SOCRATES is an international, multi-lingual, multi-disciplinary refereed and indexed scholarly journal produced as par of the Harvard Dataverse Network. This journal appears quarterly in English, Hindi, Persian in 22 disciplines.

About this Issue:

This issue of Socrates has been divided into three sections. The first section of this issue is Language & Literature- English. The first article of this section tends to illustrate how, in spite of all those failures, Oedipus can be a hero.The second article of this section aims to explore artificial intelligence within the area of popular science fiction novels and films, which incorporates the fantasy of techno-salvation in the near future of singularity through overcoming the carbon limitations of human, fusing essence of spirituality with technology as well as extending spiritual beliefs into technological faith. The third article of this section deals with Comparative Poetics. It claims that the emergent plurivocal conversation of a comparative poetics that includes Middle East will open new horizons to our cross-cultural perspective.

The second section of this issue is Philosophy. The first article of this section argues that we ought to make a concerted effort to promote intrinsic value in education.The philosophical novel, when written, taught, or read playfully, has potential to furnish this intrinsic value, thereby offering a promising way of seizing the moment in education. The second article of this section explores the systematic relationship in the work of Giordano Bruno (1548-1600) between his monadology, his metaphysics as presented in works such as De la causa, principio et uno, the mythopoeic cosmology of Lo spaccio de la bestia trionfante, and practical works like De vinculis in genere. The third article of this section argues for the synthesis of the Internalism and Externalism theory of justification. It is the opinion of the paper that since both internalist and externalists legitimately seeks the epistemic quest for certainty, both are important epistemologically.

The third section of this issue is Economics, Commerce and Management. The Paper of this section analyzes different monetary and non-monetary factors influencing the poverty level. The analyze is based on data from the Living Standard Measurement Survey and using structural equations model.

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About the author

 Farough Fakhimi Anbaran Shiraz University, Iran

Ashik Mahmud Department of English Jahangirnagar University, Dhaka, Bangladesh

Fomeshi Behnam Mirzababazadeh Ph. D. Candidate of English Literature Department of Foreign Languages and Linguistics College of Literature and Humanities Shiraz University, Shiraz, Islamic Republic of Iran

Ghasemi Parvin Professor Emeritus of English Literature Shiraz University, Iran

Anushiravani Alireza Associate Professor of Comparative Literature College of Literature & Humanities Shiraz University Shiraz Iran

Prof. (Dr.) M. KAYE SHARON Professor- Department of Philosophy John Carroll University United States

Dr. Edward P. Butler Independent Scholar PhD. in Philosophy New School for Social Research New York City United States

Akinpelu Ayokunnu Oyekunle PhD Student and Researcher Department of Philosophy University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

Ruzhdie Bici Phd Candidate Department of Economics University of Tirana, Albania

Prof. Dr. Ahmet Mancellari Department of Economics University of Tirana, Albania

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Additional Information

Publisher
Saurabh Chandra, Socrates Scholarly Research Journal
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Published on
Jun 24, 2015
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Pages
104
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English
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Business & Economics / Leadership
Business & Economics / Management
Business & Economics / Management Science
Business & Economics / Office Management
Business & Economics / Production & Operations Management
Drama / European / English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh
Education / Philosophy, Theory & Social Aspects
Literary Collections / European / English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh
Literary Criticism / European / English, Irish, Scottish, Welsh
Philosophy / Political
Philosophy / Social
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SOCRATES is an international, multi-lingual, multi-disciplinary refereed and indexed scholarly journal produced as par of the Harvard Dataverse Network. This journal appears quarterly in English, Hindi, Persian in 22 disciplines.

About this Issue:

This issue of Socrates has been divided into four sections.

