUR KINDS OF STATEMENTS:
Affirmative Statement --
Used to Show ‘Agreement’
Negative Statement --
Used to Show ‘Disagreement’
Interrogative Statement --
Used to Ask ‘Question’
Interrogative-Negative Statement --
Used to Ask ‘Question’ and Show ‘Disagreement’

Present Indefinite Tense

Expresses –
Permanent situation [in the past, present and future]
Example: Our family lives in Seattle.

General truth (fact or statement)
Example: Clean water is fundamental to public health.
Example: Many barrages have no utility and causes floods.

Habitual action [actions that occurs regularly]
Example: She listens to music every day.

‘Future meaning’ (timetable, planned event, etc.)
Example: My shop closes at 9pm.
Example: The train arrives at 7:30pm.

Traditions, rituals, customs
Example: Indians celebrate festival of light in the month of Oct-Nov.

Commands and Instructions [Imperative Sentences]
[Note: In imperatives, subject ‘you’ remains hidden]
Example: Condemn perpetrators of terrorism.
Example: Promote values of humanity and tolerance.
Example: Tell us about the exact nature of your work.

Used in if-clause of present and future real conditional sentences
Example: If I go there, I meet him.
Example: If things don't work out, we won't be panicked.

Headlines in news reporting [Use of simple present tense instead of simple past tense is common in news headlines]
Example: Flight skids on landing at airport.
Example: Thunder storm brings relief to residents.


(A). AFFIRMATIVE PATTERN –
subject + first form of main verb + other words
Singular Verb is used with subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects.
Plural Verb is used with subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural Subjects.
Examples:
He/She talks. I/We/You/They talk.
We seek opportunity to chart out our own course.
Lean margin of victory or defeat gives an impression of a tough contest.
Nowadays, voters value development over other issues.
They want civic amenities and employment opportunities.


(B). NEGATIVE PATTERN –
subject + auxiliary verb ‘do/does’ + not + first form of main verb + other words
Auxiliary Verb ‘Does’ is used with subject ‘He and She’ + All Singular Subjects.
Auxiliary Verb ‘Do’ is used with subject ‘I, We, You and They’ + All Plural Subjects.
Examples:
He/She does not talk. I/We/You/They do not talk.
Most buses do not cater to interior parts of the villages.
He does not know what to say.
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

Verb ‘To Be’
Verb ‘To Be’ -- Negative Patterns
Verb ‘To Be’ -- Interrogative Patterns
1A. English Grammar – ‘Am’
1B. AM + -ING Form of Verb
1C. AM + Being + Past Participle
1D. AM + Past Participle
2A. English Grammar – ‘Is’
2B. IS + -ING Form of Verb
2C. IS + Being + Past Participle
2D. IS + Past Participle
3A. English Grammar – ‘Are’
3B. ARE + -ING Form of Verb
3C. ARE + Being + Past Participle
3D. ARE + Past Participle
4A. English Grammar – ‘Was’
4B. WAS + -ING Form of Verb
4C. WAS + Being + Past Participle
4D. WAS + Past Participle
5A. English Grammar – ‘Were’
5B. WERE + -ING Form of Verb
5C. WERE + Being + Past Participle
5D. WERE + Past Participle
Useful Notes
(1): Question Tags
(2): Short Answers (Ellipsis]
(3): Addition to Remarks
(4): There Is/Was and There Are/Were
(5): Subjunctive Mood – ‘Were’
(6): Be + Going To + Verb Word
(7): ‘Used to’ Vs. ‘Be + Used to’
(8): Be + To + Verb Word
(9): Be + ‘Being”+ Adjective
(10): Mixed Sentences
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) to 2(E)



Sample This:

Verb ‘To Be’

The Verb ‘to be’ is used to represent the following English verbs:
‘Am’, ‘Is’, ‘Are’, ‘Was’, ‘Were’
The verb ‘to be’ is used as both linking verb and auxiliary verb.

