Landmarks: GIScience for Intelligent Services

Springer Science & Business
Free Sample

This book covers the latest research on landmarks in GIS, including practical applications. It addresses perceptual and cognitive aspects of natural and artificial cognitive systems, computational aspects with respect to identifying or selecting landmarks for various purposes, and communication aspects of human-computer interaction for spatial information provision. Concise and organized, the book equips readers to handle complex conceptual aspects of trying to define and formally model these situations. The book provides a thorough review of the cognitive, conceptual, computational and communication aspects of GIS landmarks. This review is unique for comparing concepts across a spectrum of sub-disciplines in the field. Portions of the ideas discussed led to the world’s first commercial navigation service using landmarks selected with cognitive principles. Landmarks: GI Science for Intelligent Services targets practitioners and researchers working in geographic information science, computer science, information science, cognitive science, geography and psychology. Advanced-level students in computer science, geography and psychology will also find this book valuable as a secondary textbook or reference.
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Additional information

Publisher
Springer Science & Business
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Published on
25 Apr 2014
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Pages
223
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ISBN
9783319057323
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Language
English
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Genres
Computers / Information Technology
Computers / Intelligence (AI) & Semantics
Computers / Networking / General
Computers / Online Services
Psychology / General
Science / Earth Sciences / Geography
Technology & Engineering / Remote Sensing & Geographical Information Systems
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Content Protection
This content is DRM protected.
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Seller
Google Commerce Ltd
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Computing increasingly happens somewhere, with that geographic location important to the computational process itself. Many new and evolving spatial technologies, such as geosensor networks and smartphones, embody this trend. Conventional approaches to spatial computing are centralized, and do not account for the inherently decentralized nature of "computing somewhere": the limited, local knowledge of individual system components, and the interaction between those components at different locations. On the other hand, despite being an established topic in distributed systems, decentralized computing is not concerned with geographical constraints to the generation and movement of information. In this context, of (centralized) spatial computing and decentralized (non-spatial) computing, the key question becomes: "What makes decentralized spatial computing special?"

In Part I of the book the author covers the foundational concepts, structures, and design techniques for decentralized computing with spatial and spatiotemporal information. In Part II he applies those concepts and techniques to the development of algorithms for decentralized spatial computing, stepping through a suite of increasingly sophisticated algorithms: from algorithms with minimal spatial information about their neighborhoods; to algorithms with access to more detailed spatial information, such as direction, distance, or coordinate location; to truly spatiotemporal algorithms that monitor environments that are dynamic, even using networks that are mobile or volatile. Finally, in Part III the author shows how decentralized spatial and spatiotemporal algorithms designed using the techniques explored in Part II can be simulated and tested. In particular, he investigates empirically the important properties of a decentralized spatial algorithm: its computational efficiency and its robustness to unavoidable uncertainty. Part III concludes with a survey of the opportunities for connecting decentralized spatial computing to ongoing research and emerging hot topics in related fields, such as biologically inspired computing, geovisualization, and stream computing.