The first section of this issue is English Language and Literature. The first article of this section applies feministic approach on the play “Women Beware Women,” written by Thomas Middleton, to show how the ideas are used by writers to help the dominance of male over female.  The second article of this section explores the blocks and hurdles faced by the academia in imbibing and imparting the English language in Kerala. It explores the function of language in relation to expressing oneself and in relation to human lives and culture. It also touches upon the strategies to be adopted in teaching the language in a multilingual setting. It also tries to relate the learning of language to literature,  which has always been a subject of debate. The third article of this section aims to shed light on the colonial features in Chinua Achebe’s novel, Things Fall Apart, presenting a postcolonial approach to the novel by drawing on the two critics’ ideas.

The second section of this issue contains an article which examines the concept of “the friend zone” and its overwhelming impact on life and consciousness. Some crucial questions are raised in this context as to its new found origin, cause and its relative uniqueness. Critics’ views along with that of psychologists and social scientists are taken into account so as to approach the problem tactfully and effectively. The contribution of electronic media in its growth and propagation is studied so as to trace its propensity in overriding philosophies and social structures. Endeavor has been made to examine the pros and cons of abiding by this juvenile trend and a viable solution has been proposed.

The third section of this issue contains a research paper on Iranin Spike Butted AXE/ ADZ-AXES in Iran. This topological study indicates that although the main manufacturing center in Iran was Luristan and Elam at their very first appearance in the Iranian plateau, in following years each type and form seem to be a distinct regional and even chronological evolutionary form of spike butted axes of simple practical examples to their highly decorated ceremonial variants.

The fourth section of this issue contains an article that discusses the notion of metaphor, and relates it to a specific meaning, which, It argues, articulates Sara Kane’s play 4.48 Psychosis.  

Editorial

We are living in an era of digitization thus moving towards a digital government. The use of ICT in public-administration is beneficial and it is not mere a coincidence that the top 10 countries in e-government implementation (according to UN E-Government Survey 2016) are flourishing democracies. There has been a sharp rise in the number of countries using e-government to provide public services online through one stop-platform. According to the 2016 survey, 90 countries now offer one or more single entry portal on public information or online services, or both and 148 countries provide at-least one form of online transaction services. More and more countries are making efforts through e-government to ensure and increase inclusiveness, effectiveness, accountability and transparency in their public institutions. Across the globe, data for public information and security is being opened up. The 2016 survey shows that 128 countries now provide data-sets on government spending in machine readable formats. E-government and innovation seems to have provided significant opportunities to transform public administration into an instrument of sustainable development. The governments around the globe are rapidly transforming. The use of information and communication technology in public administration – combined with organizational change and new skills- seems to be improving public services and democratic processes and strengthening support to public policies. There has been an increased effort to utilize advanced electronic and mobile services that benefits all. Fixed and wireless broadband subscriptions have increased unevenly across regions, with Europe leading, but Africa still lagging behind. We have to focus on these substantial region disparities and growing divide. All countries agreed, in SDG 9, that a major effort is required to ensure universal access to internet in the least developed countries. The rise of Social media and its easy access seems to have enabled an increasing number of countries moving towards participatory decision making, in which developed European countries are among the top 50 performers. But, the issues of diminishing collective thinking and rising Individual thinking are some rising issues that we will have to deal with in the future. There are more sensitive issues like the new classification of citizens into literate-illiterate, e-literate and e-illiterate, that the governments need to look upon. It is a good sign that many developing countries are making good progress. Enhanced e-participation can support the realization of the SDGs by enabling more participatory decision making, but the success of e-government will ultimately depend upon our ability and capability to solve the contrasting issues raised due to this transition with sensitivity.

In this issue of SOCRATES we have discussed, this new era of Digital Government. We have focused on what we have learned from the past and the future we want. From discussions on the role of e-governance within the local government settings in a modern democratic state to the experience of an academia with online examination, we have tried to include every possible aspect of e-government.

Paper authored by Dr. Hoff Maarten, aims to outline the role of e-governance within the setting of a local government in a modern democratic state. It is agreed that a local governmental organization needs to be fit for the purpose of serving its citizens. Fits can be tested both through universally acknowledged principles, and drivers that suit modern on-demand organizations.