LINKING VERB:
A verb that connects a subject with the complement (adjective or noun) that describes it.
Example: He is an engineer. [In this sentence, subject (he) and noun (engineer) is connected by linking verb ‘is’. There is no main verb in this sentence.]
Some more examples:
I am happy. [linking verb – am]
Is he good boy? [linking verb – is]
We are very proud of ourselves. [linking verb – are]
She was intelligent. [linking verb – was]
They were not late by half an hour. [linking verb – were]

AUXILIARY VERB:
A verb which is used with main verb to show tenses, etc.
Example: He is going to office. [In this sentence, -ing form of main verb ‘go’ has been used with auxiliary verb ‘is’.
Some more examples:
I am studying a book. [auxiliary verb – am | main verb – study (-ing form)]
He is working on his project [auxiliary verb – is | main verb – work (-ing form)]
We are not expected to tell the secret. [auxiliary verb – are | main verb – expect (past participle form)]
She was taught by me. [auxiliary verb – was | main verb – teach (past participle form)]
Were they burdened by high taxation [auxiliary verb – were | main verb – burden (past participle form)]


IMPORTANT POINTS ABOUT VERB ‘TO BE’

‘AM’ –
Singular Verb
Used In Present Tense
Used with Subject ‘I’

‘IS’ –
Singular Verb
Used In Present Tense
Used with Subject ‘He’ ‘She’, ‘It’ and other Singular Subjects

‘ARE’ –
Plural Verb
Used In Present Tense
Used with Subject ‘We’, ‘You’, ‘They’ and other Plural Subjects

‘WAS’ –
Singular Verb
Used In Past Tense
Used with Subject ‘I’, ‘He’, She’, ‘It’ and other Singular Subjects

‘WERE’ –
Plural Verb
Used In Past Tense
Used with Subject ‘We’, ‘You’ and other Plural Subjects
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

Active and Passive Voice
Interchange of Active and Passive Voice
1. First or Second Form of Verb
2. Auxiliary Verb ‘Be’ + -ING Form of Verb
3. Have/Has/Had + Past Participle
4. Present/Future Modals + Verb Word
5. Past Modals + Past Participle
6. Verb + Preposition
7. Main Verb + Object + Complement
8. Main Verb + Object + Object
9. Have/Has/Had + Infinitive (To + Verb)
10. Auxiliary Verb ‘Be’ + Infinitive (To + Verb)
11. Verb + Object + Infinitive (Without ‘To’)
12. There + Verb ‘Be’ + Noun + Infinitive
13. Interrogative Sentences
14. Imperative Sentences
15. Principal Clause + That + Noun Clause (Object)
16. Verb followed by --ING form or an Infinitive
17. Use of Prepositions
18. The Passive With Get
19. Middle Voice
Exercise -- 01
Exercise -- 02
Exercise -- 03

Sample This:

VOICE - Definition
Voice refers to the form of a verb that shows whether the subject of a sentence performs the action or is affected by it.

ACTIVE VOICE - Definition
The form of a verb in which subject is the person or thing that performs the action.
Example:
They finished the work.
[subject -- “they”, verb -- “finished”, object -- “work”]
In this sentence, the subject (they) acts on the object (work).

Other Examples:
The teacher praises him.
She posted the letter.
I buy new books.
We will celebrate his birthday.

PASSIVE VOICE - Definition
The form of a verb in which subject is affected by the action of the verb.
Important Note -- The object of the active voice becomes the subject in the passive voice.
Example:
The work was finished by them.
[subject -- “work”, passive verb -- “was finished”, object -- “them”]
In this example, the subject (work) is not the doer; it is being acted upon by the doer ‘them’)

Other Examples:
He is praised by the teacher.
The letter was posted by her
New books are bought by me.
His birthday will be celebrated by us.


WHEN TO USE PASSIVE VOICE
(1). You should use passive voice when you do not know the active subject.
(2). When you want to make the active object more important.
(3). When active subject is obvious.
(4). When you want to emphasize the action of the sentence rather than the doer of the action.
(5). Passive voice is frequently used to describe scientific or mechanical processes
(6). Passive voice is often used in news reports:
(7). When active voice does not sound good.
(8). When you want to make more polite or formal statements.
(9). You can use passive voice to avoid responsibility.
(10). You can also use passive voice for sentence variety in your writing.
(11). You can also use passive voice when you want to avoid extra-long subjects.

Changing Active Voice Into Passive Voice
Rule 1:
Move the object of the active voice into the position of subject (front of the sentence) in the passive voice. And move the subject of the active voice into the position of object in the passive voice.

Rule 2:
Passive voice needs a helping verb to express the action. Put the helping verb in the same tense as the original active sentence. The main verb of the active voice is always changed into past participle (third form of verb) in different ways.

Rule 3:
Place the active sentence's subject into a phrase beginning with the preposition ‘by’.

Rule 4:
If the object in an active voice sentence is a pronoun (me, us, you, him, her, they, it), it changes in passive voice sentence as follows:
me -- I; us -- we; you -- you; him -- he; her -- she; them -- they; it – it

Rule 5:
Subject- Verb Agreement
Make the first verb agree with the new subject in passive voice.

Rule 6:
When there are two objects (direct object and indirect object), only one object is interchanged. The second object remains unchanged.