The book is written for students and researchers of computer science and geographic information science. Throughout the book the author's style is characterized by a focus on the broader message, explaining the process of decentralized spatial algorithm design rather than the technical details. Each chapter ends with review questions designed to test the reader's understanding of the material and to point to further work or research. The book includes short appendices on discrete mathematics and SQL. Simulation models written in NetLogo and associated source code for all the algorithms presented in the book can be found on the author's accompanying website.
By introducing Semantic Web technologies into geospatial Web services, this book addresses the semantic description of geospatial data and standards-based Web services, discovery of geospatial data and services, and generation of composite services. Semantic descriptions for geospatial data, services, and geoprocessing service chains are structured, organized, and registered in geospatial catalogue services. The ontology-based approach helps to improve the recall and precision of data and services discovery. Semantics-enabled metadata tracking and satisfaction allows analysts to focus on the generation of a geospatial process model rather than spending large amounts of time in data preparation. “DataType”-driven service composition and path planning can help to automate a range of knowledge discovery processes in a limited geospatial domain. Process planning facilitates the construction of complex services and models for geocomputation. A three-phase procedure to cover the lifecycle of service chaining and to identify the roles of the methods involved is proposed. It includes process modeling, process model instantiation, and workflow execution. The approach is implemented in a prototype system with use cases to demonstrate applicability. The objective of the research is to develop the key technologies for an intelligent geospatial knowledge system based on Web services to automate the data discovery and data preprocessing steps in the distributed Web service environment, to automate a range of knowledge discovery processes in a limited geospatial domain, using the automated construction and execution of service chains, and to facilitate the construction of complex services and models for geocomputation.
Bachelor Thesis from the year 2007 in the subject Computer Science - Software, University of Paderborn, 14 entries in the bibliography, language: English, abstract: Server virtualization is currently a field of IT which is undergoing a rapid development. Introducing an even spread of performance on server farms which results in a good TCO (total cost of ownership), virtualization has already got the full attention from industry, resulting in massive participation and huge acquisitions. With server virtualization the size of server farms can be reduced dramatically, resulting in a lower total cost of ownership and (by using techniques like Linux-HA in virtual environments) increased availability. Even with an overhead of 10-20% on the layer of virtualization it is still very interesting since the load on a server farm can be spread evenly (which is not only a main target in server virtualization but also in distributed systems in general). This work will give an insight on the current developments in the field of server virtualization and the various techniques involved in it as well as a short historical overview about when the first types of virtualization were introduced (and why they failed, since according to A. Tanenbaum the current hardware is not made to be virtualized). The findings will mostly be supported by examples of current virtual environments (especially the XEN project). The paper will first introduce the different ways of virtualizing a system and in how far hardware can or can not support this. The second part will introduce the current software for virtualizing a server and giving users their own separated environment, starting from early approaches like BSD jails to the Linux V-Server and XEN Project. The last chapter will cover the use of server virtualization in high-availability environments. With the use of n physical machines and m virtualized systems on each machine, an environment of (n * m) / x can be created, where x is the level of redundancy (e.g. x = 2 for mirroring). Most interesting is how virtual environments can be moved from one physical machine to another one without switching it off. The summary will give some insight on the current use of virtual environments and in how far they provide advantages over solutions like Mosix, Application-basic virtualization and the grid. It will also give an outlook on further developments especially in the field of hardware support for virtualization.
20 years ago, from July 8 to 20, 1990, 60 researchers gathered for two weeks at Castillo-Palacio Magalia in Las Navas del Marques (Avila Province, Spain) to discuss cognitive and linguistic aspects of geographic space. This meeting was the start of successful research on cognitive issues in geographic information science, produced an edited book (D. M. Mark and A. U. Frank, Eds., 1991, Cognitive and Linguistic Aspects of Geographic Space. NATO ASI Series D: Behavioural and Social Sciences 63. Kluwer, Dordrecht/Boston/London), and led to a biannual conference (COSIT), a refereed journal (Spatial Cognition and Computation), and a substantial and still growing research community.

It appeared worthwhile to assess the achievements and to reconsider the research challenges twenty years later. What has changed in the age of computational ontologies and cyber-infrastructures? Consider that 1990 the web was only about to emerge and the very first laptops had just appeared! The 2010 meeting brought together many of the original participants, but was also open to others, and invited contributions from all who are researching these topics. Early-career scientists, engineers, and humanists working at the intersection of cognitive science and geographic information science were invited to help with the re-assessment of research needs and approaches.

The meeting was very successful and compared the research agenda laid out in the 1990 book with achievements over the past twenty years and then turned to the future: What are the challenges today? What are worthwhile goals for basic research? What can be achieved in the next 20 years? What are the lessons learned?
This edited book will assess the current state of the field through chapters by participants in the 1990 and 2010 meetings and will also document an interdisciplinary research agenda for the future.
The worldwide popularisation of mobile communication technologies and the incre- ing awareness of usability issues since 1990’s have been urging map designers to s- cialise and extend cartographic semiotics, visualisation styles and map use techniques for mobile contexts and small display devices. As a follow-up to the first book “M- based Mobile Services – Theories, Methods and Implementations” published in 2005, this new one is devoted to design strategies, user interactions and usability issues. It addresses methods and techniques for topics that range from design and rendering, context modelling, personalisation, multimodal interaction to usability test. Instead of striving for a seamless coverage of all essential theoretical and technical issues with an equal depth and extent, we attempt to pinpoint a number of research highlights and representative development activities at universities, research institutions and so- ware industry. The operational prototypes and platforms reported in the book are on the one hand outcome and feasibility proof of various approaches. On the other hand, they serve as a new starting point for the refinement of user interfaces and iterative usability tests. The book is intended not only for cartographers, surveying engineers and g- information scientists engaged in the development of location-based services, but also for software engineers and cognitive scientists working with interface design and - ability assessment. In addition, we try to provide a number of real-life case studies for students, academics and practitioners from GIS, computer graphics and other relevant disciplines.
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