Paper authored by Mr. Alsaeed Abraheem and Dr. Carl, proposes a conceptual framework which captures the main factors (both enablers and barriers) influence and contributes toward a successful implementation of eServices in countries that have unstable status. The paper draws upon Osborn and Gaebler’s work, ‘reinventing government’, which identifies 10 principles of government transformation. This is used to examine eGov examples in the case of Syria along with previous work covering barriers and enablers to eGov activities within countries that have unstable status. The resulting derived conceptual framework provides a base to understand eGov activity for nations going through geopolitical uncertainty.

Paper authored by Mr. Saurabh Chandra highlights the initiatives taken by the Governments in India at various levels to modernise their processes and functions for delivery of information and services to the citizens, using the Information and Communication technology [ICT]. It also highlights E-Government uptake in different parts of the world, highlighting its need in India, as in developing countries like India, there is no comprehensive data on actual e-government uptake on a global scale.

Paper authored by Mr. Peter Asare-Nuamah and Mr. Darko Emmanuel Agyepong highlights the various legal policies and framework that support e-governance in Ghana as well as the challenges of implementing e-governance initiatives. The findings of the study indicate that several polices and frameworks support e-governance in Ghana but their implementations are burdened with social, cultural, political and legal constraints. The study provides some recommendations that are necessary to tackle the challenges of e-governance implementation.

Paper authored by Mr. Ojo Patrick highlights battling sub-Saharan African countries. The perspective in this paper is that the emergence of democratic governments in this region occurred through lopsided process which impacts on their governance structures. Consequently, the institutionalization of liberal democracy has been omitted; the absence of which creates gaps between aspiration for and struggle by African people for democracy on the one hand, and the actual performance of democratic governments on the other hand. The paper identifies structural deficiencies in the current pattern of governance as the political missing link in the value chain between democracy and development in the region. The paper recommends e-governance; an administrative process that guarantees good governance through accountability and transparency, as the necessary connecting link and panacea to bridging the observable existing gaps.

Paper authored by Dr. Nandita Kaushal highlights the Plausibility of E-Governance as a Public Service Delivery Mechanism in India. It argues that there is no doubt, wherever e-governance projects have been conceived, designed and implemented with due regard to the needs of the people there positive outcomes have been visible. However, it has to be acknowledged that most of the projects are facing multiple challenges which are reducing their success rate. It recommends serious consideration to all the issues which are hampering their efficiency. At the same time it suggests measures that must be taken up to maintain the human face of these initiatives.

Paper authored by Dr. Inderjeet Singh Sodhi reviews the achievements and progress of e-government in India. The paper briefly discusses various e-government projects in India. The purpose of the paper is to delve into policy and issue of the government of India in making e-government accessible to the common person. It briefly identifies the strategic issues for achievement of e-government. This paper derives a list of key strategic factors that are appropriate for planning, designing, development and implementation of e-government. The paper identifies the range of diverse problems, challenges and barriers planners and developers must face as they work in the e-government projects. The paper discusses prospects and future of e-government in India. The paper highlights the role of government to develop richer and deeper understanding of e-government.

Paper authored by Ms. Shreyasi Ghosh attempts to trace the essence of e-government in the modern era of Indian Public Administration today as another new paradigm shift is in the offspring and slowly becoming distinct from the amorphous shape of Public Administration in the Indian context with the ICT-blessed governance, or e-Governance.

Paper authored by Ms. Stuti Saxena probes the OGD platform using a qualitative and quantitative lens. This paper shows that OGD usage is popular among the end-users in terms of the number of views and downloads of the datasets. Future research might undertake the empirical investigation of the research hypotheses advanced in the paper.

Paper authored by Dr. Jyotirmoy W. Singh is developed by a contributor who has been a national and International online examiner for past six or more years. This paper is based on his experience. It seeks to compare the traditional mode of examination with that of the online examination in citing the mode of High School Leaving Examination of Board of Secondary Education Manipur and International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) examination as case studies.