Following Tenses Cannot Be Changed Into Passive Voice:
1. Present Perfect Continuous Tense
2. Past Perfect Continuous Tense
3. Future Continuous Tense
4. Future Perfect Continuous Tense
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

How to Start a Sentence
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘AFTER’ and ‘BEFORE’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘BY’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘FOR/FROM
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IF’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘OF/ON/OUT’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘TO’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘IN’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘WITH’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘QUESTION WORDS’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘ING’ FORM of VERBS
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PAST PARTICIPLES’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘-LY Words’
Start a Sentence -- Using ‘PRONOUNS’
Start a Sentence – Miscellaneous
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)

Sample This:

There are different ways to start a sentence in English. Using pronoun (I, we, you, they, he, she, it) is the most popular way to begin a sentence. But there are many other words which are widely used to start a sentence. They might be question words (what, where, etc.). They might be words formed from verbs, ending in –ing, -ed, -en, etc. Besides, words such as ‘to’ ‘in’ ‘with’, ‘if’, ‘after’ are also used to begin a sentence.
Here, you will learn various words and phrases to start a sentence with.

Important Note:
Starting a sentence with ‘and’ or ‘but’ is correct or not!

Using ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence is generally considered grammatically Incorrect. But there is no hard and fast rule in this regard. So, you can use ‘And’ or ‘But’ to begin a sentence. But avoid excessive use of these words to begin a sentence. Use these words in the beginning of a sentence only when they really give strength to your language.

Note: It is said that a sentence should not be begun with a conjunction of any kind, especially one of the FANBOYS (for, and, nor, but, or, yet, so). But this is not hard and fast rule. Particularly in spoken English, starting a sentence with ‘And’ or ‘But’ is common.


How to start a sentence -- Using ‘AS’

As a matter of fact no notice was given to anyone.
As a policeman myself, I am aware of all the laws.
As against last time four days, the fair will last for five days this year.
As always, he won the match.
As an interim arrangement, we directed the authorities not to return the land.
As fate would have it, he crossed the international border.
As for David, he is doing fine.
As he got busy, she picked up his son.
As he grew older, he developed his communications skills.
As if the bad power situation in the city wasn’t enough, the hike in power tariff has come as the last straw for residents.
As in the past, party president distanced herself from the government’s unpopular decision.
As long as here is violence by unruly mobs, use of police force is inevitable.
As often happened, he forgot to send me reply.
As part of the deal, they will hand-over control of five west bank towns.
As penance, he vowed to never scold any kid ever again.
As per his version, nobody had got injured in the incident.
As per rules, the same bill should be passed by the two Houses of the Parliament before it is sent to the President for his signature and promulgation for implementation.
As sanitary workers are absent on most of the days, sweeping of that road is also irregular resulting in trash along the road.
As the bus was nearing, / As the bus neared him, he moved aside.
As the day progressed, over a hundred men protestors gathered at the office.
As the electric cables are hanging loosely, it may anytime lead to major accident if any passer-by comes into contact.
As the mercury levels are dropping each day, difficulties for the poor are constantly rising.
As the war widened, they had to leave the city.
As we progresses, it is going to become more and more difficult.
As you know, I have sent him a letter.
HOMONYMS
Homonym a word that is spelt like another word (or pronounced like it) but which has a different meaning, for example Key meaning ‘set of answer to problems’ and Key meaning ‘button on computer keyboard’.

The state of being a homonym is called homonymy.

Very Important Note:

In Strict Sense, Homonyms have same spelling, same pronunciation, and different meaning.

HOMONYMS in Strict Sense:

Same Spelling / Same Pronunciation / Different meaning
Homonyms are also known as “Multiple Meaning Words”.

Examples: fare, principal, etc.

Fare -- a passenger | Fare -- price
Principal -- most important | Principal -- head of a school


In Wider Sense, Homonyms can also include words that have same or similar pronunciation (but different spelling) or same spelling (but different pronunciation).
In first situation, they are called ‘HOMOPHONES’
In second situation, they are called ‘HOMOGRAPHS’

HOMONYMS In Wider Sense:

HOMOPHONES:
Different Spelling / Same or Similar Pronunciation / Different meaning
Note: ‘Homophones’ are also called ‘Heterographs’.
Homophones are also known as “Sound-Alike Words”.

Examples: ad/add, know/no, etc.

ad -- advertisement | add -- to include
know -- to have information | no -- refusal


HOMOGRAPHS:
Same Spelling / Different Pronunciation / Different meaning
Note: ‘Homographs’ are also called ‘Heterophones’.

