Formal Specification Level: Concepts, Methods, and Algorithms

Springer
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This book introduces a new level of abstraction that closes the gap between the textual specification of embedded systems and the executable model at the Electronic System Level (ESL). Readers will be enabled to operate at this new, Formal Specification Level (FSL), using models which not only allow significant verification tasks in this early stage of the design flow, but also can be extracted semi-automatically from the textual specification in an interactive manner. The authors explain how to use these verification tasks to check conceptual properties, e.g. whether requirements are in conflict, as well as dynamic behavior, in terms of execution traces.

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Additional Information

Publisher
Springer
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Published on
Nov 12, 2014
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Pages
138
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ISBN
9783319086996
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Language
English
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Genres
Computers / Systems Architecture / General
Technology & Engineering / Electrical
Technology & Engineering / Electronics / Circuits / General
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Modern circuits may contain up to several hundred million transistors. In the meantime it has been observed that verification becomes the major bottleneck in design flows, i.e. up to 80% of the overall design costs are due to verification. This is one of the reasons why several methods have been proposed as alternatives to classical simulation. Simulation alone cannot guarantee sufficient coverage of the design resulting in bugs that may remain undetected.
As alternatives formal verification techniques have been proposed. Instead of simulating a design the correctness is proven by formal techniques. There are different areas where these approaches can be used: equivalence checking, property checking or symbolic simulation. These methods have been successfully applied in many industrial projects and have become the state-of-the-art technique in several fields. However, the deployment of the existing tools in real-world projects also showed the weaknesses and problems of formal verification techniques. This gave motivating impulses for tool developers and researchers.
Advanced Formal Verification shows the latest developments in the verification domain from the perspectives of the user and the developer. World leading experts describe the underlying methods of today's verification tools and describe various scenarios from industrial practice. In the first part of the book the core techniques of today's formal verification tools, such as SAT and BDDs are addressed. In addition, multipliers, which are known to be difficult, are studied. The second part gives insight in professional tools and the underlying methodology, such as property checking and assertion based verification. Finally, analog components have to be considered to cope with complete system on chip designs.
In this book the state-of-the-art in many important fields of formal verification are described. Besides the description of the most recent research results, open problems and challenging research areas are addressed. Because of this, the book is intended for CAD developers and researchers in the verification domain, where formal techniques become a core technology to successful circuit and system design. Furthermore, the book is an excellent reference for users of verification tools in order to acquire a better understanding of the internal principles and subsequently drive the tools to the highest performance. In this context the book is dedicated to those in industry and academia to stay informed about the most recent developments in the field of formal verification.
Formal verification has become one of the most important steps in circuit design. Since circuits can contain several million transistors, verification of such large designs becomes more and more difficult. Pure simulation cannot guarantee the correct behavior and exhaustive simulation is often impossible. However, many designs, like ALUs, have very regular structures that can be easily described at a higher level of abstraction. For example, describing (and verifying) an integer multiplier at the bit-level is very difficult, while the verification becomes easy when the outputs are grouped to build a bit-string. Recently, several approaches for formal circuit verification have been proposed that make use of these regularities. These approaches are based on Word-Level Decision Diagrams (WLDDs) which are graph-based representations of functions (similar to BDDs) that allow for the representation of functions with a Boolean range and an integer domain.
Formal Verification of Circuits is devoted to the discussion of recent developments in the field of decision diagram-based formal verification. Firstly, different types of decision diagrams (including WLDDs) are introduced and theoretical properties are discussed that give further insight into the data structure. Secondly, implementation and minimization concepts are presented. Applications to arithmetic circuit verification and verification of designs specified by hardware description languages are described to show how WLDDs work in practice.
Formal Verification of Circuits is intended for CAD developers and researchers as well as designers using modern verification tools. It will help people working with formal verification (in industry or academia) to keep informed about recent developments in this area.
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