I wish scholars and potential readers will find this issue useful. We will bring more special issues focused on e-government and other various dimensions of governance in the near future.


Issue Editor

Prof. Manoj Dixit

Professor and Head, Department of Public Administration, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India

 

 This issue of Socrates has been divided into three sections.

The first section is Language & Literature- Persian. The paper authored by Nazia Jafri critically analyses the novel Gunah-e-Muqaddas. This novel represents the Political and social situation in Iran during the Pahlavi.

The second section of this issue is Philosophy. The Paper authored by Olivera Z. Mijuskovic, critically analyses Aristotle's concept of the State. The word policy comes from the ancient Greek word "polis" and from it created another word "politeia" which refers to a lifestyle and "a general thing of all citizens". "Bios politikos" or practical life was related to life in community with other people. The definition of man as a political being (physei zoon politikon) comes from Aristotle. The paper authored by Giuseppe Gagliano proposes a historical analysis of The French school of economic warfare tradition, focusing on the last three decades of the 20th Century. The paper authored by George Papageorgakis shows how the requirement for the measure was reflected in the theoretical thinking of Presocratic philosophers. The paper deals with the period, when the concepts of measure, measurement and moderation penetrated into the fields of ethics and political philosophy, fields that still have not acquired a more systematic form as it happens in the era of Plato, Aristotle and their descendants. The paper authored by István Király V. attempts to conceptualise the “ancient” issues of human death and human mortality in connection to the timely and vital subject of euthanasia. The paper authored by Viviana Yaccuzzi Polisena emphasises upon one of the most beautiful theories offering an optimal explanation of the Cosmos: Everett III's theory, Relative State Formulation Of Quantum Mechanics, later expanded by Bryce DeWitt (1971) as The Many-Worlds Interpretation Of Quantum Mechanics.

 

 The third section of this issue is Politics law and Governance. The paper authored by Prida Ariani Ambar Astuti is a Case Study of Elections in Jakarta, Indonesia which attempts to prove that Social media platforms have paved the way for political participation among youth, and has re-conceptualization the traditional form of political participation.

SOCRATES is an international, multi-lingual, multi-disciplinary refereed and indexed scholarly journal produced as par of the Harvard Dataverse Network. This journal appears quarterly in English, Hindi, Persian in 22 disciplines.

About this issue:

This issue of Socrates has been divided into five sections.

The first section of this issue is Language & Literature- English. The article in this section focuses on "The perspective of contemporaneity". It concludes that if we delve into the roots of ‘now’ ness we find that that we are defined by a past which is mostly girdled by the colonial shadows which continues to invade every segments of human civilization.

The second section of this issue is Anthropology. The article in this section highlight ancient Macedonian customs and their influence in the modern Republic of Macedonia.This paper concludes that certain ritual actions from the ancient period, although modified, still largely correspond to the current Macedonian folk customs and beliefs, both in terms of the time of celebration and in terms of ritual actions, procedures and symbolism. Their continuity reflects the Macedonian identity, from antiquity to today.

The third section of this issue is Economics,Management and Commerce. The paper in this section develops a model for designing and explaining Cost Management Strategies in the home appliance industry in Iran. It has also implemented organizational resource–based view to limit the research domain and focus on organizational actions; then it has used porter value chain (1985) to analyze the cost structure of the company which supports strategic decision making and inter–organizational verifications.

The fourth section of this issue is Politics, Law and Governance, which contains an article that identifies lack of education as the main reasons for the backwardness of Indian Muslims. It claims that until and unless Muslim educational backwardness is addressed, the empowerment of Indian Muslims would remain elusive. The Muslims in India would remain politically marginalized and economically poor unless they overcome their educational backwardness and  India cannot march on the path of development and claim to be world leader if majority of its minority community remains educationally backward.

The fifth section of this issue is The New Book which reviews the Book "God Einstein and Shankardeva" Authored by Shri. Surendra Nath Bora. 

This issue of SOCRATES has been divided into four sections.