Examples: bow, lead, etc.

Bow (noun) -- [Pronunciation -- boʊ] -- a weapon used for shooting arrows
Bow (verb) -- [Pronunciation -- baʊ] -- to move your head forwards and downwards

Lead (noun) -- [Pronunciation -- led] -- a metallic element
Lead (verb) -- [Pronunciation -- li:d] -- to go in front


100 HOMONYMS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
Sample This:

01. Accident
1. Accident -- an event in which injury or damage is caused in or by vehicle
2. Accident -- something that happens unexpectedly

02. Action
1. Action -- a legal process
2. Action -- fighting in a war

03. Alight
1. Alight -- on fire
2. Alight -- to get out of a vehicle

04. Angle
1. Angle -- inclination of two lines with each, measure in degrees
2. Angle -- to catch fish

05. Arch
1. Arch -- curve; semicircle
2. Arch -- mischievous


600 HOMOPHONE PAIRS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
Sample This:

01. Abhorrent / Aberrant
1. Abhorrent -- causing hatred for moral reasons
2. Aberrant -- unusual and socially unacceptable

02. Accede / Exceed
1. Accede -- to agree
2. Exceed -- to surpass

03. Accept / Except
1. Accept -- to admit
2. Except -- apart from

04. Acclamation / Acclimation
1. Acclamation -- loud and enthusiastic welcome
2. Acclimation -- process of getting used to a new climate or situation

05. Adapt / Adept / Adopt
1. Adapt -- to adjust or modify
2. Adept -- skillful
3. Adopt -- to become legal parents of somebody’s child


150 HOMOGRAPHS ALONG WITH THEIR MEANINGS:
Sample This:

01. Absent
1. Absent (adjective) -- not present
2. Absent (verb) -- to not be in a place

02. Abuse
1. Abuse (noun) -- misuse
2. Abuse (verb) -- to misuse something

03. Accent
1. Accent (noun) -- pronunciation
2. Accent (verb) -- to put emphasis on a part of something

04. Address
1. Address (noun) -- details of the place where you live or work; postal address
2. Address (verb) -- to make a formal speech

05. Advocate
1. Advocate (noun) -- supporter of something
2. Advocate (verb) -- to support something publicly
THIS BOOK CONTAINS MEANINGS OF MORE THAN 3400 ADVANCED ENGLISH WORDS (including phrasal verbs and idioms).

Learn Difficult English Words & Their Meanings

Sample This:

("sb" implies somebody, "sth" implies something)

abate to become, or make sth less strong
abed in bed
aberrant not socially acceptable
abet to help, or encourage sb to do sth wrong
in abeyance not being used for a period of time
ablutions act of washing yourself
aboard on a ship, plane, bus etc.
abode where sb lives
abolition ending of sth
abominate to feel hatred, or disgust
abomination extremely unpleasant, disgusting
abortive unsuccessful
above board legal and honest; in a legal and honest way
abridge to make book, etc. shorter
absent minded forgetful
abstainer who chooses not to vote, who never drinks alcohol
abstruse difficult to understand
abundant plentiful
abysmal extremely bad
abyss deep wide space, or hole that seems to have no bottom
accede to agree, to become king, or queen
accommodating willing to help, obliging
accomplish to achieve sth
in accord with sb/sth in agreement with
accord with sth to agree with sth
accountable responsible
accoutrements pieces of equipment for a particular activity
accredited officially recognized
accrue to increase over a period of time
accursed suffering from a curse, or black magic
ace person who is very good at doing sth
Achilles heel weak point in sb's character attacked by other people
acme peak
acquaintance with sb slight friendship
make sb's acquaintance to meet sb first time
acquiesce to accept sth, even if you do not agree
acrimonious bitter
acrobat rope dancer
acronym a word formed using initial letters of other words
act up to behave badly
acumen ability to understand and decide things quickly
ad hominem against person's character
ad nauseam again and again in boring and annoying way
Adam's apple lump at the front of the throat
adamantine very strong and impossible to break
add up to seem reasonable
add-on a thing that is added to sth else
adieu goodbye
ad-infinitum for ever
adjourn to postpone
adjudicate to make official decision
adjure to order sb to do sth
Adonis extremely attractive young man
adorable attractive
adoration great love, or worship
adore to love very much, to like very much
adrenalin hormone produced in the body due to excitement, fear, or anger
adulation excessive praise
the advent of sb/sth coming of invention, etc.
adventitious happening by accident; not planned
advisable sensible
advise sb of sth to inform
advisory official warning
aeon thousands of years
aerodrome small airport
aesthete who love art and beautiful things
affaire love affair
affectation behaviour, action to impress other people
affectionate loving
affections person's feelings of love
affective connected with emotions, attitudes
affliction pain and suffering, or sth that causes it
afforestation process of planting areas of land with trees
aficionado who likes a particular subject, etc. very much and knows a lot about it
afloat floating on water
afoot being planned
afore mentioned mentioned earlier
aftermath situation existing after a war, an accident, etc.
her mouth was agape wide open, because of surprise or shock
come of age to become mature
age of consent legal age to have sex
aggrandizement increase in the power, or importance of a person, or country
aggravate to worsen
agonize over sth to spend a long time thinking and worrying about sth
agreeable pleasant and easy to like
aggrieved feeling that you have been treated unfairly
aghast horrified
ahead of earlier than
agog excited
This Book Covers The Following Topics:

What is “Repetition of Words”?
Structure (1) ---- Word + and + Word
Structure (2) ---- Comparative + and + Comparative
Structure (3) ---- Word + after + Word
Structure (4) ---- Word + by + Word
Structure (5) ---- Word + to + Word
Structure (6) ---- Word + on/upon + Word
Structure (7) ---- Word + against/of/for/in/with + Word
Structure (8) ---- The more, less, etc…, the more, less, etc…
Structure (9) ---- Combination of the Same Words
Structure (10) ---- Repetition of Various Words
Structure (11) ---- Repetition of Words More than Once
Structure (12) ---- Repetition of ‘Group of Words’
Structure (13) ---- Repetition of ‘Two Different Words’
Structure (14) ---- Miscellaneous Patterns
Exercises: 1(A) and 1(B)
Exercises: 2(A) and 2(B)

What is “Repetition of Words”?

Repetition in English Language is the repeating of a word, within a sentence in order to PROVIDE EMPHASIS. ‘Repetition of words’ could be classified into many groups based on the placement of the words in a sentence. Different terms have been devised to denote different kinds of repetitions. Some of these terms are as follows: Adnominatio, Conduplicatio, Diacope, Epistrophe, Mesodiplosis, Palilogia, Polyptoton, Symploce, etc.

Not going into the details of these ‘hard-to-pronounce’ terms, I have covered only most popular patterns of ‘Repetition of words’ in this book.

Structure (1) ---- Word + and + Word

This pattern is generally used to show ‘continuation or repetition of an activity’, or ‘presence of many things or people of the same kind’.

1. -- She asked and asked about the money.
2a. -- Stars, planets, and galaxies emerged and evolved billions and billions of years ago.
2b. -- They have got billions and billions of dollars lying around in vaults.
3. -- There has been campaign and campaign against us for a very long time.
4. -- Wastage of water must be discouraged and discouraged.
5. -- Workers dug and dug the road.
6. -- We have eras and eras coming.
7. -- He called after her, “Where are you going?” She went further and further.
8a. -- His confidence grew and grew.
8b. -- Once he started telling family about his challenge, the support just grew and grew.
9a. -- ‘How long did the match last?’ ‘Oh, hours and hours’
9b. -- Oats are a complex carbohydrate which means they will fuel your body for hours and hours.
10. -- Merit and merit alone can be criterion.
11. -- The road went on for miles and miles.
12. -- My travel plan was mired and mired in utter confusion.
13. -- He has nurtured and nurtured his reputation as a master tactician.
14. -- They played and played cards all night.

NOTE:
(A). ‘Again and again’
[meaning -- many times]
She was wiping her tears again and again.
Many people do not repeat their mistakes again and again.

(B). ‘By and by’
[meaning -- after a short period; before long; soon | eventually]
By and by you will make your deficiency.
The hours just kept on going by and by.

(C). ‘Half and half’
[meaning -- in equal parts]
We are lucky that it is an affordable rent, and sharing half and half helps

(D). ‘Less and less’
[meaning -- continuing to become smaller]
We are having less and less snow each year.
Old people seem to sleep less and less actually.

(E). ‘More and more’
[meaning -- continuing to become larger in amount or number]
You always ask for more and more.
More and more girls are giving priority to their career.

(F). ‘Neck and neck’
[meaning -- level with somebody in competition]
Democrats and Republicans were neck and neck on 50 seats.
These two candidates are neck and neck in recent polls.

NOTE: Great Stress—
Word + And + Word + And + Word
1a. -- He just smacked him with a ruler again and again and again.
1b. -- If at first you don't succeed, try again and again and again.
2. -- Their pain and the anger grew and grew and grew,
3. -- They are paying him millions and millions, and more millions.
4. -- There is a huge problem in this town and it has been going on and on and on.
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