The first section of this issue is Language & Literature- Persian, which contains an article authored by Nazia Jafri. In this paper, hidden corners and unfamiliar life and priceless works of  Hussain Quli Mastan, who was the the first Iranian photo-journalist, has been introduced.

The second section of this issue if Language and Literature-English. Paper authored by Dr. P. Saravanakumar studies the use of a mask in Girish Karnad’s play “Tughlaq.”  Tughlaq is the most complex and complicated of Girish Karnad’s works. Paper authored by R. Kaliyaperumal highlights the Science and Technology in Dan Brown’s Digital Fortress. Paper authored by Vincent P discusses Black Community Voice Echoes on Eradicate of Identity in Toni Morrison’s Novel Home. While exploring the twenty-first-century work Home we find the voices, which indicates the voice of the colonised people.  A deep study of this novel exposes the events and happenings at the time of colonisation.  It also exposes their emotions and feelings.

The third section of this issue is Philosophy. Paper authored by Giuseppe Gagliano intends to identify several key concepts that emerge from an analysis of Aron’s acclaimed work on the role played by Marxist-Leninist ideology in the development of the 20th-century philosophic thought. Paper authored by Rocco Angelo Astore is an argument in favor of the Universal health care.

The fourth section of this issue is Politics, Law and Governance. Paper authored by Dr. Galyna Fesenko and Dr. Tetiana Fesenko aims to outline the role of e-democracy within the setting of the Eastern Partnership program. The article provides the comparative review of E-Government progress in six EaP countries in 2009 – 2016. Paper authored by Dr. Surendra Misra is related to Governance, Good Governance and development of different sectors in India. Paper authored by Dr. Sanjay Kumar Dwivedi focuses on the E-Governance initiatives that have changed the life style of rural citizens and in which the citizens derive benefit through direct transactions with the services provided by the union and the provincial governments. The paper also highlights the variety of constraints in implementing the E-governance projects in rural areas.

Editorial

We are living in an era of digitization thus moving towards a digital government. The use of ICT in public-administration is beneficial and it is not mere a coincidence that the top 10 countries in e-government implementation (according to UN E-Government Survey 2016) are flourishing democracies. There has been a sharp rise in the number of countries using e-government to provide public services online through one stop-platform. According to the 2016 survey, 90 countries now offer one or more single entry portal on public information or online services, or both and 148 countries provide at-least one form of online transaction services. More and more countries are making efforts through e-government to ensure and increase inclusiveness, effectiveness, accountability and transparency in their public institutions. Across the globe, data for public information and security is being opened up. The 2016 survey shows that 128 countries now provide data-sets on government spending in machine readable formats. E-government and innovation seems to have provided significant opportunities to transform public administration into an instrument of sustainable development. The governments around the globe are rapidly transforming. The use of information and communication technology in public administration – combined with organizational change and new skills- seems to be improving public services and democratic processes and strengthening support to public policies. There has been an increased effort to utilize advanced electronic and mobile services that benefits all. Fixed and wireless broadband subscriptions have increased unevenly across regions, with Europe leading, but Africa still lagging behind. We have to focus on these substantial region disparities and growing divide. All countries agreed, in SDG 9, that a major effort is required to ensure universal access to internet in the least developed countries. The rise of Social media and its easy access seems to have enabled an increasing number of countries moving towards participatory decision making, in which developed European countries are among the top 50 performers. But, the issues of diminishing collective thinking and rising Individual thinking are some rising issues that we will have to deal with in the future. There are more sensitive issues like the new classification of citizens into literate-illiterate, e-literate and e-illiterate, that the governments need to look upon. It is a good sign that many developing countries are making good progress. Enhanced e-participation can support the realization of the SDGs by enabling more participatory decision making, but the success of e-government will ultimately depend upon our ability and capability to solve the contrasting issues raised due to this transition with sensitivity.

In this issue of SOCRATES we have discussed, this new era of Digital Government. We have focused on what we have learned from the past and the future we want. From discussions on the role of e-governance within the local government settings in a modern democratic state to the experience of an academia with online examination, we have tried to include every possible aspect of e-government.

Paper authored by Dr. Hoff Maarten, aims to outline the role of e-governance within the setting of a local government in a modern democratic state. It is agreed that a local governmental organization needs to be fit for the purpose of serving its citizens. Fits can be tested both through universally acknowledged principles, and drivers that suit modern on-demand organizations.

Paper authored by Mr. Alsaeed Abraheem and Dr. Carl, proposes a conceptual framework which captures the main factors (both enablers and barriers) influence and contributes toward a successful implementation of eServices in countries that have unstable status. The paper draws upon Osborn and Gaebler’s work, ‘reinventing government’, which identifies 10 principles of government transformation. This is used to examine eGov examples in the case of Syria along with previous work covering barriers and enablers to eGov activities within countries that have unstable status. The resulting derived conceptual framework provides a base to understand eGov activity for nations going through geopolitical uncertainty.

Paper authored by Mr. Saurabh Chandra highlights the initiatives taken by the Governments in India at various levels to modernise their processes and functions for delivery of information and services to the citizens, using the Information and Communication technology [ICT]. It also highlights E-Government uptake in different parts of the world, highlighting its need in India, as in developing countries like India, there is no comprehensive data on actual e-government uptake on a global scale.

Paper authored by Mr. Peter Asare-Nuamah and Mr. Darko Emmanuel Agyepong highlights the various legal policies and framework that support e-governance in Ghana as well as the challenges of implementing e-governance initiatives. The findings of the study indicate that several polices and frameworks support e-governance in Ghana but their implementations are burdened with social, cultural, political and legal constraints. The study provides some recommendations that are necessary to tackle the challenges of e-governance implementation.

Paper authored by Mr. Ojo Patrick highlights battling sub-Saharan African countries. The perspective in this paper is that the emergence of democratic governments in this region occurred through lopsided process which impacts on their governance structures. Consequently, the institutionalization of liberal democracy has been omitted; the absence of which creates gaps between aspiration for and struggle by African people for democracy on the one hand, and the actual performance of democratic governments on the other hand. The paper identifies structural deficiencies in the current pattern of governance as the political missing link in the value chain between democracy and development in the region. The paper recommends e-governance; an administrative process that guarantees good governance through accountability and transparency, as the necessary connecting link and panacea to bridging the observable existing gaps.

Paper authored by Dr. Nandita Kaushal highlights the Plausibility of E-Governance as a Public Service Delivery Mechanism in India. It argues that there is no doubt, wherever e-governance projects have been conceived, designed and implemented with due regard to the needs of the people there positive outcomes have been visible. However, it has to be acknowledged that most of the projects are facing multiple challenges which are reducing their success rate. It recommends serious consideration to all the issues which are hampering their efficiency. At the same time it suggests measures that must be taken up to maintain the human face of these initiatives.

Paper authored by Dr. Inderjeet Singh Sodhi reviews the achievements and progress of e-government in India. The paper briefly discusses various e-government projects in India. The purpose of the paper is to delve into policy and issue of the government of India in making e-government accessible to the common person. It briefly identifies the strategic issues for achievement of e-government. This paper derives a list of key strategic factors that are appropriate for planning, designing, development and implementation of e-government. The paper identifies the range of diverse problems, challenges and barriers planners and developers must face as they work in the e-government projects. The paper discusses prospects and future of e-government in India. The paper highlights the role of government to develop richer and deeper understanding of e-government.

Paper authored by Ms. Shreyasi Ghosh attempts to trace the essence of e-government in the modern era of Indian Public Administration today as another new paradigm shift is in the offspring and slowly becoming distinct from the amorphous shape of Public Administration in the Indian context with the ICT-blessed governance, or e-Governance.

Paper authored by Ms. Stuti Saxena probes the OGD platform using a qualitative and quantitative lens. This paper shows that OGD usage is popular among the end-users in terms of the number of views and downloads of the datasets. Future research might undertake the empirical investigation of the research hypotheses advanced in the paper.

Paper authored by Dr. Jyotirmoy W. Singh is developed by a contributor who has been a national and International online examiner for past six or more years. This paper is based on his experience. It seeks to compare the traditional mode of examination with that of the online examination in citing the mode of High School Leaving Examination of Board of Secondary Education Manipur and International Baccalaureate Organisation (IBO) examination as case studies.

I wish scholars and potential readers will find this issue useful. We will bring more special issues focused on e-government and other various dimensions of governance in the near future.


Issue Editor

Prof. Manoj Dixit

Professor and Head, Department of Public Administration, University of Lucknow, Lucknow, India

 

SOCRATES is an international, multi-lingual, multi-disciplinary refereed and indexed scholarly journal produced as par of the Harvard Dataverse Network. This journal appears quarterly in English, Hindi, Persian in 22 disciplines.

About this Issue

This issue of SOCRATES covers research papers from Anthropology, Environmental-science, Public-administration, Political-science, and Philosophy, Hindi literature, Persian Literature, and some of the best works from the pen of renowned poets and scholars. We are focused on expanding our scope and consolidating our position in both conceptual development and practical application with special emphasis on social issues. Our motive is to promote research as research is an essential part of higher learning. Research is generally undertaken so as to find the answers of those problems which are not easy or readily available to them. It helps the individuals to find out the solution or answer of any question in a systematic manner based on scientific investigation of those problems. Research always adds something to emerging stock of knowledge making for its advancement. It is the pursuit of truth with the aid of observation, comparison, study and experiment. We believe that India cannot aspire to a future as an advanced society without cultivating large numbers of original thinkers and researchers to inspire new generation. Our mission behind introducing and initiating this journal is to motivate Scholars who have the willingness to Produce and publish quality research and discuss his/her original research, thoughts and ideas. We strongly believe in the concept of connected academic world. Thus we have indexed our journal at some of the best citation centers.

 This issue of Socrates has been divided into five sections.

The first section of this issue is Language & Literature- Persian. The article in this section introduces a Manuscript that highlights the 18th Century History of Awadh India. 

The second section of this issue is Anthropology. The article in this section provides the role of weaving activity in socio-cultural life of Oromo society in general and Macca Oromo in particular. It also highlights how weavers play a great role in perseveration of cultural heritage, employment creation, tourist attraction and environmental protection in these areas. 

The third section of this issue is History. The paper in this section is the excerpt of the UGC Minor Research Project under the financial help of the University Grants Commission carried out in the year 2014. This paper highlights Political identities and dilemma in Jharkhand Movement, India and raises Questions of ‘environmental revivalism' and its consequences. 

The fourth section of this issue is Philosophy. The first article in this section tries to demonstrate that the emergence of the Internet refutes any claims posed by neurologists on the traditional epistemological field of philosophy, proceeding from this ontological decision, the equation of human cognition to cybernetic systems. The paper also explores some social-semantic aspects of the cyberspace as a nexus of social representations of the individual identity that forms a new sphere of being, where the subjective and the objective merge in a virtual subjective objectivity with unique epistemological attributes and possibilities.

The second article of this section deals with the question of how and why the civilizations of modernity construct social realities that fundamentally and institutionally are socio-politically unequal, unsustainable and that ecologically these societies reproduce unequal exchange of human, social and environmental resources and information. Moreover, it tries to position an alternative pathway for radical and democratic transformation through “the project of autonomy” influenced from the struggle for the commons as a protest against the commodification and monetarization of the whole of our existence.  It aims to expand the knowledge about the struggle of social movements, as well as exposing the endless possibilities humanity have to re-imagine an autonomous present and a sustainable future.

The fifth section of this issue is Politics, Law and Governance which contains an artilce that dwells on the experiences of India in the software and pharmaceutical industries to argue for the need for policy space in technology evolution.

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